Ibimenyetso by’itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Kigali (Igice cya mbere)

Yanditswe na Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène
Kuya 3 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 03:26
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Abapfobya n’abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda guhera mu Ukwakira 1990 kugera muri Nyakanga 1994 bakunze kwigiza nk’abahakana umugambi w’itegurwa n’itsembwa ry’Abatutsi mu Rwanda.

Mu bihe byo kwibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, kimwe no mu bindi biganiro cyangwa amahugurwa, dukunze kumva ubuhamya bukakaye bw’Abatutsi barokotse Jenoside yabakorewe.

Ni gake humvikana abantu bagize uruhare muri Jenoside bandika bagaragaza ku buryo bunonosoye uruhare rwabo muri Jenoside. N’abenshi muri bo bemera gutanga ubwo buhamya ni abaturage basanzwe.

Ni gake cyane haboneka abantu bize, abari abategetsi, abacuruzi bakomeye, abari abakozi mu nzego zitandukanye berura bakagaragaza uburyo bateguye Jenoside n’uko bayishyize mu bikorwa. Ariko hari bake mu bari abategetsi, bagira ubutwari bwo kwemera uruhare rwabo muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi no kubigaragaza mu buryo bweruye ngo bifashe u Rwanda n’Abanyarwanda kumenya amateka mabi igihugu cyanyuzemo no kwiyubaka hashingiwe ku kuri kw’ayo mateka.

Muri iyi nyandiko, nifuje kugaragaza ibimenyetso by’ingenzi by’itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside mu Mujyi wa Kigali nkuko byasobanuwe na Bizimana Jean wari Burugumesitiri wa Komini Nyarugenge, imwe muri eshatu zari zigize Kigali muri Jenoside.

Bizimana Jean ufungiye muri Gereza ya Nyanza, yemera uruhare rwe muri Jenoside, akaba mbere yo gushingwa kuyobora Komini ya Nyarugenge kuva 1992-1994, yarabaye umukozi mukuru mu nzego zikomeye zirimo kuba Umukozi Mukuru muri Perezidansi ya Repubulika, Perezidansi ya MRND, mu Biro bya Minisitiri w’Intebe, muri Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu, akaba no muri Komite Nyobozi ya MRND ya Perefegitura y’Umujyi wa Kigali (P.V.K).

1) Gahunda y’itotezwa n’iyicwa ry’Abatutsi muri Kigali mu Ukwakira 1990

Ku wa 1 Ukwakira 1990, Inkotanyi zitangira urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu Bizimana Jean yakoraga muri Serivisi za Perezidansi ya MRND, ashinzwe Ishami ry’Ubutwererane n’Amahanga.

Colonel Serubuga Laurent wari Umuyobozi Mukuru wungirije w’Ingabo z’u Rwanda yakoresheje inama abategetsi bakuru ba politiki na gisirikare ababwira ko inyangarwanda ziyise Inyenzi - Inkotanyi zigizwe n’Abatutsi bashaka kugarura ingoma ya cyami mu gihugu zateye igihugu ziturutse Uganda. Serubuga yategetse ishyirwaho ry’umukwabu hose mu gihugu na za bariyeri zo kugenzura Abatutsi.

Nyuma y’iyo nama, ubuyobozi bw’inzego za MRND, ubwa gisirikare na Jandarumeri, abanyapolitiki n’abategetsi mu nzego zose bahamagariye abaturage gushyigikira ingabo z’Igihugu batangira no gushishikariza Abahutu kwanga Abatutsi no kubahiga babita ibyitso by’inkotanyi.

Mu ijoro ryo ku wa 04 - 05/10/1990, abasirikare bakoze ikinamico barara barasa mu Mujyi wa Kigali no mu nkengero zawo batangaza babeshya ko Inyenzi - Inkotanyi zawugezemo bagira ngo babone urwitwazo rwo kwica Abatutsi, hakurikiraho akubahiga, bamwe baricwa abandi barafungwa mu buryo bubi bitwa ibyitso by’Inkotanyi.

Ku wa 06/10/1990, habaye umuganda muri Segiteri zose z’Umujyi wa Kigali, wategetswe na Perefe Renzaho Tarisisi, Bizimana Jean awukorera muri Segiteri ya Kimihurura aho yari atuye, wo guhiga Inkotanyi n’ibyitso byazo batema ibihuru n’ibishanga, bashaka aho baba bihishe.

Ku itariki ya 07/10/1990 nyuma ya saa sita, Perefe Renzaho yatumije inama ibera ku bibuga by’umupira by’Abasareziyani ku Kimihurura, ibigo byose bikorera muri iyo segiteri byahagaritse imirimo ngo abakozi babyo bitabire iyo nama hamwe n’abaturage bose b’iyo Segiteri.

Perefe Renzaho yumvishije abayijemo ko Inyenzi – Inkotanyi zigizwe n’Abatutsi bari barahunze Repubulika bashaka kugarura ingoma ya Cyami. Ashimangira ko imbere mu gihugu bafitemo ibyitso byinshi by’Abatutsi babashyigikiye ashishikariza abayitumiwemo kubahiga bukware. Bizimana Jean akemera ko ibyo bintu yabikoze ko kandi Abahutu bose baje muri iyo nama bahavuye bumvishijwe ko Abatutsi ari abagome.

Bizimana Jean avuga ko inama nk’iyi Perefe Renzaho yazikoresheje mu ma segiteri yose y’umujyi. Mu gihe kitarenze iminsi itatu, Abatutsi bafashwe bitwa Inyenzi - Inkotanyi n’ibyitso byazo barunzwe kuri Stade Regional ya Kigali i Nyamirambo bagera hafi 10 000.

Bacungwaga n’abasirikare n’abajandarume, kandi ntibemererwaga gusurwa, batagaburirwa, bityo inzara n’inyota birabazahaza n’umwanda waratongoye aho babaga, ari nako bagendaga bapfa.

Mu matariki ya 10/10/1990, Bizimana Jean asobanura ko yakurikiraniye hafi ibya Komisiyo y’Ijonjora (Commission de Triage) yari igamije kureba mu bantu barunzwe kuri Stade Regional ya Kigali abakwiye gufatwa ko bari ibyitso koko by’Inyenzi – Inkotanyi abo basanze ntacyo bakekwaho bagataha.

Iyo Komisiyo yari iyobowe na Nkubito Alphonse Marie wari Umushinjacyaha Mukuru mu Rukiko rw’Ubujurire rwa Kigali, irimo kandi abahagarariye Minisiteri y’Ingabo z’Igihugu (MINADEF) na Jandarumeri barimo Général Munyakazi Laurent (yari Major) na Lieutenant Bizumuremyi Jean Berchmas alias Rutuku, Etat – Major y’Ingabo z’Igihugu, Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu n’Amajyambere ya Komini, Minisiteri y’Ubucamanza, Perefegitura y’Umujyi wa Kigali, Iperereza rya Gisirikare (Sûrete Militaire), Iperereza rya Gisivili (Service Central de Renseignements - SCR), Serivisi ishinzwe abinjira n’abasohoka (Service d’Immigration et Emigration), Gereza Nkuru ya Kigali , Ba burugumesitiri b’Amakomini atatu agize PVK, Abakonseye b’amasegiteri yose agize PVK.

Mu ijonjora, bamwe mu Batutsi b’abaturage basanzwe batagira akazi nibo bafungurwa, naho abari abacuruzi, abakozi ba Leta n’abikorera ku giti cyabo, abakorera imiryango mpuzamahanga n’itagengwa na Leta, abakozi ba za Ambasade bakomeza gufungwa. Bajyanywe muri Gereza Nkuru ya Kigali, iya Butare, iya Nyabisindu, iya Ruhengeri n’iya Gitarama. Abo batamenyaga bahitaga bitwa Inkotanyi bakicwa.

Aba bose bafunzwe bakorewe amadosiye batangira kuburanishwa mu Rukiko Rwihariye rwashyizweho rukuriwe na Ntahomvukiye Simon wari Perezida w’Urukiko rw’Ubujurire rwa Kigali (Cour d’Appel) yungirijwe na Colonel Bagosora Théoneste.

Baburaniraga ku Kimihurura ahahoze ingoro y’urubyiruko (Palais de la Jeunesse). Biturutse mu mishyikirano hagati ya Guverinoma na FPR, muri Mutarama 1991, Urukiko rwari rumaze gukatira umunani muri bo igihano cyo kwicwa barimo Munyambaraga Narisisi, Gatera Carpophore, Ruhatana Ignace, Mukurarinda Charles, Tamba Charles n’abandi.

Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’igihugu harimo n’ubwa gisirikare by’umwihariko nibwo bwateguraga bukanayobora izo ngirwamanza n’ibindi bikorwa byose bibi byakorerwaga Abatutsi n’iyicwarubozo ryabo.

2) Ishyirwaho ry’amategeko ashingiye ku ivangura rigamije gutsikamira Abatutsi

Ku wa 10/06/1991, Abadepite bemeje Itegeko Nshinga ryemerera amashyaka ya politiki menshi gukora, ariko iryo tegeko rikomeza gushimangira amahame ya MRND yari ashingiye ku cyiswe Revolisiyo y’Abahutu yo mu 1959 no ku cyo MRND yari yarise Revolisiyo (Révolution) Morale yo ku wa 05/01/1973 (Coup d’Etat ya Perezida Habyarimana) no ku yandi Mategeko Nshinga yaribanjirije (iryo ku wa 24/11/1962 n’iryo ku wa 20/10/1978), zahemberaga irondabwoko n’irondakarere.

Itegeko Nshinga rishya ryakomeje gushimangira iyo ngengabitekerezo ryirengagiza ibirego FPR Inkotanyi yagaragazaga, cyane cyane iyicwa n’itotezwa ry’Abatutsi byaranze izo Leta zombi, bakomeza gushimangira ingengabitekerezo y’urwango n’ivangura bitwaje iyo Revolisiyo yo mu 1959 yamarishije Abatutsi. Ayo mahame ya politiki y’ivangura yashimangiwe no mu itegeko rigenga amashyaka ya politiki ryatowe ku wa 18/6/1991.

Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu n’Amajyambere ya Komini, Munyazesa Faustin, ni we wasinyiraga amashyaka ya politiki ayemerera gukora ku mugaragaro.

Bizimana Jean akaba hagati ya Gicurasi 1991 na Kanama 1991 yari muri Komisiyo y’Igihugu yasuzumaga dosiye z’amashyaka ya politiki yasabaga kwemererwa gukora ku mugaragaro, ari kumwe na Butera Jean Baptiste (Perezida) na Munyandinda Gaspard (Umwanditsi), akemeza ko “Nta shyaka twemereraga ko Minisitiri arisinyira gukora ritabanje guhamya mu mategeko yaryo (Statut) ko mu mikorere yaryo rizagendera kuri ariya mahame ya politiki yavuzwe haruguru, ashingiye kuri Revolisiyo yo mu 1959.”

Birumvikana ko iyi mikorere yari ibangamiye demokarasi nyayo kuko yari ishingiye kuri politiki n’amategeko yubakiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

3) Ikorwa ry’inama zo gukangurira iyicwa ry’Abatutsi

Muri Mata 1992, habaye Kongere ya mbere ya MRND ivuguruye. Mu byemezo byafatiwemo hari gushyiraho inzego za MRND n’abayobozi bakuru bayo ku rwego rw’igihugu. Général Major Habyarimana Juvénal (Perezida), Karemera Edouard (Visi Perezida wa I), Kabagema Ferdinand (Visi Perezida wa II), Ngirumpatse Matayo (Umunyamabanga Mukuru). Muri iyo Kongere, biyemeje kurwanya umwanzi w’igihugu uwo ariwe wese cyane cyane Inkotanyi, bagendeye ku gisigo cya Perezida Habyarimana kivuga ngo “Ndi ikinani cyananiye abagome n’abagambanyi.”

Mu Ukuboza 1992, Bizimana Jean yagiye mu nama mu Kigo Ndangamuco cy’Abafaransa (Centre Culturel Francais) bemeza ihuriro MRND-CDR n’utundi dushyaka duto turimo PECO, RAMARWANDA n’andi bemeza ko amashyaka ya MRND na CDR agomba gukorana hamwe mu bikorwa bigamije kurwanya umwanzi ariwe Umututsi. CDR intego zazo zikaba zari ukurimbura Umututsi bityo na MRND ikaba yiyemeje kugendera muri iyo ntego.

Bizimana Jean asobanura ko iyi nama yabanjirijwe na za mitingi ebyiri zikomeye za MRND: iyo ku wa 15/11/1992 mu Ruhengeri aho Perezida Habyarimana yavugiye ati “Ngiye kumanuka n’Interahamwe zanjye nzambike zikenyere ziberwe tumanuke”; n’iyo ku wa 22/11/1992 kuri SuPerefegitura ya Kabaya aho Léon Mugesera yashishikarije Abahutu kwica Abatutsi, babanyujije muri Nyabarongo, bakabasubiza muri Abyssinia na Ethiopia aho bitirirwaga ko baturutse.

Bizimana Jean yemera uruhare rwe muri aya magambo, ati “Ngizo zimwe mu ngengabitekerezo zihanitse za Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 nanjye namamaje mu baturage ba Komini ya Nyarugenge.”

Muri Gashyantare 1993, Bizimana Jean avuga ko yagiye mu nama kuri PVK ya Perefe Renzaho yatumiyemo abayobozi b’inzego z’imirimo za PVK, ba Burugumesitiri n’Abakonseye bari mu mashyaka ya MRND na CDR n’ab’ingabo z’igihugu, ababwira ko ingabo zigiye guha imyitozo ya gisirikare Interahamwe n’impuzamugabi z’intarumikwa ngo zifashe abasirikare kurwanya umwanzi aho ari hose.

Perefe Renzaho yasabye abaje mu nama kubigira ibanga kugira ngo amashyaka atavuga rumwe na MRND na CDR atabimenya akabisakuza abirwanya. Bizimana Jean agira ati “Ibyo yadusabye narabyubahirije, mfasha MRND gukora intonde z’interahamwe zizajyayo.”

Akavuga ko nyuma gato y’iyi nama ya Perefe Renzaho, we ubwe yagiye muri mitingi ya MRND yabereye kuri Stade National Amahoro iyobowe na Ngirumpatse Matayo wari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa MRND, yari igamije gukusanya inkunga y’amafaranga yo gukoresha mu myitozo y’Interahamwe. Abarwanashyaka bose biyemeje kuyatanga mu bushobozi bwa buri wese, kugira ngo Interahamwe zizagire ubushobozi bwo kuzabafasha kwikiza umwanzi, iyo mitingi yabaye ku wa 8/02/1993.

Ku wa 25 Nyakanga 1993, Bizimana Jean avuga ko yatumiwe na Ngirumpatse Matayo amusaba kugira ingufu mu gutora abarwanashyaka bashya ba MRND muri Komini ya Nyarugenge, kandi agatoresha ab’Interahamwe, akavuga ko ari nako yabikoze.

Ku wa 23/10/1993, Bizimana Jean yitabiriye mitingi yateguwe na Perefe Renzaho n’amashyaka yafatanyaga na MRND-CDR kuri Stade Regional ya Kigali i Nyamirambo bamagana urupfu rwa Perezida Melchior Ndadaye i Burundi, bemeza ko yishwe n’Abatutsi batashakaga Perezida w’Umuhutu muri icyo gihugu, bashinga ishami rya Power mu mashyaka ya politiki y’intagondwa z’Abahutu ryiyemeza kurwanya Abatutsi, intero ikaba imwe: MRND–Power, CDR-Power, MDR-Power, PSD-Power, PL-Power, PDC Power...

Ku wa 16/01/1994, Bizimana Jean yitabiriye mitingi ya MRND ku rwego rw’Igihugu kuri Stade Regional i Nyamirambo iyobowe na Perezida wa MRND, Ngirumpatse Matayo, wari waratorewe gusimbura Perezida Habyarimana kuri uwo mwanya muri kongere ya II ya MRND yo muri Nyakanga 1993. Iyo mitingi yari igamije kwamagana uburyo igabana ry’imyanya y’ubuyobozi bw’Igihugu yagenze mu masezerano Mpuzamahanga ya Arusha. Bemeza ko MRND itazemera kujya mu nzego za Guverinoma y’Inzibacyuho CDR itarimo, kugira ngo FPR n’amashyaka yari ku ruhande rwayo itazabafatana ubutegetsi.

Ku wa 19-20/2 /1994, abayobozi ba CDR basabye gukoresha imyigaragambyo imbere ya Minisiteri y’Ubutwererane n’Ububanyi n’Amahanga (MINAFFET) yo kwamagana Amasezerano y’Amahoro ya Arusha, Bizimana Jean nka Burugumesitiri wa Nyarugenge na Perefe Renzaho barabibemerera.

Avuga ko abakozi b’iyo Minisiteri baraye bafungiranyemo, Impuzamugambi zishakamo Abatutsi ngo zibice. Ni nabwo Minisitiri Gatabazi Félicien yishwe muri iryo joro, hakurikiraho iyicwa rya Bucyana Martin, umukuru wa CDR, ryabereye i Mbazi muri Butare aho yafatiwe avuye iwabo i Cyangugu akicwa n’abayoboke b’Ishyaka rya PSD mu rwego rwo guhorera Gatabazi ukomoka i Butare.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwa Bucyana, Bizimana Jean, Perefe Renzaho n’abandi bayobozi ba PVK n’abo mu zindi nzego z’ubutegetsi n’iza gisirikare bashyigikiye imyigaragambyo y’impuzamugambi za CDR mu masegiteri yo kwamagana iyicwa rya Bucyana, bavuga ko ari Inkotanyi zamwishe, bityo Interahamwe n’impuzamugambi ziboneraho guhiga Abatutsi mu Mujyi wa Kigali, cyane cyane Gikondo aho Bucyana Martin yari atuye.

Bamwe bahungiye kuri Paroisse Sainte Famille, kuri Centre Pastoral Saint Paul no mu Kigo cy’abafurere b’abayozefiti i Nyamirambo, ari naho baje kwicirwa ku matariki atandukanye mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Muri Werurwe 1994, Bizimana Jean avuga ko yagiranye ibiganiro byihariye na Nzirorera Joseph wari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa MRND iwe mu rugo aho yari atuye na Général de Brigade Nsabimana Déogratias wari Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo z’Igihugu mu biro bye, aho bamweruriye ko Abatutsi bagomba gutsembwa bagashira, mu gihe FPR izaba yubuye imirwano. Ati ‘‘Bansabye kubigira ibanga no kubishishikariza Abahutu igihe nikigera. Twemeranyijwe kuzafatanya kurwanya umwanzi umwe ariwe Umututsi.”

4) Ishingwa ry’amashyirahamwe y’abicanyi mu bigo bya gisirikare mu Mujyi wa Kigali no mu Ngabo z’Igihugu muri rusange

Bizimana Jean yasobanuye ko muri Mutarama 1993, yakurikiraniye hafi ibikorwa bya Colonel Bagosora ashyiraho amashyirahamwe y’abasirikare yarwanyaga imishyikirano hagati ya Guverinoma na FPR ibera Arusha.

Muriyo harimo iryitwa AMASASU ryashinzwe rikanayoborwa na Colonel Bagosora yiyita “Komanda Mike Tango” afatanyije n’izindi ntagondwa z’abasirikare barimo Capitaine Simbikangwa Pascal, Colonel Setako Ephrem n’abandi. Irindi shyirahamwe ni iryitwaga CRAP (Commandos de Recherche et d’Action en profondeur) ryari rishinzwe kuneka rikanashyira mu bikorwa mu buryo bucengeye ibikorwa byaryo. Ryari rirangajwe imbere na Major Ntabakuze Aloys, Major Nzuwonemeye François Xavier, Capitaine Sagahutu Innocent n’abandi.

Ishyirahamwe rya gatatu ni LES DRAGONS (Ibikoko bikaze byo mu mazi). Les dragons bari bashinzwe gucengera aho umwanzi ari bakamugwa gitumo bakamwica. Bari biganje mu ba GP (Garde Presidentielle) barindaga Perezida Habyarimana, barangajwe imbere n’uwayoboraga Camp GP Major Mpiranya Protais, Colonel Muberuka Félicien (Commandant wa Camp Kanombe), Colonel Nkundiye Léonard (Commandant wa Camp Gabiro), Major François Xavier Nzuwonemeye wayoboraga Bataillon y’ubucengezi yabaga muri Camp Kigali, n’abandi.

Aya mashyirahamwe yose yacengezaga abasirikare bayo mu nterahamwe za MRND n’Impuzamugambi za CDR bakambara nkazo bagakorana nazo, ndetse bakavamo abazitoza nka Caporal Kaparata woherejwe ku Kimicanga, Adjudant Chef Frodouard Baranyarits na Caporal Mahano batozaga Interahamwe zo mu Rugando, n’abandi.

Bizimana Jean asobanura ko habayeho imyigaragambyo y’Interahamwe n’Impuzamugambi yagiye abonamo abasirikare b’aba GP barimo Adjudant Chef Urubonye, Adjudant Chef Semutaga, 1er Sergent Ntare, 1er Sergent Rurikujisho, Caporal Buregeya n’abandi. Burugumesitiri Bizimana Jean agasoza agira ati “Nagize igikorwa kitari kiza cyo kubagirira ibanga no kubakingira ikibaba mu bikorwa bibi byo kwica Abatutsi.”

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