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Uruhare rwa RDC mu ikorwa rya ’bombes atomiques’ Amerika yateye i Hiroshima na Nagasaki mu 1945

Yanditswe na Musangwa Arthur
Kuya 21 Ugushyingo 2022 saa 04:05
Yasuwe :

Imyaka 77 irihiritse, u Buyapani ntiburibagirwa ibyabaye ubwo bombes ebyiri za kirimbuzi zaterwaga hejuru y’imijyi ibiri ya Hiroshima na Nagasaki, zigahitana abaturage basaga 200.000.

Bombe yahawe izina rya ’Little Boy’ yapimaga toni eshanu, yatewe ku Mujyi wa Hiroshima, iteza iturika ridasanzwe, imyotsi irazamuka igera muri metero zisaga 500 hejuru y’umujyi, igice kinini cyawo kiba umuyonga.

Nyuma y’iminsi itatu gusa, ku wa 9 Kanama indi bombe yiswe ‘Fat Man’ yatewe ku Mujyi wa Nagasaki.

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika yahise iba igihugu cya mbere ku Isi ari nacyo giheruka, cyakoresheje ibisasu bya kirimbuzi mu ntambara.

Yashakaga gushyira iherezo ku ntambara yari imaze iminsi ihangayemo n’u Buyapani, yari yinjijemo n’ibindi bihugu.

Kuva icyo gihe, buri gihe ku wa 6 Kanama haba icyunamo hirya no hino ku Isi, amabendera akururutswa kugeza mu cya kabiri, indabo nyinshi zigashyirwa ahagenwe kubera ingaruka z’iyi ntambara.

Ni akaga isi itazibagirwa vuba. Nyamara igihugu kitavugwa muri ibyo byago bikomeye Isi yagize, ni Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, yatanze uranium hafi ya yose yakoreshejwe mu gukora izo bombes.

Indi ngingo itavugwa ni ingaruka iyo uranium yagize ku bacukuzi b’Abanye-Congo bakoze nk’abacakara mu birombe by’Ababiligi, birimo Union Meniere du Haut Katanga (UMHK) ari naho harizwagamo ikirombe cya Shinkolobwe.

Nyamara byari bibujijwe ko umuntu ashobora guhatirwa gukora ikintu kiri mu nyungu z’undi cyangwa ikigo, ariko u Bubiligi bwarengeje ingohe agahato kashyizwe ku bacukuzi b’amabuye y’agaciro bo muri Congo.

Uko Abanyamerika binjiye muri Congo

Igitabo ‘Spies in the Congo: America’s Atomic Mission in World War II’ cy’umushakashatsi w’Umwongereza, Susan Williams, kigaragaza uburyo Amerika yaje kwisanga ifite inyungu zikomeye muri Congo Mbiligi, kugeza ubwo Ikigo cyari gishinzwe ubutasi, Office of Strategic Services (OSS), cyabimburiye CIA, cyashinze ibirindiro muri Congo no muri Afurika y’Iburengerazuba.

Ni igitabo kandi kigaragaza umugambi wari uhuriweho na Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, u Bwongereza na Canada, wo kubaka intwaro kirimbuzi.

Ubusanzwe kugira ngo ukore iyi ntwaro, ugomba kwifashisha ibinyabutabire biboneka mu mabuye y’agaciro ya uranium cyangwa plutonium.

Ubwo Amerika yatangizaga umushinga w’ibanga wiswe Manhattan Project wo gukora ibisasu bya kirimbuzi, uranium yacukurwaga muri Amerika na Canada byaje kugaragara ko idafite umwimerere watuma ivamo kiriya gisasu.

Ikirombe cyaje kugaragaza ko cyavamo uranium iri ku rwego rwifuzwa mu gukora intwaro z’ubumara ni icya Shinkolobwe muri Congo.

Dusubiye inyuma gato, ubwo u Budage bw’aba-Nazi bwigaruriraga u Bubiligi muri Kamena 1940, Leo Szilard, umuhanga wo muri Hongrie wari warahungiye i Londres avuye mu Budage, yavuze ko afite ubwoba ko u Budage bushobora igisasu kirimbuzi.

Ku wa 2 Kanama 1939, Szilard na Alexander Sachs banditse ibaruwa yanasinyweho n’umuhanga Albert Einstein yohererejwe Perezida Franklin Delano Roosevelt, iburira ko u Budage bushaka kurema igisasu cya rurangiza yifashishije uranium yo muri Repubulika ya Czech no muri Congo.

Ayo makuru yihutishije ubushake bwa Amerika mu kubaka ibisasu byayo, inerekeza amaso kuri ya uranium ya Congo, igihugu cyagenzurwaga n’u Bubiligi.

General Leslie R. Groves wari wahawe kuyobora Manhattan Project, yagiranye amasezerano na Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi yari yahungiye mu Bwongereza, ibaha uburenganzira bwo gucukura uranium muri Shinkolobwe.

Toni nyinshi za Uranium zaje kuvanwa muri Congo zijyanwa ahantu hatandukanye hakoreshwaga muri Manhattan Project. Ni imirimo yakoreshejwe cyane abaturage ba Congo ku gahato.

Umwanditsi avuga ko “ikirombe cyo muri Congo cyavuyemo hafi bibiri bya gatatu bya uranium yakoreshejwe igisasu (Little Boy) cyatewe kuri Hiroshima, kinafasha mu gutunganya igice kinini cya plutonium yakoreshejwe mu gisasu (“Fat Man”) cyatewe kuri Nagasaki nyuma y’iminsi itatu.”

Ni umushinga wakozwe mu ibanga, ku buryo bivugwa ko kugeza muri Mata 1945, abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Amerika bane gusa ari bo bari bazi ibya Manhattan Project.

Byongeye, na Harry Truman nta makuru yari awufiteho kugeza abaye perezida, Roosevelt amaze gupfa muri Mata 1945.

Ni amasezerano ngo yasinywe mu ibanga mu Ukwakira 1939.

Banki Nkuru ya Amerika (United States Federal Reserve Bank) yaje gusabwa ko muri raporo zayo nta hantu na hamwe hagomba kugaragara ibijyanye n’amafaranga yakoreshejwe agura uranium muri Congo.

Ihererekanya rijyanye nabyo ngo ryakorwaga hagati ya Manhattan Engineering District na Edgar Sengier wahoboraga UMHK, cya kigo cy’Ababiligi cyo muri Katanga.

Mu kumvikanisha ibanga byakoranwaga, yaba Minisiteri ishinzwe ibice bikolonijwe n’u Bubiligi cyangwa Guverineri mukuru w’i Kinshasa icyo gihe hitwaga i Leopoldville, nta n’umwe wagize icyo ahingukirizwa.

Sengier yaje kugurisha Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika amabuye y’agaciro adatunganyijwe arimo toni nyinshi za Uranium, Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi itabizi.

General Groves ngo mbere hose yari afite ubwoba ko aba Nazi bashobora kugerageza gufata uranium yavaga muri Congo, bituma yegera OSS yari yamaze gushiga imizi muri Congo.

Muri icyo gihe, Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zagombaga kubona uranium yose zikeneye kandi ikava muri Congo, kandi igasiba amayira yose u Budage bwanyuramo bushaka kubona uranium ivuye muri icyo gihugu.

Muri ubwo buryo, mu gihe cy’Intambara ya kabiri y’Isi, OSS yohereje ba maneko 93 muri Afurika.

Umwe mu bagarukwaho muri Spies in the Congo ni Wilbur Owings “Dock” Hogue, woherejwe gukurikirana ibijyanye no gucuruza mabuye y’agaciro mu buryo butemewe.

Uyu Hogue yaje no kuba umuyobozi w’ibiro bya OSS muri Congo Mbiligi. Yageze muri Leopoldville mu Ugushyingo 1943.

Icyakora, mu 1944, Hogue yaje kumenya ko ibyo bangaga byabayeho, ko mu bigo by’ababiligi birimo gukorera muri Congo, Union Meniere, cyamaze kugurisha Abadage uranium idatunganyije.

Amakuru avuga ko abantu barenga 1,200 bakatiwe urwo gupfa kubera ibyo bikorwa, ndetse abantu 242 baranyongwa.

Ib byose byaje gutuma mu birori byabaye muri White House mu 1946, Perezida Truman aha umudali w’ishimwe Edgar Sengier wayoboraga Union Meniere, amushimira uburyo yabafashije mu ntambara.

Ahagana mu 1950 Abanyamerika baratsinze Abadage mu nkundura ya uranium ya Congo, bari batangiye guhangana n’Ubumwe bwa Soviet, nabwo bwari buyikeneye.

Nubwo Amerika yakomezaga gushakisha ahandi yakura aya mabuye y’agaciro, ikirombe cya Shinkolobwe cyakomezaga kuza imbere nk’isoko ya uranium.

Mu 1947, Komisiyo ishinzwe ingufu za Atomike ivuga ko Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zakiriye toni 1,440 za uranium yavuye muri Congo Mbiligi. Iyo kandi yambutswaga mu ibanga rikomeye.

Kugeza mu 1951, ingano ya uranium Amerika yafi ifite yari imaze kugera muri toni 3,686, aho igice kinini kingana na toni 2,792, yavuye muri Congo.

Nyamara ngo abacukuzi bo muri Congo bakomeje guhembwa intica ntikize, kandi bagakoreshwa amasaha y’umurengera.

Ahubwo, ngo amafaranga menshi yashowe mu ruganda rwo gutunganya aya mabuye hafi ya Shinkolobwe, ndetse Banki y’Isi iza guha u Bubiligi inguzanyo ingana na miliyoni $70, yagombaga gukoreshwa mu guteza imbere inzira z’ubwikorezi muri Congo, nubundi zakoreshwaga mu gutwara ya mabuye y’agaciro.

Aho inzovu zarwaniye…

Mbere na mbere, u Bubiligi bwumvaga neza ko nibudasaranganya uranium na Amerika, idashobora kuzabushyigikira mu bukoloni muri Congo ubwo intambara izaba irangiye.

Muri icyo gihe, Amerika yifuzaga ko habaho ubucuruzi bufunguye hagati yayo na Congo, u Bubiligi butajemo hagati.

Ku rundi ruhande, u Bubiligi bwabonaga ko Amerika itakomeza kwemera ubukoloni mu gihe bwagerageza kuyizitira ngo ntibone uranium ishaka.

Iyo ibyo bibaho, byari gushyira iherezo ku bukoloni bw’Ababiligi muri Congo, mu gihe bwari bukibikeneye.

Ibyo byatumye u Bubiligi bwemera guhara uburenganzira kuri Uranium, bubuharira Amerika.

Congo yaje kubona ubwigenge ku Bubiligi ku wa 30 Kamena 1960.

Minisitiri w’Intebe mushya Patrice Lumumba, yeruye ko adashobora guha Abanyamerika uburenganzira kuri uranium nk’ubwo bari bafite ku bukoloni bw’Ababiligi.

Havutse akavuyo katumye ku wa 11 Nyakanga 1960, Intara ya Katanga yarimo ikirombe cya Shinkolobwe yiyomora ku gihugu.

Ku wa 31 Nyakanga 1960, Minisitiri w’Intebe Lumumba yegereye Ubumwe bwa Soviet asaba ubufasha, nyuma yo guhwana na Amerika.

Ni icyemezo cyateye ubwoba Amerika, maze Lumumba yicwa ku wa 4 Mutarama 1961.

Umubiri wa Lumumba nta wamenye irengero ryawo, waje gushyirwa muri acide, hasigara iryinyo rye riheruka gusubira mu gihugu, ryari rimaze imyaka myinshi ribitswe n’Ababiligi.

Ni mu gihugu mu gihugu hari imvururu zikomeye zamaze imyaka itanu, bibarwa ko zaguyemo abantu bagera muri miliyoni ebyiri.

Na nyuma y’ibisasu bya Hiroshima na Nagasaki, hakozwe inyigo nyinshi zigamije gusuzuma ingaruka byateye ku baturage barokotse.

Nyamara nta bushakashatsi bwakozwe ku baturage bayikoragamo muri Congo.

Mu gihe hakomeje umutekano muke mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, ubwoba ni bwose ku bishobora kuzava muri iyi iranium mu gihe ibirombe irimo byagenzurwa n’mitwe yitwaje intwaro.

Nyamara muri iki gihe usanga nka Amerika ihanze amaso ibikorwa bya Iran mu buryo bw’ubwihariko.

Ibirombe byo muri RDC nibyo byatanze uranium nyinshi yakoreshejwe mu bisasu byatewe mu Buyapani
Bamwe mu barinzi bafotorewe ku kirombe cya Shinkolobwe muri Werurwe 1953
Igisasu cyatewe i Hiroshima cyari gifite ubukana bukomeye
Ivu ryaturutse ku guturika kw'igisasu ryageze muri metero zisaga 500 hejuru y'umujyi
Ibi bisasu byangije byinshi mu buryo butazibagirana

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