00:00:00 IGIHE NETWORK KN KINYARWANDA EN ENGLISH FR FRANCAIS

Byatangiye ari ibiryo by’abazungu: Amateka y’ibirayi mu Rwanda?

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 18 September 2022 saa 09:40
Yasuwe :

Nk’uko amateka y’impitabihe ku gihugu cy’u Rwanda abidutekerereza, u Rwanda rwahanganywe n’ibihingwa bitanu ari byo: Uburo, Isogi, Inzuzi, Ibikoro n’Amasaka, akaba ari byo byamaze ibisekuruza byinshi bitunze umuryango nyarwanda.

Uko imyaka yashiraga indi igataha, ni ko Abami batwaye u Rwanda barushagaho kurushakira imbuto n’amaboko, ari na ko binjiza ibindi bihingwa babikuye mu yandi mahanga ya kure aho babaga bagabye ibitero byo kurwagura no kugarura abagomeramurage wa Gihanga w’igihugu gisangiwe.

Uwo muco wo gushakira igihugu imbuto n’amaboko, ntiwigeze ugwabira kugeza no mu bihe by’abakoroni ndetse no mu bihe bya Repubulika. Igihingwa tugiye gutatura amateka ya cyo, ni igihingwa cy’ibirayi kigwije ibigwi bitari bike mu mateka y’u Rwanda, aho kiza mu myanya ya mbere mu gukenerwa na benshi mu gihugu nk’ibishyimbo, ibijumba, umuceri, ibitoki, amasaka, imyumbati n’ibindi.

Ibirayi, ni kimwe mu bihingwa byadutse mu Rwanda mu ntango y’Ikinyejana cya 20, cyinjiranywe n’abakoroni b’Abadage ariko ugasanga kiganje cyane mu Bamisiyoneli ba Kiliziya Gatolika.

Igihingwa cy’ibirayi gifite inkomoko mu gihugu cya Peru kibarirwa ku Mugabane wa Amerika y’Amajyepfo, kikaba cyaradukanywe mu Rwanda n’Abamisiyoneri ba Kiliziya Gatolika, ubwo bahangaga Misiyoni ya Rwaza mu wa 1903. Kuva icyo gihe wari umwihariko w’abo Bamisiyoneli nta wundi wagoberaho.

Mu wa 1930 nyuma y’aho Ababiligi basimbuye Abadage ku gukoroniza u Rwanda, ni bwo mu Rwanda hatangijwe Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi mu Buhinzi n’Ubworozi cyitwaga INEAC ( Institut National de l’Etude Agronomique du Congo) kikaba ryari ishami ryo mu Rwanda rifite icyicaro cyaryo gikuru i Yangambi muri Kisangani muri Congo Mbiligi, ari naho Ababiligi bagenzuriraga ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi muri ibi bihugu bari barakoronije bya Congo, u Rwanda n’u Burundi.

Ikigo cya INEAC, ni cyo cyaje guhinduka ISAR, nyuma y’Ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda mu wa 1962. Ibirayi bitangira guhingwa i Rubona rwa Ngunda (mu Murenge wa Ruhashya wo mu Karere ka Huye) ari naho hari icyicaro gikuru cy’icyo Kigo mu Rwanda. Na bwo bigahingwa ari uburyo bwo kugira ngo Abazungu bahabaga babone ibibatunga.

Igihingwa cy’ibirayi cyasohotse i Rubona kijya guhingwa ahandi nyuma y’imyaka 27 ( 1930-1957) kihageze, ubwo cyasesekaraga bwa mbere i Rwerere mu Karere ka Burera mu Ugushyingo 1957, kizanywe n’Umubiligi Charles Hertoge wo mu bwoko bw’Abafurama na François Fogrino w’Umutaliyani, bari bahaje gutangiza ibikorwa bya INEAC mu duce twera ibihingwa byo mu misozi miremire.

Muri ibyo bihe, ni na bwo hari habonetse icyanzu kigaragara ku muturage w’u Rwanda yakwinjiriramo agera kuri icyo gihingwa cy’Ibirayi, n’ubwo byatwaye imyaka itari mike, kugira ngo babigereho mu buryo bwa burundu.

Icyo gihe Ababiligi nta myaka myinshi bahamaze kuko haciye nk’imyaka ine, u Rwanda ruhita rubona ubwigenge, Ababiligi batangira kurugiramo ijambo rike benshi muri bo banisubirira iwabo.

Byatwaye imyaka igera ku 10 (1962-1972) kugira ngo hatekerezwe ahandi hahingwa igihingwa cy’ibirayi mu Rwanda.

Mu 1973 Umubiligi Bigis Antoine na Demarre wari Ikimanyi cy’Umunyarwanda n’Umubiligi, basesekaye mu misozi iri munsi y’Ikirunga cya Kalisimbi ( Ubu ni mu Mirenge ya Bugeshi wo mu Karere ka Rubavu no mu wa Kabatwa wo mu Karere ka Nyabihu), mu mirima Ababiligi bahingagamo Ibireti, ni uko bahatangiza ubushakashatsi bw’ibihingwa byera muri ako gace, birimo: Ibirayi n’Ibireti.

Mu myaka Bigis na Demare bamaze muri ako karere k’Ibirunga bya Karisimbi, nibwo mu wa 1973 hadutse bwa mbere mu buryo bugaragara imbuto nshya z’Ibirayi kandi zizwi mu mateka y’u Rwanda.

Imbuto z’Ibirayi bashyize ahagaragara mu bushakashatsi bwabo zishobora kwera mu misozi nk’iyo y’Ibirunga, muri zo harimo: Kuruza, Sangema, Baku, Kenya, Shinja, Muhabura na Magayane.

Muri icyo Kigo cy’Ubushakashatsi mu Buhinzi n’Ubworozi cyiswe: ISAR TAMIRA, ni nabwo mu wa 1982, bungutse izindi mbuto nshya z’Ibirayi, arizo bahaye izina rya: Gutema, Kinigi na Ntiro.

Ku wa 19 Nyakanga 1979, nib wo mu Rwanda hatangiye ku mugaragaro gahunda nshya ifite umwihariko wo wo guteza imbere igihingwa cy’Ibirayi no gusazura ibyari bihamaze igihe. Iyo gahunda niyo yiswe: PNAP “Programme National d’Amelioration de la Pomme de Terre), u Rwanda rwayiterwagamo inkunga n’Ikigo mpuzamahanga gishinzwe guteza imbere igihingwa cy’Ibirari cyari gifite icyicaro mu gihugu cya Peru cyutwaga: CIP (Centre International de la Pomme de Terre).

Iyo gahunda yakoreraga mu bihugu bine ari byo: u Rwanda, u Burundi, Kenya na Kongo.

Uwo mushinga waje guhabwa icyicaro mu Mujyi wa Ruhengeri, uhabwa izina rya: ISAR- PNAP Ruhengeri wakorerwaga ku butaka bungana na Hegitari 47 mu Kinigi. Uwaje gutangiza uwo mushinga w’ubushakashatsi-mwihariko ku gihingwa cy’Ibirayi ni Umunyemerika Vander Zoag waje ari kumwe n’abandi bakozi bo kumifasha ahawe na Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi, barimo:

Uruhare rwa Bicamumpaka Marti na Tegera Pierre

Uwo mwaka wa 1979, n’ubwo ariwo watangirijwemo uwo mushinga wa PNAP, ni na wo wabonetsemo bwa mbere imbuto nshya z’ibirayi zirimo Kondeya, Buhita, Marirahinda, Atsimba, Baku na Juwanita.

Mu 1984, nibwo noneho byabaye akarusho, ubwo mu bushakashatsi bw’igihingwa cy’Ibirayi bwahawe umwihariko wa PNAP Ruhengeri hinjiyemo Umubiligi Havercot wari umushakashatsi waribuwe ku gihingwa cy’Ibirayi, anga bagihinga ya moko y’Ibirayi batangiranye n’umushinga mu bihe bya Vander Zoag, yaje asimbuye.

Icyo gihe yatangiye ubushakshatsi bwe bwite, yirengagije ko hari ubundi bwagezweho n’abamubanjirije. Nuko azana mu Rwanda amoko y’Ibirayi Ijana ayakuye mu gihugu cy’u Buhorandi, atangira kuyageragereza mu butaka bw’umushinga PNAP, ngo areba ko hari ubwoko bw’Ibirayi bwashobora kuhera.

Muri ubwo bushakashatsi yakoze, mu mbuto ijana yazanye mu Rwanda, yabashije kuramuramo izigera kuri eshanu gusa zabengutse ubutaka bwo mu Kinigi mu Rwanda. Izo mbuto ni zo dusanga mu moko y’Ibirayi yera mu Rwanda ariyo Gikungu, Kigega, Mizero, Ndererana Mabondo. Kuva mu mwaka wa 1973 bushakashatsi bw’igihingwa cy’Ibirayi bwatangira kugeza mu wa 1984 bwakwitabwaho kurushaho, mu Rwanda hari hamaze kugera amoko y’Ibirayi ashobora kuhera agera kuri 18.

Uwo mushinga umaze kuryoha, Leta y’u Rwanda yahisemo kuwagurira ubutaka bwo gukomeza guhingamo Ibirayi. Nuko ku wa 21 Kanama 1984, haremwe irindi shami ryumushinga PNP-Ruhengeri barihanga mu mashyamba cyimeza ya Gishwati aho bawukoreye ku butaka bungana na Hegitari 250.

Uwoherejweho gutangira ubwo bushakashatsi ni Ndagijimana Gaspard, kugira ngo akmeze guteza imbere icyo gihingwa, cyari kimaze kugira amoko menshi ashobora kwera mu Rwanda.

Mu mwaka wa 1986, nibwo mu Rwanda hakozwe ibirori by’akataraboneka byo kwishimia ubwo bushakashatsi bwagezweho ku gihingwa cy’Ibirayi, ari na wo mwaka umwe rukumbi mu Rwanda heze Ibirayi byinshi cyane, bakurizaho no kuwita umwaka w’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi.

Mu myaka yakurikiyeho igihingwa cy’Ibirayi cyitaweho cyane maze si ukubyeza karahava! Ku buryo mu mwaka wa 1988, ikiro cy’Ibirayi cyaguraga amafaranga hagati ya 3 na 5 mu bice bya Gisenyi na Ruhengeri aho byeraga cyane.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu wa 1995, ubushakahsatsi kuri icyo gihingwa cy’Ibirayi bwarakomeje, ku buryo muri uwo mwaka mu Rwanda hinjiye ndi moko 2 y’Ibirayi ariyo Kirundo na Nyakabondo.

Kugeza ubwo aya mateka yandikwaga muri Nzeri 2022, mu Rwanda haboneka amoko y’Ibirayi bishobora kuhera asaga 23.


Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .