Ibyihariye kuri Mona Lisa, igishushanyo gifite amateka ahambaye ku Isi

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 21 Ukuboza 2020 saa 09:06
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Ntibikunze kubaho ko abahanzi batandukanye bahuriza ku izina ry’umuntu umwe mu bihangano byabo, gusa Mona Lisa ryumvikanye mu ndirimbo zamenyekanye cyane z’abakomeye ku Isi barimo Jay Z na Lil Wayne n’abandi nka Davido, Daddy Yankee na Lyta.

Usibye kumvikana mu ndirimbo, Mona Lisa anafite igishushanyo cyamwitiriwe kiri mu bizwi cyane ku Isi, ndetse cyanahimbwe n’umwe mu banyabugeni bakomeye babayeho ku Isi, Leonardo da Vinci, kuri ubu kikaba giherereye mu Bufaransa, mu gace ka Louvre kari mu Murwa Mukuru wa Paris.

Uku kwamamara rero kw’igishushanyo kimaze imyaka irenga 500 ni kimwe mu bitera abantu benshi kwibaza, bakagira amatsiko yo kumenya umuntu uyu Mona Lisa yari we.

Zimwe mu nyandiko zisobanura neza iby’iki gishushanyo, harimo inyandiko za Lisa del Giocondo wanditse ko iki gishushanyo cya Mona Lisa cyari icy’umugore w’umucuruzi w’umwe mu bakire wari utuye mu gace ka Frencesco del Giocondo, gaherereye mu Mujyi wa Florentine mu Butaliyani.

Bivugwa ko umugore wa Francesco yari mwiza cyane kandi akagira umutima mwiza n’impuhwe nyinshi, ku buryo mu 1503 umugabo we yigiriye inama yo kumushimira, agatumira Leonardo da Vinci, nawe wari uzwi cyane mu gukora ibishushanyo by’agatangaza, kugira ngo amukorere icy’akataraboneka.

Ku rundi ruhande, inyandiko ya Antoinio de Betis nayo igaruka kuri Mona Lisa, yemeza ko iki gishushanyo cyakozwe na Leonardo da Vinci, ariko ko yabisabwe na Giuiliano de’ Medici, wakomokaga mu muryango w’abayobozi b’Umujyi wa Florentine ahagana mu mwaka wa 1517.

Abahanga mu byo gusobanura ibishushanyo bavuga iki?

Gorgio Vasari, umwe mu bahanga mu bijyanye no gusobanura ibihangano, yavuze ko iyi shusho yashushanyijwe na Leonardo, amaze guhabwa ikiraka na Francesco del Giocondo, wari ufite ishyaka ryo gushimisha umugore we.

Uyu muherwe ngo yifashishije da Vinci nk’umwe mu bantu bari bagezweho cyane mu gukora ibishushanyo, dore ko yari yaratsinze amarushanwa atandukanye y’ibihangano byiza, kandi muri icyo gihe akaba yari umushomeri.

Hagati aho, hari abavuga ko ibi atari ko byagenze kuko iyo Francesco aza kugirana amasezerano na Da Vinci bakabaye barabigaragaje mu bitabo byandikwagamo imisoro mu Mujyi wa Florence, ariko mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe bikaba nta na hamwe hagaragaye imikoranire ya Da Vinci na Francesco.

Ikindi kandi ngo bitewe n’ukuntu uyu mukire yari azwi cyane mu mujyi we, kandi iki gishushanyo kikaba cyari cyakozwe n’umwe mu bahanga bari bakomeye muri ibyo bihe, ngo iyo aba ari we wategetse ko gikorerwa umugore we, aba yaranagitangaje cyane ndetse ku munsi wo kukimurika hakaba ibirori bikomeye.

Gusa noneno mu nyandiko za Vasari, yagaragaje ko impamvu uyu mukire atakimuritse, ari ukubera ko Leonardo atigeze arangiza kugishushanya nk’uko yabyifuzaga, ariko ibi na byo bikaba biteye urujijo kuko mu nzu ndangamurage ya Louvre iri i Paris mu Bufaransa, iki gishushanyo kigaragara cyuzuye.

Hari rero abahera aha, bakavuga ko Vasari yitiranyije ibishushanyo, ku buryo icyo yavuze atari icya Mona Lisa kiri mu nzu ndangamurage ya Louvre.

Abashyigikiye igitekerezo cya Vasari bo bavuga ko bisanzwe bizwi cyane ko da Vinci atakundaga kurangiza ibishushanyo yatangiye, ku buryo kuba yabikora ku cya Mona Lisa bitari bitangaje. Urugero batanga ni uko uyu munyabugeni atigeze arangiza igishushanyo kitwa ‘Battle of Anghiari’, byemejwe ko iyo aza kukirangiza, cyari kuba ari cyo gihangano ya mbere yakoze gihambaye.

Ibi ariko bivuguruzwa na bamwe mu bashakashatsi mu kureba umwimerere w’ibishushanyo, bemeje ko icya Mona Lisa cyashushanyijwe inshuro imwe kikaba kirarangiye.

Ku rundi ruhande, igitangaje ni uko na Vasari wanditse iyi inyandiko isobanura iki gishushanyo atigeze akibona na rimwe amaso ku maso, ahubwo yagisobanuye ashingiye ku buryo we yakiyumvishaga.

Antonio de Beatis we agisobanura ate?

Ku ruhande rwa Antonio de Beatis asobanura iki gishushanyo agendeye ku myaka. Akavuga ko cyashushanyijwe ahagana mu 1517, kigashushanywa na Da Vinci abisabwe na Giuliano de’ Medici.

Beatis avuga ko Medici yari afite umwana witwa Ippolito wavutse ku mugore wari inshoreke ye, ariko akaza kwitaba Imana ari kumwibaruka.

Ngo uwo mwana w’umuhungu amaze gukura, nibwo Medici yasabye Da Vinci gukora igishushanyo kigaragaza nyina w’umwana, kugira ngo ajye amureba amaze gukura.

Ibi ngo ntibyagoye Da Vinci, kuko nawe yakuze atabona nyina, bityo akaba yarishyize mu mwanya wa Ippolito, abona imbaraga zo gukora igishushanyo cya nyina bimworoheye.

Hagati aho, Medici ngo yaje gupfa igishushanyo kitarangiye, Da Vinci akijyana mu Bufaransa gutyo. Uyu mugabo anavuga ko Leonardo yajyanye ibishushanyo mu Bufaransa ubwo yari yatumiwe n’Umwami Francis, ngo wari waratangajwe n’ubuhanga bwa Leonardo.

Usibye igishushanyo cya Mona Lisa, ngo da Vinci yanajyanye mu Bufaransa ibindi bishushanyo bitatu, birimo icy’umukobwa wo muri Urbino cyakozwe mu rwego rwo guha icyubahiro Giuliano de’ Medici wari umwe mu bayobozi bakomeye ba Florence, kikaba cyarakozwe amaze gutabaruka.

Mu bindi bishushanyo harimo icya Mutagatifu Yohani Batista ndetse n’icya Maddona yicaranye n’umwana we.

Antoine kandi ashimangira ko imiterere y’igishushanyo na yo ishyigikira iki gitekerezo, kuko kuba Mona Lisa ari igishushanyo kigaragaza isura ibabaye ariko nanone isa nk’imwenyura, ngo byagaragazaga ko n’ubwo hari umubabaro w’urupfu, kuba umwana yarabashije kubaho byari bishimishije, bigatera akamwenyu.

Igishushanyo cya Mona Lisa kibarirwa agaciro ka miliyoni 666$.

Igishushanyo cya Mona Lisa ni kimwe mu byamenyekanye cyane ku Isi
Igishushanyo cya Mona Lisa gifite amateka ahambaye ku Isi

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