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Uko wamenya umuntu ukubeshya

Yanditswe na Léana Bisa
Kuya 3 July 2022 saa 12:31
Yasuwe :

Ubushakashatsi bwasohotse mu kinyamakuru Frontier Psychology ku bijyanye n’imitekereze ya muntu, bwifashishije ubwari bwakozwe na Norbert Wiener, bwerekanye uburyo umuntu ashobora kumenya ko bari kumubeshya hifashishijwe imibare.

Ubu bushakashatsi bugaragaza uburyo ikiremwamuntu gihindura imitekerereze mu gihe habayeho nko guhitamo hagati y’ibintu bitandukanye, ihinduka ry’imitekerereze rishobora guterwa n’amakuru make, isesengura umuntu akora mbere yo gufata icyemezo ndetse n’uko bigena imyitwarire ya muntu.

Imitekereze y’umuntu ijyana n’amakuru afite mbere yo gufata icyemezo. Iyo umuntu afite amakuru ahagije ashobora guhitamo byoroshye kurushaho. Nk’urugero, mbere yo kugura ikintu runaka umuntu abanza gushaka amakuru, akagerageza kubaza abigikoresheje n’ibindi bimuha amakuru ahagije kugira ngo abashe gufata icyemezo cyiza.

Ibi byagarutsweho n’umuhanga mu mibare Thomas Bayes, uvuga ko umuntu uri gutekereza neza abanza agasuzuma amahitamo menshi imbere yo gufata icyemezo.

Bayes avuga ko amahitamo yose y’umuntu ndetse n’imitekerereze ye bigendana n’ibyo azi cyangwa ibyo atazi. Iyo rero umuntu adafite amakuru ahagije ashobora kudafata icyemezo runaka mbere yo kumenya ayo makuru, aha niho umuntu utekereza neza yitondera kuko agomba kubanza kumenya neza icyo ahitamo.

Iyo umuntu afite icyo atekereza ku mahitamo runaka, biragoye ko undi yamwumvisha ukundi kuri, ntabwo yava ku izima kuko aba yumva ko ibyo azi cyangwa se amakuru afite ari yo y’ukuri.

Ubu buryo rero bushobora no gukoreshwa umuntu amenya uri kubeshya cyangwa se umuntu uri kuvugisha ukuri.

Iyo umuntu afite uko atekereza ibintu cyangwa se uburyo abona ikintu runaka, nyuma akagenda ahabwa amakuru y’ukuri, ashobora kugenda ahindura uburyo yatekerezaga, agasiga umwanya wo kumva ko yibeshyaga ndetse akaza no kwakira ayo makuru mashya akayafata nk’ukuri.

Iyo umuntu ari kubeshya rero si uko bigenda. Iyo umuntu ahawe amakuru y’ukuri akomeza kwanga kuva ku izima, agakomeza kuvuga ko ibyo avuga cyangwa se ibyo atekereza ari ko kuri, ubu bushakashatsi bwerekanye ko kenshi aba ari kubeshya.

Uyu muntu iyo ahawe amakuru y’ukuri ntayemere, ahubwo agahitamo kwemera ibindi binyoma, ni ikimenyetso cy’uko ari kubeshya. Dukurikije ibyo Bayes avuga, umuntu uri kubeshya ahita yihutira gushaka ibindi abeshya kuko no mu myitwarire ye biba bigaragara.

Uyu muntu uba uri kubeshya agaragara nk’ushaka kwemeza abantu ko ibyo ari kuvuga ari ukuri agashaka no kubyumvisha cyane abadafite amakuru ahagije. Aba bashakashatsi bavuze ko bidashoboka gusoma mu mutwe w’umuntu ngo umenye ibyo atekereza byose, ariko ko imyitwarire imeze gutyo ataba ari imyitwarire y’umuntu uri kuvugisha ukuri.

Ku rundi ruhande, iyo umuntu ari kubeshya, agahabwa amakuru atandukanye n’ibyo avuga akanga kuva ku izima, uwo muntu ubu bushakashatsi buvuga ko aba abeshya. Ubu buryo rero bushobora kuba igikoresho cyo gusesengura no kurwanya by’umwihariko ingaruka mbi z’amakuru atari yo.

Birashoboka kumenya umuntu ukubeshya ukurikije imyitwarire ye n'amakuru aguha

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