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Ubwigenge Afurika yarotaga yabugezeho?

Yanditswe na Léana Bisa
Kuya 2 July 2022 saa 10:02
Yasuwe :

Mu gihe cyo guharanira ubwigenge bwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Patrice Lumumba, wagize uruhare muri icyo gikorwa, yavuze ijambo nkunze gutekerezaho, aho yagaragaje ko Afurika igomba gusubizwa mu maboko y’Abanyafurika bakayiyobora, bakaba ba nyirayo. Muri rusange, hashize imyaka ibarirwa muri 60 Afurika ibonye ubwigenge, ndetse ni nako bimeze ku Rwanda bubwizihiza ku wa 1 Nyakanga, ku nshuro ya 60.

Mu gihe cyo kurwanirira ubwigenge nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi, benshi mu bari bayoboye izi mpinduramatwara bari bafite ibyifuzo byinshi ku iterambere ry’Umugabane wa Afurika, aho bavugaga ko bifuza kuvana Umugabane wabo mu maboko y’abakoloni, bagashyiraho ubuyobozi bwiza, bagateza imbere uyu mugabane uba nk’indi yose iteye imbere na cyane ko iby’ibanze birimo umutungo kamere byari bihari.

Ariko iyo urebye nyuma y’imyaka 60, wibaza niba icyo aba bayobozi baharaniraga, cyangwa se bavugaga ko baharanira, bamwe muri bo bakanakimenera amaraso, cyaragezweho. Nk’ubu buri mwaka, Afurika ikenera hafi miliyari 108$ zo kuziba icyuho ifite mu bikorwaremezo na miliyari 39$ mu kuziba icyuho mu burezi.

Kuri ubu ubucuruzi muri Afurika buracyari hasi cyane, kuko uyu mugabane winjiza byinshi kurusha ibyo wohereza mu mahanga. None niba hari icyo cyuho cyose nyuma y’imyaka 60, twavuga gute ko Afurika ifite ubwigenge nyakuri?

Kenshi iyo abantu bagarutse ku iterambere rya Afurika, hari abavuga ko gusaba iterambere rirambye kuri uyu Mugabane ari ukwirengagiza kuko ubundi byagatwaye imyaka irenga 100, nk’uko byagenze ku iterambere ry’ibihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’ibindi byo mu Burayi, bityo ko imyaka 60 ari agatonyanga mu nyanja.

Icyakora ku rundi ruhande, usanga Afurika atari yo yonyine yanyuze mu bibazo birimo ubukoloni n’ubukene bwabukurikiye, ariko ukibaza impamvu ari yo yagumye muri ibyo bibazo na magingo aya.

Nk’ubu dufashe urugero kuri Singapore, iki gihugu cyakolonijwe n’u Bwongereza kiza guhabwa ubwigenge bwuzuye mu 1965. Nyuma yo kubuhabwa, cyari igihugu kiri mu bikennye cyane ku Isi, gifite umutekano muke kandi gifite abanyagihugu benshi badafite akazi babayeho mu bukene bukabije.

Mu 1965, ubwo iki gihugu cyabonaga ubwigenge, umuturage yinjizaga nibura 516$ ku mwaka. Mu 2020, aya mafaranga yari ageze mu bihugu 59$ n’umusaruro mbumbe wa miliyari 340$.

Ni kimwe na Korea y’Epfo, yahawe ubwigenge mu 1948. Icyo gihe, cyari igihugu gikennye cyane kuko na nyuma yaho cyanyuze mu ntambara yagihuje na Korea ya Ruguru.

Kuri ubu ariko iki gihugu gitunze umusaruro mbumbe urenga miliyari 1000$, nubwo gifite abaturage miliyoni 51. Mu 1953, nyuma y’iyi ntambara, umusaruro mbumbe wa Koreya y’Epfo ku muturage wari munsi ya 100$, ubu urarenga ibihumbi 31$.

Iyo urebye usanga umuvuduko w’iterambere ry’ibihugu bya Afurika utangana n’ibi bihugu tumaze kuvuga. Dufashe urugero rwa Kenya, igihugu kitigeze kigira ibibazo bikomeye by’intambara n’umutekano muke kuva cyabona ubwigenge, umusaruro mbumbe wacyo wari 104$ mu 1965, none ubu urarenga gato 1.800$.

Nibyo iki gihugu cyateye imbere, ndetse kiri mu bihugu 10 bya mbere bifite ubukungu bunini muri Afurika, ariko usanga iterambere ryacyo ryaragiye biguru ntege cyane ugereranyije na Korea y’Epfo cyangwa Singapore, nubwo byatangiriye ku ntera ijya kungana.

Ushobora gukeka ko ibi byose ari ugukabya ariko ni inkuru mpamo. Mu 1963, Korea y’Epfo yari mu bibazo bikomeye by’inzara n’ibindi byatewe n’intambara, ku buryo yatse Kenya inguzanyo ingana n’ibihumbi 10$. Niba Kenya yari iri ku rwego rwo kuguriza Korea y’Epfo, byumvikanisha ko yayirushaga ubukungu, cyangwa se bikaba biyingayingana.

Nyuma yo kubona ubwigenge, Abanyafurika bagiriwe icyizere abayobozi bari bahawe inshingano zo guhindura imibereho y’uyu Mugabane. Hari ibimenyetso byatangaga icyizere ko ibintu bizagenda neza, aho mu bihugu nka Botswana yabonye ubwigenge mu 1966, yatumbagije umusaruro mbumbe wayo ukava kuri miliyoni 51$ ukagera kuri miliyari 17$ mu mwaka ushize.

Kenya nayo yatangaga icyizere, cyane cyane ku buyobozi bwa Jomo Kenyatta, habaka n’ibindi bihugu nka Burkina Faso byigeze guhanyanyaza ku gihe cya Thomas Sankara ariko birangirira aho. Hari ibindi bibatsi byakanyujijeho mu bihugu nka Zambia na Zimbabwe ariko muri rusange iterambere ryabyo rikaba iry’akanya gato.

None byapfiriye he?

Imiyoborere ijegajega

Ubuyobozi ni ikintu cyari ingenzi nyuma yo guhabwa ubwingenge. Ariko iyo urebye henshi mu bihugu bya Afurika, ubuyobozi nibwo bwagize uruhare mu kudindiza iterambere.

Usanga abayobozi bakurikiye abaharaniye ubwigenge, cyangwa se na bamwe mu babuharaniye, baragize uruhare rufatika mu kwangiza umutungo wa Afurika muri rusange. Ikimenyimenyi, ni uko iyo urebye ibibazo by’ubukene biri muri Afurika, kenshi usanga bifite imizi ku miyoborere mibi yaranze Afurika mu bihe bya nyuma yo kubona ubwigenge, urugero rwiza rukaba nka Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, aho Mobutu Sese Seko yafashe ubutegetsi mu 1965, ubundi agahindura igihugu akarima ke.

Icyavuyemo ni uko amakimbirane n’umuco wa ruswa byokamye icyo gihugu bikaba umuco ushinze imizi, na cyane kubera ko byakomeje gushyigikirwa n’abandi bayobozi bamukurikiye, bikaza kurangira ugiye ku butegetsi wese acunga uburyo yakuramo aye akigendera.

Nk’ubu bivugwa ko Mobutu yapfuye amaze kugwiza umutungo wa miliyari 5$, umuryango wa Kabila wamusimbuye ukabarirwa miliyari 10$ mu gihe bivugwa ko na Felix Tshisekedi na bagenzi be bamaze kwigwizaho akayabo muri ibi bihe. Congo ubwayo ikoresha ingengo y’imari irengaho gato miliyari 10$ ku mwaka.

Imiyoborere mibi kandi twanayibonye mu Rwanda, aho abayoboye igihugu nyuma y’uko kibonye ubwigenge bakomereje mu murongo wo gukongeza amakimbirane n’urwango mu Banyarwanda aho gushaka icyateza imbere igihugu. Icyavuyemo ni Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, yateguye mu myaka irenga 30 kandi igatwara imbaraga n’ubukungu bw’igihugu. Iyo ubuyobozi bw’icyo gihe butayishoramo akayabo, bugashyira imbaraga mu kubaka ubukungu bw’igihugu, byashoboka ko u Rwanda rwari kuba mu bihugu bifite ubukungu bwihagazeho, ari siko byagenze.

Ingero nk’izi twazibona mu bihugu hafi ya byose byo muri Afurika yo Munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, kuva kuri Centrafrique, u Burundi n’ibindi bitandukanye, byagize abayobozi babi bashyize imbaraga mu bikorwa bya ruswa, gukongeza urwango no kwigwizaho umutungo, aho guteza imbere igihugu muri rusange.

Ikibabaje kurushaho ni uko ibihugu byakabaye byaragize uruhare mu guteza imbere uyu Mugabane, bitewe n’amahirwe akomeye bifite mu iterambere, nabyo byaguye mu mutego w’ubuyobozi bubi, ku buryo bitigeze bigira uruhare mu kurema uburyo bwatuma iterambere rya Afurika rishoboka.

Dufashe urugero nka Nigeria, igihugu cya mbere gituwe muri Afurika, kikagira umutungo kamere nka peteroli, cyagize ubuyobozi bubi bwaranzwe n’igitugu no kwima abaturage uburenganzira bwabo, bukimakaza ruswa n’icyenewabo, ibyatumye ubukungu bw’igihugu buhatikirira. Uko ubuyobozi bwasimburanye, ibi bikorwa byakomeje kugenda gutyo mu miyoborere y’igihugu, bituma kigera na magingo aya gifite abarenga 40% bari mu bukene.

Ubu bukene bugira ingaruka ku bihugu bituranye na Nigeria, byakabaye biboneraho kuzamura ubukungu bwabyo iyo Nigeria iza kuba yariteje imbere. Ni uko urukurikirane rw’ubukene rukwirakwira mu bihugu bya Afurika.

Urundi rugero ni nka Afurika y’Epfo, igihugu gikungahaye ku mutungo kamere nk’amabuye y’agaciro, ariko cyabaye mu bihe by’itotezwa ry’Abirabura rizwi nka Apartheid, n’ubu bikiyikurikirana kuko abarenga 50% bari mu bukene. Ibi bigira ingaruka ku bindi bihugu bituranye na Afurika y’Epfo, byakabaye byungukira ku iterambere ry’ubukungu bwayo binyuze mu kongera ubucuruzi hagati y’impande zombi.

Ibi turabivugana nyamara ibyo bihugu nibyo biyoboye ibindi mu kugira ubukungu bunini muri Afurika, ibyumvikanisha ko uburyo ibindi bihugu biri habi kurushaho, kandi uyu ukaba ari umusaruro w’imiyoborere mibi, wakurikiranye ibyo bihugu cyane cyane kuva nyuma y’ibihe by’ubukoloni.

Akaboko k’amahanga mu miyoborere ya Afurika

Uretse no kuba ubuyobozi bwashyizweho nyuma y’uko ibihugu bitandukanye bibonye ubwingenge bwari bufite intege nke, unasanga rimwe na rimwe ibi byaraturukaga ku gitutu cy’ibihugu by’amahanga, byakunze kwivanga mu miyoborere ya Afurika kubera inyungu runaka.

Afurika ni Umugabane ufite umutungo kamere uhagije, aho ufite 30% y’amabuye y’agaciro, 8% bya gaz ndetse na 12% ya peteroli bikoreshwa ku Isi yose. Akavuyo kari muri Afurika, gatuma uyu mutungo ushobora kunyerezwa mu buryo bworoshye, cyane cyane binyuze mu bikorwa bya ruswa no kunyereza umutungo wa Afurika, nk’uko umushakashatsi Robert Beckford yabigarutseho.

Ushobora gukeka ko Afurika ari Umugabane ukeneye ubufasha, cyangwa se ubufasha uhabwa utabaho utabufite, ariko ibi ni ukwibeshya. Amafaranga anyerezwa muri Afurika buri mwaka, aruta kure ayo uyu Mugabane wakira nk’inkunga n’inguzanyo z’iterambere. Ibi byumvikanisha ko icyo Afurika ibura atari amafaranga y’inkunga, ahubwo ari ubushobozi bwo kugenzura ibyo ifite. Ibi iramutse ibishoboye, n’iyo izo nkunga zahagarara, Afurika yabona amafaranga ikeneye mu gukemura ibibazo ifite. Ugomba kandi kuba utari butangazwe no kumva ko ibihugu bikomeye bigira uruhare muri ibi bikorwa byo kunyereza umutungo wa Afurika.

Raporo zitandukanye zakunze kwerekana uburyo ibigo bikorera ubucuruzi muri Afurika bigira uruhare mu kunyereza umutungo wa Afurika, ndetse n’uburyo ibihugu bikomeye nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bufaransa n’ibindi, bigira uruhare mu kwica abayobozi no kubasimbuza abagombaga gukora ibiri mu nyungu zabo, kabone nubwo byakenesha Abanyafurika.

Nk’ubu Amerika yagize uruhare mu rupfu rw’abayobozi nka Patrice Lumumba n’abandi benshi, ibikorwa byakomeje kugeza no muri ibi bihe, aho Amerika n’ibindi bihugu byagize uruhare rukomeye mu gukuraho abayobozi nka Muammar Gaddafi wa Libya, kenshi bazira ko bifuje kugendera ku murongo utandukanye n’uw’ibyo bihugu.

Amaherezo azaba ayahe?

Nubwo hari byinshi byatumye ubwigenge bwifuzwa butagerwaho muri Afurika, ntitwavuga ko muri urwo rugendo ntaho tugeze, ikibigaragaza ni uko hari kuzamuka abayobozi bashya bashoboye kandi bafite imyumvire itandukanye n’iy’abandi bababanjirije.

Nko muri abo harimo Nana Akufo-Addo wa Ghana, Perezida Paul Kagame w’u Rwanda, Abiy Ahmed wa Ethiopia, Abdel Fattah El-Sisi wa Misiri n’abandi benshi.

Usibye n’ibyo, ibihugu byinshi muri Afurika bitangiye kubaka umubano no kuzamura ubucuruzi hagati yabyo, bityo bikazazamura ubukungu bwabyo ari na byo bizatuma birushaho gushyira hamwe.

Nk’urugero mu 2018 hasinywe Amasezerano y’Isoko Rusange rya Afurika (AfCFTA). Byitezwe ko azongera agaciro k’ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bya Afurika kazagera kuri 50% mu 2063 kavuye kuri 16% kariho uyu munsi.

Ibi bikajyana n’uko urubyiruko rwa Afurika rurimo kugenda rwunguka ubumenyi butuma babona ibibazo bihari ndetse n’ikibitera, bagatangira kwihangira ibisubizo ndetse no gusaba abayobozi babo kugira uruhare mu kubikemura. Ibi ni ingenzi cyane kuko mu baturage ba Afurika higanjemo urubyiruko aho impuzandengo y’imyaka y’Abanyafurika ari 22.

Bamwe mu Banyafurika barimo Patrice Lumumba bazize kurengera inyungu za Afurika, ariko nyuma y'imyaka 60, bisa nk'aho ubwigenge bwuzuye bapfiriye butagezweho

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