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Impamvu kuzamura umushahara fatizo bikwiriye kwitonderwa

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 9 May 2022 saa 07:36
Yasuwe :

Kuva mu myaka 40 ishize, umushahara fatizo mu Rwanda ntiwigeze uhinduka. Umushahara fatizo ni amafaranga make umukozi ashobora gukorera mu gihe runaka, gishobora kuba isaha, umunsi, icyumweru, ukwezi cyangwa umwaka. Ku rwego mpuzamahanga, ufatwa nka kimwe mu bintu by’ingenzi umukozi agomba kugenerwa, ukamufasha guhembwa amafaranga ashobora gutuma yibeshaho kuko ubundi ubarwa hashingiwe ku buryo imibereho ihagaze mu gace runaka.

Kuri ubu, mu Rwanda uyu mushahara fatizo uhagaze ku mafaranga 100 Frw ku munsi. Ntabwo bigusaba kuba umuhanga nka Leonardo da Vinci cyangwa Sir Isaac Newton kugira ngo ubone ko utakijyanye n’igihe. Ikimenyimenyi ni uko ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwikubye hafi inshuro zirenga 10 kuva igihe umushahara fatizo washyiriweho.

Ubundi umushahara wagakwiye kwiyongera bitewe n’uko ubukungu bwiyongera. Uko igihugu kigira ubukungu bunini, ni nako umushahara w’abakozi uba ukwiye kuzamuka, uretse ko ibi bishobora kugirwamo uruhare n’izindi ngingo turi buze kugarukaho.

Uko ubukungu bwiyongera, ni ko n’ikiguzi cy’ubuzima kirushaho kuzamuka. Mu Rwanda, Raporo ya ‘Anker Living Income Reference Value for Rural Rwanda’ yo mu 2020 igaragaza ko kugira ngo umuryango ubeho mu buryo butekanye mu cyaro, ahatuye hejuru ya 80% by’Abanyarwanda, bisaba ko nibura waba winjiza ibihumbi 187 Frw ku kwezi.

Birumvikana ko ikiguzi kiri hejuru mu mijyi, ariko bikaba n’ingenzi kwibuka ko nk’Umujyi wa Kigali ubarirwa mu mijyi ihendutse mu Karere ka Afurika y’Iburasirazuba. Nka Raporo ya Mercer yo mu 2021, igaragaza ko Kigali ari wo Mujyi uhendutse muri EAC, ikurikiwe na Kampala.

Ubundi iyo ikiguzi cy’ubuzima kizamutse, n’umushahara fatizo wakagombye kuzamukana nacyo kuko ari wo ugena niba abaturage bashobora kwigondera icyo kiguzi. Ibi niko biherutse kugenda muri Kenya, aho kuri uyu wa 1 Gicurasi 2022, Umunsi Mpuzamahanga w’Abakozi, Perezida Uhuru Kenyatta yategetse ko umushahara fatizo wiyongeraho 12%, ukagezwa ku bihumbi 13,5 by’Amashilingi akoreshwa muri icyo gihugu (angana na 116$).

Impamvu y’izamurwa ry’umushahara fatizo nazo zirumvikana, kuko rituma abaturage bakomeza kugira ubushobozi bwo guhaha, ari bwo butuma inganda zikomeza gukora, imirimo ikaboneka, imisoro ikiyongera, ibikorwaremezo bikagurwa, ubukungu bugakomeza gutera imbere muri rusange.

None niba umushahara fatizo ushobora gutuma ubukungu bw’igihugu butera imbere, kuki u Rwanda rumaze imyaka 40 rutarawuvugurura, nyamara rwarakoze impinduka zitabarika mu zindi nzego hagamijwe kuzamura ubukungu bwarwo?

Umushahara fatizo ni mwiza ku mibereho myiza y’abaturage n’ubukungu bw’igihugu, ariko muri iyi nkuru tugiye kurebera hamwe impamvu uyu mushahara ushobora kumunga ubukungu bw’u Rwanda aho kubwagura, binashoboka ko ari imwe mu mpamvu Leta yakunze kwitondera iyi ngingo cyane.

Umushahara fatizo uramutse uzamuwe mu buryo budacunzwe neza ushobora gutuma ubukungu bw'u Rwanda buhungabana

Umushahara fatizo wasenya urwego rw’abikorera rucyiyubaka

Kenshi iyo tuvuze umushahara fatizo, ni ingenzi cyane kumva urwego rw’abikorera kuko ari narwo mukoresha munini kurusha leta mu bihugu hafi ya byose ku Isi.

Iterambere ry’u Rwanda tumaze imyaka tubona, rishingiye cyane ku ishoramari rya Leta, naryo ryagiye rishingira ku nguzanyo zivuye hanze, kuko niba urwego rw’abikorera rukiri hasi, ubwo n’imisoro rwinjiza mu isanduku ya Leta iracyari mike.

Icyakora ubu buryo bw’iterambere ahanini ntabwo buramba, cyane cyane ku gihugu nk’u Rwanda kidafite umutungo kamere uhagije ushobora kuvanwamo amafaranga ashobora kwifashishwa mu gukomeza gushyigikira ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Muri make ishoramari ryakozwe na Leta ryari nko gusiza ikibanza, ku buryo urwego rw’abikorera rushobora guhera aho rukiyubaka. Ishoramari ry’imihanda n’ibindi bikorwaremezo riba riri muri uwo mujyo.

Icyakora urebye aho ibintu bigeze, ntabwo ishoramari rya Leta ryakomeza kuba inkingi y’ubukungu bw’igihugu kurusha iry’abikorera, ibi bikanajyana cyane n’aho Leta ikura amafaranga. Nk’urugero, inguzanyo z’u Rwanda ku musaruro mbumbe w’igihugu zishobora kugera kuri 77% mu mwaka utaha, nyamara zitakarenze 65% kugira ngo ibyago byo kunanirwa kwishyura bigume ku kigero cyo hasi (low) aho kuba ku kigero kiringaniye (moderate), nk’uko IMF ibitangaza. Uretse ko ibi bitagira ingaruka ku bushobozi bw’u Rwanda bwo kwishyura, kuko ibipimo byerekana ko bukiri ku rwego rwiza.

Leta ifite intego yo kugabanya izi nguzanyo ku buryo mu 2030, inguzanyo z’u Rwanda zizaba zingana na 57% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu. Niba rero Leta idateganya kongera inguzanyo ifata mu myaka iri imbere, bivuze ko n’ishoramari ryayo gusa ridashobora gukomeza kuba moteri y’izamuka ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda, ari nayo mpamvu urwego rw’abikorera ruhanzwe amaso.

Ikibazo ni uko uru rwego rukiri hasi cyane ugereranyije n’ibirutegerejweho, ku buryo kongera umushahara fatizo ku mugongo warwo usanzwe uhetse ibindi bibazo agahiri, bitaba ari ukurudindiza gusa, ahubwo byaba ari no kudindiza ubukungu bw’igihugu mu buryo buziguye.

Nk’urugero, hakenewe miliyari 39$ kugira ngo intego z’iterambere zikubiye muri NST1 zishyirwe mu bikorwa bitarenze 2024. Uruhare rwa Leta ruteganyijwe kuba rungana na 59% by’iryo shoramari mu gihe uruhare rw’abikorera ari 41% gusa.

Kugira ngo iyo 41% iboneke, bizasaba ko uruhare rw’ishoramari ry’urwego rw’abikorera ruzamuka nibura rukagera kuri 21% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu mu 2024, ruvuye kuri 13% mu 2018. Ibi ubwabyo ni ibintu bitoroshye kubera igihe gito, wakongeraho ingaruka za Covid-19 bikarushaho kujya irudubi.

Imwe mu mpamvu nyamukuru ituma kongera ishoramari ry’urwego rw’abikorera birushaho kugorana, ni uko uru rwego n’ubundi rusanganywe ubwizigame buke, aho bubarirwa ku 10% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu. Nk’uko bigenda mu rindi shoramari ryose, ubwizigame buke ntibwakorwamo ishoramari rigari.

Imwe mu nzira iri kwifashishwa n’uru rwego mu guhangana n’ibi bibazo ni ugukoresha inguzanyo za banki. Mu 2020, inguzanyo zahawe urwego rw’abikorera zari 24.7% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu, igipimo gishimishije ugereranyije n’uko ibintu bihagaze mu bindi bihugu bifite ubukungu bujya kungana n’ubw’u Rwanda, ariko kidahagije ugereranyije n’akazi karutegereje. Dufashe nka Kenya, aho urwego rw’abikorera rwateye imbere cyane, inguzanyo zaruhawe mu 2020 zageraga kuri 32% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu.

Mu gihe urwego rw’abikorera mu Rwanda rukirimo kwiyubaka, Leta iri gushakisha ibisubizo bishobora kuziba icyuho gihari uyu munsi ndetse no gukemura ibibazo by’ahazaza, ibyo bigakorwa binyuze mu gukurura ishoramari riturutse mu mahanga. Iyi gahunda iri gutanga umusaruro kuko nk’iryanditswe mu 2021 rigana na miliyari 3.7$, aho rizatanga imirimo irenga ibihumbi 48.

Ishoramari riturutse hanze rizagira uruhare runini mu iterambere ry’u Rwanda mu myaka iri imbere, kandi ibi si umwihariko kuko ryanarugize ku iterambere ry’ibindi bihugu nk’u Bushinwa. Uru ruhare rwaryo ruzaterwa n’uko Leta idateganya gukomeza gufata inguzanyo nyinshi mu gihe urwego rw’abikorera mu Rwanda narwo rukiri mu rugendo rwo kwiyubaka.

Umushahara fatizo uhanitse watuma habaho igabanuka ry'abakozi mu bigo by'ubucuruzi

Umushahara fatizo ushobora kugabanya ishoramari rituruka hanze

Kimwe mu bituma ishoramari riturutse hanze rirushaho kwiyongera mu Rwanda, harimo umutekano n’ibindi birimo kuba kwandikisha ubucuruzi byihuta kandi bihendutse. Nubwo bimeze gutya ariko, hari ibibazo bigikoma mu nkokora urwego rw’abikorera mu Rwanda muri rusange, ndetse bikaba bishobora no kugera ku ishoramari riturutse mu mahanga, tumaze kubona ko rizagira uruhare rinini mu gukomeza umuvuduko w’iterambere ry’u Rwanda mu bihe biri imbere.

Bimwe mu bibazo by’ingutu bikibangamiye abikorera mu Rwanda harimo kubona inguzanyo zihendutse, umuriro w’amashanyarazi ugihenze, ikiguzi cy’urugendo kuko u Rwanda rudakora ku nyanja n’ibindi bitandukanye. Ibi bishobora gutuma gukorera ubucuruzi mu Rwanda ubwabyo bishobora guhenda, cyane cyane nko ku nganda, nubwo kubutangiza byoroshye.

Gushyiraho umushahara fatizo byarushaho kuzamura iki giciro cyo gukorera mu Rwanda, ku buryo bishobora gutuma abashoramari baturutse hanze bagira impungenge zo kuzana amafaranga yabo mu Rwanda. Ibi bishobora gutizwa umurindi n’uko n’ubusanzwe abakozi bafite ubumenyi buhambaye bakiri bake mu Rwanda, isoko ry’imbere mu gihugu rikaba rito, byose bikaba bishobora gutuma u Rwanda rutakaza isura yarwo yo kuba ahantu heza ho gushora imari muri Afurika.

Ibi byarushaho gutuma ibihugu bituranye n’u Rwanda nka Uganda, bishobora gufata aya mahirwe bikikubira ishoramari ubundi ryakabaye riza mu Rwanda, ariko rigakumirwa n’uko ikiguzi cy’abakozi, mu gihe umushahara fatizo waba uri hejuru, cyaba gihenze kurusha icyo muri Uganda, aho umushahara fatizo waho ari 6000 by’Amashilingi akoreshwa muri icyo gihugu (angana na 1700 Frw) ku kwezi. Uyu mushahara uri munsi y’uwo mu Rwanda, kuko umushahara fatizo wa 100 Frw ku munsi ari 3000 Frw ku kwezi.

Ishoramari riturutse hanze y'u Rwanda ryitezweho kugira uruhare mu kuzamura ubukungu bw'u Rwanda

Ihangana n’ibindi bihugu

U Rwanda ruramutse rwongereye umushahara fatizo warwo, wenda rukawushyira ku mpuzandengo y’ikiguzi cy’ubuzima bw’uyu munsi, ibihugu nka Uganda, Tanzania n’u Burundi biri mu byakungukira muri ibi bikorwa.

Impamvu ibi bishoboka ni uko ibyo bihugu byose nta na kimwe gifite umwihariko udasanzwe, wenda nk’amabuye y’agaciro yihariye adapfa kuboneka ahandi cyangwa umusaruro w’ubuhinzi w’umwihariko.

Ibyo u Rwanda rucuruza ku isoko mpuzamahanga byiganjemo ibikomoka ku buhinzi n’amabuye y’agaciro, ari nabyo bicuruzwa n’ibindi bihugu duturanye. Ibi bituma uburyo bwo gukurura abashoramari bushingira ku zindi ngingo nk’umutekano, imiyoborere myiza, imiterere ya ruswa mu gihugu n’ibindi, ari nabyo u Rwanda rurusha ibindi bihugu byinshi muri Afurika.

Binyuze muri rya shoramari rya Leta twagarutseho, u Rwanda rwamaze gushyiraho urufatiro rwo kubaka ubukungu burambye, ariko ibi birasaba ko ubu bukungu bushingira ku nzego zirimo nk’inganda, aho kuba umusaruro w’ubuhinzi no gucuruza amabuye y’agaciro. Magingo aya uru rwego ruracyari kwiyubaka, ndetse urebye ntiruratangira gukurura ishoramari rihambaye, kuko mu ryanditswe n’Urwego rw’Iterambere, RDB, mu 2021, 15% byaryo ari ryo riri mu nganda.

Bitewe n’uko inganda ari urwego rukenera abakozi benshi, kongera umushahara fatizo byatuma uru rwego rudatera imbere, kuko ikuguzi cyo gukorera mu Rwanda cyakwiyongera cyane, kandi n’ubundi twabonye ko cyari gisanzwe kiri hejuru. Mu iterambere ry’inganda, izibanza kuza mu gihugu ni izikora ibintu byinshi kandi bihendutse, ku buryo umusaruro wazo ushingira ku bwinshi bw’ibyo zacuruje. Abakozi bahenze batuma ubu bwoko bw’inganda budatera imbere mu Rwanda, ibyakoma mu nkokora iterambere ry’u Rwanda mu myaka iri imbere.

Abakozi bahenze, bitewe n’umushahara fatizo ushobora kuba uri hejuru, ni ingingo ikomeye cyane kuko ari kimwe mu byatumye inganda nyinshi zo muri Amerika zimurira ibikorwa byazo mu Bushinwa, zikajya zikorerayo ubundi zikohereza ibicuruzwa muri Amerika bikishyura n’imisoro, ariko n’ubundi bigakomeza guhenduka ugereranyije n’ibyakorewe muri Amerika.

Bitewe n’uko u Bushinwa nabwo buri gutera imbere, abakozi baho bari guhenda muri iyi minsi, ari nayo mpamvu inganda nto ziri kwimukira mu bihugu bifitanye amasezerano y’ubucuruzi nka Phillipines na Vietnam, aho abakozi bagihendutse.

Umushahara fatizo ushobora gutuma inganda nke ziri mu Rwanda zimukira mu bindi bihugu, zikemera guhendwa n’imisoro y’ibicuruzwa zizana mu Rwanda ariko ugasanga ishobora kuba ikiri hasi ugereranyije n’ikiguzi cyo gukorera mu Rwanda.

Birumvikana ko ingaruka zagera ku nganda zinagera ku baturage, kuko uretse benshi batakaza akazi mu gihe inganda zaba zimutse, byanatuma ikinyuranyo cy’ibyo u Rwanda rutumiza mu mahanga n’ibyo rwoherezayo kirushaho kwiyongera, kandi n’ubundi gisanzwe kiri hejuru.

Ikindi gikomeye ni uko byatuma n’ibicuruzwa bikorerwa mu Rwanda birushaho guhenda, kuko tugomba kwibuka ko icyo kiguzi kiri hejuru cy’umukozi w’uruganda, kishyurwa n’umuguzi wa nyuma w’igicuruzwa cy’urwo ruganda.

Ibi byagira ingaruka ku ifaranga ry’u Rwanda, nabyo bikagira ingaruka ku rwego rw’imari ku buryo bishobora kuvamo urukurikirane rwarushaho gushyira ubukungu bw’igihugu mu kangaratete.

Umushahara fatizo udacunzwe neza ushobora kugira ingaruka ku iterambere ry'urwego rw'inganda rukenera abakozi benshi

Hatabayeho kuzamura umushahara fatizo, hakorwa iki?

Amakuru avuga ko Ibiro bya Minisitiri w’Intebe bikiri kwiga ku mushinga wo kuzamura umushahara fatizo mu Rwanda. Mu by’ukuri ntabwo kongera umushahara fatizo ari bibi, ariko kuwongera ku buryo wakwirukana abashoramari, cyangwa se ugakumira abifuzaga kuzana imari yabo mu Rwanda, byaba ari ikibazo gikomeye.

Birashoboka ko uyu mushahara ushobora kongerwaho amafaranga make, kuko n’ubundi urebye abakozi benshi bakorera ibigo runaka, biragoye ko n’abahembwa make cyane baba binjiza 100 Frw cyangwa munsi yayo ku munsi. Impamvu ni uko kenshi izamuka ry’umushahara ridashingira ku mategeko ya Leta gusa, ahubwo rinashingira ku miterere y’ubuzima muri rusange. Uramutse ushinze ikigo cy’ubucuruzi gihemba amafaranga make cyane, ntabwo wabona abakozi bashoboye bakora akazi gatuma gitera imbere, bityo kigahomba. Ni ibintu bigenda byikora hashingiwe ku zindi ngingo nyinshi.

Intego nyamukuru yo kongera umushahara fatizo ni ukurengera uburenganzira bw’umukozi, ariko ibi bishobora kugerwaho ku kiguzi gikomeye kuko kongera umushahara fatizo mu buryo buri hejuru byanongera ikiguzi cy’umushahara ikigo gitanga ku bakozi bacyo, kandi wenda ibi bikaba bidasobanuye inyongera y’inyungu y’ikigo. Ibi byatuma ibigo byinshi bigabanya abakozi, ubushomeri bukiyongera ariko n’umusaruro wabyo muri rusange ukagabanuka, ibyo bikagira ingaruka ku bukungu bw’igihugu.

Mu gihe umushahara fatizo ukirimo kwigwaho, hari ibindi byinshi byaba bikozwe kandi bikagera kuri ya ntego yo kuzamura imibereho myiza y’abakozi muri rusange. Ibyo birimo nko gucunga imibereho y’abakozi mu kazi, hakarebwa ko abakwiriye guhabwa amasezerano bayafite, abagomba kwishyurirwa ubwishingizi bw’ubuzima babufite, abakenera ibikoresho bibarinda mu kazi bakaba babifite n’ibindi nk’ibyo bijyanye no kuzamura imibereho y’abakozi.

Ibi kandi byajyana no gushyiraho amasendika afatika areberera ibibazo by’abakozi mu kazi, aho umukoresha atubahirije ibiri mu Itegeko ry’Umurimo akaba yabihanirwa. Ku rundi ruhande, Leta ishobora no gushyiraho uburyo bwo kugabanya imisoro (cyangwa utundi duhimbazamusyi) ku bakoresha bigaragara ko bubahiriza amategeko arengera abakozi babo ndetse n’abakoresha bafite abakozi benshi (bigakorwa ku bigo by’abikorera gusa).

Ibi birushaho gutuma abakoresha batanga akazi ku bantu benshi kuko igishoro cyabo kiyongereye biturutse ku kuba imisoro yabo yagabanutse. Ibi kandi byatuma abakoresha barushaho gufata neza abakozi babo, ibituma nabo bongera umusaruro mu kazi maze mu buryo buziguye, bikagira ingaruka nziza ku bukungu bw’igihugu.

Igihugu nka Kenya, aho urwego rw’abikorera rugize 80% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu, birashoboka ko kongera umushahara fatizo byarushaho guteza imbere ubukungu bwacyo, kuko busanzwe ari bunini (aho bukubye ubw’u Rwanda inshuro hafi 10) kandi bukaba bushingiye ku rwego rw’abikorera. Ibi bitandukanye no mu Rwanda aho uru rwego rutaratora mitende, by’umwihariko bikaba bigaragara ko ubukungu bw’igihugu buzashingira ku ishoramari riturutse hanze mu gihe kiri imbere.

Ubu ibyihutirwa ni ukurebera hamwe uburyo urwego rw’imari rwarushaho kwaguka, bikajyana no koroshya ikiguzi cy’amashanyarazi, kubaka ibikorwaremezo bituma ikiguzi cy’ingendo kigabanuka n’ibindi byatuma gukorera mu Rwanda byoroha, aho kugorana kurushaho. Ibi bizongera ishoramari mu gihugu maze nirimara gushinga imizi, urwego rw’abikorera mu Rwanda rukagira intambwe rutera, ibiganiro by’umushahara fatizo bizaba bifite ishingiro kurushaho.

Biragoye kubona umukozi uhemberwa ku mushahara fatizo washyizweho mu myaka 40 ishize, benshi bahembwa amafaranga yisumbuye
Kuzamura umushahara fatizo byazamura ikiguzi cy'ibicuruzwa mu Rwanda, bigahenda umuguzi wa nyuma

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