Gushaka umuti wa Sida, urushinge rugabanya ubukana n’ihurizo ku Ntara y’Iburasirazuba: Ikiganiro na Dr Nsanzimana

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 6 Ukuboza 2019 saa 10:52
Yasuwe :
0 0

U Rwanda rukomeje gushimwa kubera intambwe rwateye mu kurwanya icyorezo cya Sida, aho kugeza ubu imibare igaragaza ko nibura hejuru ya 90% by’Abanyarwanda babana na HIV bazi uko bahagaze, 98% bafata imiti igabanya ubukana kandi nibura 90% bafite virusi nke cyane mu maraso.

Imbaraga zashyizwe hamwe hagati y’inzego za leta n’imiryango yigenga kandi zatanze umusaruro mu kurwanya Sida, aho by’umwihariko mu Rwanda, kugeza mu 2018 ubwandu bushya bwa virusi itera Sida bwagabanutse kuri 83% naho impfu ziterwa na Sida zigabanukaho 82% mu myaka 20 ishize.

Umuyobozi w’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Ubuzima mu Rwanda, Dr Nsanzimana Sabin, yagaragaje ko nubwo hari intambwe yatewe, hakomeje ibikorwa binyuranye bigamije gushakira umuti iki cyorezo gikomeje guhitana benshi ku Isi.

Mu kiganiro cyihariye na IGIHE, Dr Nsanzimana yagarutse ku ntambwe imaze guterwa mu gushaka umuti n’urukingo bya Sida, akazi gakomeye kari mu gukumira ubwandu bushya mu rubyiruko no kuramira ubuzima bw’abatuye Intara y’Iburasirazuba.

Ni ikiganiro cyabereye muri Kigali Convention Centre ahakoraniye abantu ibihumbi baturutse hirya no hino, bitabiriye inama mpuzamahanga ku kurwanya virusi itera Sida n’indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina, ICASA 2019.

IGIHE: Inama ya ICASA ifite ikihe gisobanuro mu rugamba rwo kurwanya Sida?

Dr Nsanzimana : Inama nk’izi aba ari ingenzi kuko zituma abantu bahura, ariko noneho iyo ari inama zishingiye ku bushakashatsi, ni uburyo bwiza bwo kugira ngo abantu bigire ku bandi, bamenye n’ibikorwa kuko Isi irafunguye, hari igihe abantu baba bafite ibyo bagezeho mutabizi, biba byiza rero iyo muhura nabo mukaganira.

Icya kabiri rero kirenze ibyo, nk’igihugu kigendwa, kizamo abantu benshi, burya umuntu wese ibyo abonye abijyana mu mutwe akabwira abandi ati mvuye aha n’aha, ikindi cya gatatu baba bafite n’amafaranga bagendana, nayo tuba dushaka ko aza mu gihugu cyacu, ndetse iyo inama nk’iyi ije mu gihugu, muyubakiraho mukavuga muti dufite ubushobozi bwo kwakira n’izirenzeho.

IGIHE: U Rwanda rufite nkuru ki yo kubwira amahanga mu kurwanya Sida?

Dr Nsanzimana: Burya buri gihugu kigira ibikorwa byacyo mu guhangana n’ibyorezo, ariko twe nk’igihugu cyacu hari umwihariko dufite nk’ahantu twavuye mu myaka itari myinshi, 25, aho tutagiraga n’uburyo bwo kuvura abantu kuko bwari bwasenyutse bitewe na Jenoside yari imaze koreka igihugu cyacu yakorewe Abatutsi.

Kubaka rero urwego rwacu rw’ubuvuzi no kurwanya Sida ni bimwe mu bintu dufite byihariye, ndetse wavuga ko byatanze umusaruro wihuse nubwo udahagije, hakiri ibindi byo gukora, tunagaragaza uburyo tutarwanyije icyorero cya Sida nk’akavirusi kamwe, ahubwo ubibonera mu ishusho nini y’ubuzima, ntuvuge ngo nk’amafaranga ajya mu kurwanya Sida arakurikirana porogaramu imwe, ahubwo ukaba wareba mu buryo bwo kubaka urwego rwose.

Nk’urugero dukunda gukoresha, nk’imbangukiragutabara zagiye zigurwa bishingiye ku kurwanya icyorezo cya Sida, byaratugoraga kubyumvisha abatanga izo nkunga ko imbangukiragutabara ari iyo kurwanya Sida, ntabyumve. Ariko iyo umusobanuriye ko ushaka kureba uko umubyeyi atakwanduza umwana virusi itera Sida, agomba kubyarira kwa muganga ngo ahabwe imiti kandi ku gihe, agomba kugenda mu mbangukiragutabara kugira ngo imugezeyo kare, n’undi warembera mu rugo.

Ibyo byose ukabisobanura, ariko twe nk’igihugu turabona ko nk’iyo mbangukiragutabara cyangwa nk’iryo vuriro ryubatswe, birafasha kurwanya icyorezo kimwe ariko binadufasha kurwanya n’ibindi bishobora gutuma urwego rw’ubuzima rugira ibibazo.

IGIHE: Hari icyizere cya vuba ku rukingo rwa virusi ya Sida?

Dr Nsanzimana: Iby’urukingo rero bimaze igihe kinini bivugwa, imyaka irenze cumi n’ingahe. Ikigaragara cyo nta rukingo ruhari nta n’ibanga rindi riri inyuma. Hari ubushakashatsi bwagiye bukorwa, murabizi ko dufite n’ahantu hamwe hakorerwa ubwo bushakashatsi hano mu gihugu cyacu hamaze imyaka myinshi, nta rukingo ruraboneka nibura ku gipimo nibura cya 40% ngo rube rwakingira abantu.

Urwigeze kugera kuri icyo gipimo narwo rwasanga nk’aho ari akantu gato cyane. Ubu rero hari imishinga myinshi irimo gukorwa ku rukingo rushya, muri Afurika ndetse no muri Amerika hari abashakashatsi benshi barimo kubikoraho.

Ariko usanga imbaraga zishyirwa mu gikora urukingo, kuri njye navuga ko zitakiri nyinshi nka mbere, bitewe nuko ku rugeraho byaratinze nibyo, hari n’aho abashakashatsi bamwe bacika intege, n’abatanga amafaranga ubwabo bagatangira kubona ko barimo kuyashyira ahantu umusaruro utaza vuba, noneho wareba ku rundi ruhande ugasanga uwashoye amafaranga mu miti, hari ibintu byinshi birimo kuba.

IGIHE: Ko abashakashatsi bakomeje kuvuga ko mu minsi iri imbere haboneka umuti wa Sida, bishingirwa kuki?

Dr Nsanzimana: Niba hari ahantu hari ibihuha byinshi ko umuti wabonetse, nko muri uyu mwaka maze kubyumva inshuro eshatu ngo abashakashatsi b’aha n’aha bavumbuye umuti wa Sida, ni ibintu bimaze igihe kinini, bigaragaza ko abantu bafite inyota y’umuti wa Sida. Ariko uyu munsi tuvugana, nta muti ushobora kuvura Sida ngo ikire uhari.

Uyu munsi impamvu tutavura virusi itera Sida ngo tuyikize, ni uko iyo yinjiye mu mubiri w’umuntu, hari ahantu yihisha. Hari uturemangingo tuyibika ntivemo, keretse natwo udukuyemo kandi umubiri wagira ibibazo. Kuba rero yihisha aho hantu ntivemo, nibyo abantu bamaze igihe bakora, ngo ni gute yasohokamo igashiramo, kuko kuyimara mu maraso y’umuntu wayanduye byo birashoboka, ni nayo mpamvu 90% y’abari ku miti igabanya ubukana, nta virusi iba itembera mu maraso, isigara ari twa tundi dukeya twihishe ahantu.

Aho rero niho hananiranye kugeza uyu munsi, kuyivana aho igashiramo burundu. Ngirango mwumvise ko ku Isi abantu bamaze gukora virusi itera Sida ari babiri, umwe yabonetse muriuyu mwaka, uwo twari tuzi ni umwe wo mu Budage n’undi wa kabiri wo mu Bwongereza.

Abo nabo babaga barwaye kanseri y’amarasa bakabavanamo uturemangingo dukora amaraso, ari naho ya virusi yihisha, nyuma ikaza gushira. Ubwo rero wakwibaza ngo abantu bose tuzabavanamo uturemangingo dukora amaraso? Ngo tuyikize? Nabyo bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku bantu.

IGIHE: Imibare y’abafite Virusi ya Sida ihinduka ku ruhe rwego?

Dr Nsanzimana: Mu kwezi gushiza twashyize imibare mishya ahagaragara, twari tumaze igihe kuri 3% ariko ubu katangiye guhinduka, ubu ku bantu bafite imyaka 15-49 twabonye ko igipimo cya virusi itara Sida bari kuri 2.6%.

Ubundi iyo uwo mubare ugabanutse cyane ba ari ikibazo kuko ni umubare urimo abantu benshi babana na virusi itera Sida, bakwiye kubaho igihe kirekire. Uwo mubare ugabanutse ukava kuri 3% ukaba nka 2% cyangwa 1% bitunguranye, waba wapfushije abantu benshi cyane kandi ntabwo ari byo twifuza.

Nko ku bari munsi y’imyaka 15 bo bari munsi ya 1%, kugeza ku myaka 49 ni 2.5%, hejuru y’imyaka 49% ni 3%, hejuru y’imyaka 60 ubu twatangiye kubona bigenda bikagera mu 8%, bivuze ko abantu bafite imyaka yigiye hejuru nibo barimo gukurana na virusi iytera Sida, hanyuma abato barakura vurusi itera sida ari nke.

IGIHE: U Rwanda rufite cyizere ki ku cyerekezo cyo kurandura Sida 2030?

Dr Nsanzimana: Ku giti cyanjye ntekereza ko izaba igihari, ahubwo wenda izaba ihari nk’uko itameze uyu munsi, uzaba ufite nka wa muti ufata inshuro imwe ukabaho utongeye kubitekereza, tuzaba wenda twarabonye… urukingo rwo reka noye kuruvuga kuko twarutegereje imyaka myinshi kandi nta bimenyetso bigaragaza ko ruri hafi.

Dushobora kuzaba dufite abantu bake bandura virusi itera Sida, kuko ubu niba dufite 5000 ku mwaka tuvuye ku 12 000 mu myaka itanu ishize, dushobora kuzaba tugira nk’abantu 1000 cyangwa hafi aho ngaho bandura Sida ku mwaka, ni bake cyane ugereranyije n’aho tuvuye.

Nk’isi twari twihaye igipimo mu 2030 ko 95% by’abafite virusi ya Sida bazaba babizi, 95% bari ku miti, 95% itagaragara mu maraso yabo, ariko bakabiha akabyinirira ko Sida izaba yarangiye. Gusa icyiza nubwo izaba inahari, izaba ari nk’uko abantu barware ibicurane, twese duhora tubifite ariko si icyorezo, ugasanga umuntu afite iyo virusi ariko nta kintu imubangamiyeho mu buzima.

IGIHE : Hakorwa iki mu kwita ku byiciro byihariye ubwandu bushya nk’abakora uburaya n’abaryamana bahuje ibitsina?

Dr Nsanzimana: Twahereye mu 2013, icyo gihe twahaga imiti abantu bafite mu mubiri abasirikare nka 500 kumanuka, ariko bo turavuga ngo ubwo ibipimo byabo bya virusi itera Sida biri hejuru, reka tubahe imiti ako kanya agipimwa virusi, kuko tuba tuzi ko n’umuha imiti, za virusi afite mu mubiri zizagabanuka yoye kwanduza abandi n’iyo yaba anakoze ibyatuma abanduza nk’imibonano mpuzabitsina.

Ni ibyo rero byabayeho muri iyo myaka urumva tumaze imyaka itanu tubafasha, abakora uburaya 50% bafite virusi itera Sida, ariko icyiza hafi 90% yabo bari ku miti. Kuba bari ku miti bivuga ko kwanduka kwabo biba byamaze kugabanukaho 96%.

Abagabo bakora imibonano mpuzabitsina na bagenzi babo nabo ni icyiciro twakozeho ubushakashatsi inshuro nyinshi, ubungubu noneho hagati ya 5-10% bafite virusi itera Sida, kandi abenshi ni abantu bakiri bato, kandi kimwe cya kabiri cyabo ntabwo bakora imibonano mpuzabitsina n’abagabo gusa, babikora hombi, n’abakobwa cyangwa abagore n’abagabo hagati yabo.

Aho rero biba bivuga ko ari ikibazo cyane kuko aba akwirakwiza virusiitera Sida kubyiciro byose.

IGIHE: Muri iyi minsi havugwa igabanuka ry’inkunga zijya mu kurwanya Sida. Nta mpungenge biteye?

Dr Nsanzimana: Kugeza mu 2010 hari nka miliyoni zirenga $10 zashyirwaga mu gukora ibyapa, inama mu midugudu n’ibindi, nabyo ni ingenzi. Ariko niba 40% by’ingengo y’imari yawe bigabanutse, hari ukuntu bigufungura ukavuga uti nta kindi kintu nakora cyatanga umusaruro wihuse?

Ni wo mwanya twabonye dukora n’ubushakashatsi imibare iba myiza, tuza gusanga izo miliyoni zashyizwe mu kurwanya Sida zirenga $10 za buri mwaka, ikintu zakoraga ntabwo ari ikintu cyaduhaga umusaruro w‘ako kanya, ahubwo PEPFAR yatangaga ayo mafaranga yakoresheje ubushakashatsi n’abahanga bo muri kaminuza ya Stanford, mu kwanzura basanze ayo mafaranga yarapfuye ubusa mu bihugu bakoreramo uwo mushinga.

Ariko kuri twebwe ntabwo mpamya ko yapfuye ubusa kuko yatumye abantu bagera kuri serivisi. Hanyuma rero turasanga ku ijana, ni iki kiduha umusaruro vuba mu byo dukora mu kurwanya Sida? Twaje gusanga hafi 70% ikintu gitanga umusaruro, ni ukuvura, ni imiti, ni ugusiramura abagabo, porogaramu ifasha ababyeyi kutanduka zabana babo, tubishyira ku rutonde, aba aribyo dushyiramo imbaraga kurushaho.

IGIHE: Utekereza iki guhuza kurwanya Sida n’izindi ndwara byandura kimwe nka Mburugu na Hepatite?

Dr Nsanzimana: Ibyo ni ukuri kuko indwara zandurira mu nzira imwe na virusi itera Sida hari za Hepatite, kanseri zimwe na zimwe nka kanseri y’inkondo y’umura, byose ushobora kubirebera mu ishusho imwe, kuko kubyirinda ni kimwe, no kubivura bijya gusa.

Ku buryo rero ushaka kubirebera mu ishusho yagutse, kubyirinda, kubivura no kubishakira amikoro [byaba bimwe], kuko ntabwo washyiraho porogaramu yo kurwanya mburugu kandi uzi ko izajyana n’imitezi n’izindi. Na VIH rero igihe kirageze ku buryo tutayibona nk’indwara imwe iteretse hariya, ni akavirusi gato gatera ikibazo kinini. Ukaba wasanga rero kuyirwanya iri ku ruhande, urahomba kuko kurwanya virusi itera Sida neza ni ukubaka urwego rw’ubuvuzi rukomeye.

IGIHE: Gahunda yo gusimbuza ibinini bigabanya ubukana bwa Sida hagakoreshwa urushinge igeze he?

Dr Nsanzimana: Njyenayise icyizere ku bamaze igihe banywa imiti mu buryo bugoye, bwo kuzabona umwanya umuntu akaba yafata urushinge. Uruhari ubu rurimo imiti ibiri, umwe witwa Rilpivirine undi witwa Cabotegravir, ushobora kurufata mu gihe cy’ibyumweru umunani. Mu bushakashatsi ku cyiciro cya gatatu rwagaragaje ko urufashe bingana no gufata ikinini cya buri munsi mu byumweru umunani.

Niba dushobora kugira urushinge rw’ibyumweru umunani, ntabwo bizagorana gukora urushinge rwamezi atandatu, nabyo buriya bizakurikiraho. Si n’urushinge gusa hari agapira ushobora gushyirwa no mu kaboko, byo biracyari inyuma ntabwo biragera ku cyiciro gikomeye cy’ubushakashatsi, hari n’utundi tuntu dushobora kugenda tukajya mu gifu tukamarayo igihe dutanga umuti, ni uburyo bwose bw’igihe kirekire bwo kuvura virusi itera Sida mu gihe kiri imbere, kandi twizeye ko bitazatinda.

IGIHE: Urwo rushinge rwari rwatangira kwifashishwa mu Rwanda?

Dr Nsanzimana: Ntabwo turatangira kurutanga hano mu Rwanda, ariko uwo muti umwe witwa Rilpivirine ugize iyo ibiri [igize urushinge], twawukoreyeho ubushakashatsi mu bitaro bya gisirikare [ i Kanombe] mu myaka ibiri ishize, ndetse twanabikozemo raporo yashyizwe mu binyamakuru by’ubushakashatsi, twasanze uwo muti ukora neza, ufite n’ingaruka nkeya ku mubiri w’umuntu.

Kuva washyirwa mu rushinge rero turifuza natwe gutangira kuwukoresha, turi muri iryo tsinda ry’abashakashatsi.

IGIHE: Ni he hakiri imbogamizi mu kurwanya Sida?

Dr Nsanzimana: Hari ikibazo cyo kureka imiti ku rubyiruko, ingimbi n’abangavu. Ni cyo cyiciro nanone kiduhangayikishije. Muri make hari urubyiruko, hari abagabo na bo ntabwo bigenda neza ntabwo baza kwipimisha, imiti nabo hari ukuntu bayireka, barapfa cyane ugereranyije n’abategarugori.

Ikindi ni Intara y’Iburasirazuba kuko mu gihe ku gihugu cyose twabonye ko tugeze kuri 76% ku bafite virusi itera Sida bagabanyije virusi mu maraso, ariko mu Ntara y’Iburasirazuba turi kuri 66%, nibo batuma n’uwo mubare ugabanuka.

Bivuga ngo hagomba kuba hari ikibazo, abafata imiti cyangwa abashobora kuba bayifata nabi, turateganya kuzafata umwanya uhagije tukajya kumenya ikintu kihabera, gituma imibare y’Iburasirazuba itandukana n’iy’igihugu cyose.

Umujyi wa Kigali nawo uracyafite ikibazo, turabizi ubuzima babamo, n’abakora uburaya ni benshi cyane, bifite ukuntu nabyo bisobanura umubare w’abafite virusi iteraSida ikiyongera. Ariko naho bitangiye kuba byiza kurushaho, twavuye kuri 6% ku bafite iyo virusi ubu tugeze kuri 4% mu gihe cy’imyaka ine gusa, urabona ko Kigali hari ibintu birimo kuba bitanga umusaruro, ariko no mu zindi Ntara hari impinduka ziri kubayo.

IGIHE:Nta mpungenge mufite ku bwiyongere bwa VIH kubera ubusambanyi mu rubyiruko?

Dr Nsanzimana: Ntekereza ko nka bya bindi byo kurwanya Sida n’ibyapa ku mihanda, umusaruro dukoresha mu gushishikariza urubyiruko kudatwara inda zitateganyijwe ushobora kuba ari muke ugereranyije n’uburyo tubikoramo, ku buryo dukwiye gushaka udushya mu guhangana n’icyo kibazo.

Ku buryo dushobora kuba turimo gukora ibintu bihoraho, twigishe ababyeyi, tubaganirize, tubyandike, arikougasanga birimo gukemura ikibazo nka 20%. Ya 80% niyo ituma ikibazo kigihari, abana baratwita, imiti [igabanya ubukana] barayireka, burya ikibazo iyo gihari ukibonera mu mibare igaragara.

Ni urugamba tugomba gushyiramo ingufu nyinshi, ariko tukicara tukareba ngo n ibiki tugiye gukora, biraduha uwuhe musaruro. Dukeneye ubushakashatsi, tukareba ababanyeshuri bari mu mashuri yisumbuye, mu mashuri abanza, mu bigo by’urubyiruko, ese bose turabasha serivisi zimwe, turagenda dushnge mikoro tuvuge gutya?

Ushobora gusanga hari urubyiruko rukeneye kubwirwa hakoreshejwe smartphone kuko ari zo bakurikira, ugasanga hari abo uzabibwira ubicishije ku bandi bantu, hari n’abadashaka kubyumva bakeneye ko ubereka aho bazajya utiriwe ubabwira ibintu byunshi. Aho rero nicyo gisaba ko inzego zikorana.

Dr Nsanzimana Sabin uyobora RBC yagaragaje ko bikigoye ko haboneka umuti cyangwa urukingo rwa Sida

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza