Inzira y’umusaraba abanyarwanda banyuzemo muri Uganda, ubwo bameneshwaga u Rwanda rukanga kubakira

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 10 Nzeri 2020 saa 09:09
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U Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu byashegeshwe cyane n’inama yabereye i Berlin mu 1885 aho hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’ubuso bwarwo cyometswe ku bindi bihugu bituranye, bikajyana n’umubare munini w’abanyarwanda bari bahatuye.

Igice kinini cyo mu Majyaruguru cyometswe kuri Uganda, kuva ubwo haba habonetse ubwoko bw’abanyarwanda mu moko yari agize icyo gihugu. Mu mwaka wa 1959 mu Rwanda habaye imvururu zibasiye Abatutsi bazizwa ubwoko bwabo, bituma bamwe mu banyarwanda bafata iy’ubuhungiro berekeza muri Uganda n’ahandi.

Ubwo Uganda yabonaga ubwigenge mu 1962, icyo gihugu cyari kirimo abanyarwanda benshi barimo abenegihugu gakondo bisanze muri Uganda kubw’imipaka n’abanyarwanda b’impunzi bari bamaze iminsi bahunga ubugizi bwa nabi mu Rwanda.

Abanyarwanda babaye nk’abahungiye ubwayi mu kigunda kuko muri Uganda basanzeyo ubuyobozi butabiyumvamo. Uganda ikibona ubwigenge yayobowe na Milton Obote nka Minisitiri w’Intebe kugeza mu 1966 ubwo yabaga Perezida wuzuye.

Ku butegetsi bwa Obote abanyarwanda bafashwe nabi ndetse batangira guterwa ubwoba ko bazasubizwa iwabo hatitawe ku bahageze kubw’imipaka cyangwa abaje ari impunzi.

Raporo yiswe Refugees in Uganda and Rwanda: The Banyarwandan tragedy yakozwe n’uwitwa Roger P. Winter muri Mata 1983, ivuga ko mu 1969 hatangijwe igikorwa cyo kubarura abanyarwanda bose batuye muri Uganda, hagamijwe kubirukana mu gihugu.

Byaje gusa n’ibihosheje ubwo Obote yahirikwaga na Idi Amin mu 1972, umugambi wo kwirukana abanyarwanda uburizwamo. Byashimishije benshi mu banyarwanda muri Uganda ndetse bamwe batangira gukorana na Guverinoma ye. Icyo gihe batangiye kubona imirimo muri Uganda, abana b’impunzi z’abanyarwanda batangira kubona amashuri.

Tariki 30 Mutarama uyu mwaka ubwo, ubwo Umujyanama wa Perezida mu by’umutekano, Gen James Kabarebe yari mu Kigo cy’Urubyiruko cya Kimisagara, aganiriza urubyiruko ruhagarariye urundi mu Ntara y’i Burasirazuba n’Umujyi wa Kigali, yagize ati “Guhera mu 1959 kugeza mu 1972, umuyobozi witwaga Milton Obote yangaga abanyarwanda akabahoza ku nkeke, uwo muyobozi yaje gukurwaho n’undi musirikare witwaga Idi Amin wayoboye Uganda kuva mu 1972-79, icyo gihe abanyarwanda nibwo bagize agahenge kubera ko Amin ntiyakomeje kubatoteza, ni nabwo bamwe bagize amahirwe yo kujya mu gisirikare cy’icyo gihugu.”

Obote yaragarutse, abanyarwanda basubizwa ku nkeke

Mu 1979, Idi Amin yahiritswe ku butegetsi n’ingabo zari ziturutse muri Tanzania, mu 1980 haba amatora yavuzwemo uburiganya, Milton Obote yongera gusubira ku butegetsi n’ishyaka rye Uganda People’s Congress (UPC).

Amaze gufata ubutegetsi, urwango ku banyarwanda rwariyongereye ndetse ku mugaragaro noneho. Bamwe batangiye kuvuga ko ubwicanyi bwakozwe ku ngoma ya Idi Amin bwakorwaga n’abanyarwanda, abandi bavuga ko ubugizi bwa nabi bwabaye mu matora yo mu 1980 bwakozwe n’abanyarwanda. Banavugaga ko abanyarwanda bakomeje kubangamira abagande babibira imitungo n’ibindi.

Abanyarwanda kandi bashinjwaga kuba intasi za Idi Amin wari umaze iminsi ahiritswe, ndetse ko badashyigikiye ubutegetsi bwa Obote bakanafatanya n’imitwe ishaka kumuhirika irimo National Resistance Army ya Yoweri Museveni.

Bamwe mu badipolomate b’abanyamahanga bavuze ko nubwo ibyo birego byaba bifite ishingiro, bidakwiriye kwitirirwa abakomoka ku Banyarwanda bose. Bavugaga ko ari urwitwazo rwa Leta ya Uganda n’abaturage bayo byo kwikubira imitungo y’abanyarwanda no kubikiza kuko batabashaka.

Zeno Mutimura ni umwe mu banyarwanda binjiye mbere muri RANU (Rwandese Alliance for National Unity) yari ihuriro rigamije kunga ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, ryaje kubyara FPR –Inkotanyi.

Yabwiye IGIHE ko buri gihe iyo ubutegetsi budashoboye bwugarijwe, butabura icyo bwitwaza.

Ati “Buri gihe iyo abantu bagize ibibazo bashakisha urwitwazo, abategetsi ba Uganda ntabwo bashakaga Abanyarwanda. Bari bafite intambara ibugarije bagashakisha abandi babyegekaho.”

Muri Gashyantare 1982, abaturage bavuga Ikinyarwanda mu majyepfo ya Uganda ku bice byegeranye n’u Rwanda nka Ankole, Kigezi na Toro batangiye gutwikirwa, barakubitwa abandi baricwa bituma ibihumbi n’ibihumbi bava mu byabo.

Tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1982 nibwo bibasiwe bidasanzwe, haba abari impunzi ndetse n’abari baratuye inzu zabo ziratwikwa, bamwe barakubitwa abandi baricwa.

Roger Winter avuga ko ari ibikorwa byakuye benshi mu byabo bigahagarika imitima y’ibihugu byinshi mpuzamahanga.

Impunzi z'abanyarwanda zafashwe nabi kenshi n'ubuyobozi bwa Uganda, by'umwihariko ku ngoma ya Milton Obote

Ubwo bugizi bwa nabi bwakorwaga n’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze, urubyiruko rwo mu ishyaka UPC n’abagize umutwe udasanzwe muri polisi bazindukiraga ku nzu z’abanyarwanda, bagasenya naho izari zubakishije amabati bakayatwara.

Tariki 2 Ukwakira 1982, abanyarwanda bari batangiye gufata iy’ubuhungiro bamwe bajya mu nkambi mu gace katagira nyirako hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda, abandi bambuka bagaruka mu Rwanda. Abahungaga, ababirukanaga ntabwo babemereraga kugira icyo bahungana ndetse ngo abaturage b’abagande babujijwe kugira umunyarwanda baha amazi cyangwa uwo bafungurira, nkuko raporo ya Winter ibisobanura.

Abenshi mu bazaga mu Rwanda bashyirwaga mu nkambi za Mahega na Kibondo. Mu Rwanda bivugwa ko hahungiye impunzi zisaga ibihumbi 40, mu gihe muri Uganda mu nkambi hari hagiyeyo abasaga ibihumbi 69.

Nubwo hari abari bagarutse mu Rwanda, ntabwo bakiriwe neza kuko u Rwanda rwavugaga ko ntaho kubatuza hahari, kandi rukabafata nk’abanyamahanga.

Ubusanzwe umuturage utahutse mu gihugu cye asubizwa mu buzima busanzwe akajya mu mitungo ye, abari bavuye muri Uganda nubwo babaga bibuka aho bakomoka, Leta y’u Rwanda yabangiye gusubirayo, ibajyana mu nkambi aho bahuye n’ubuzima bubi.

Impunzi zakomeje kwambuka ku bwinshi, bigeze mu Ugushyingo 1982 Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ifunga umupaka ngo hatagira abakomeza kwinjira. Inyuma niko abagande babaga babashushubikana ngo babavire ku butaka ku buryo benshi bagumye ku butaka butagira nyirabwo hagati y’ibihugu byombi.

Mu Ukuboza 2016 mu buhamya yahaye Urubyiruko rw’Inkomezamihigo, rwari mu Itorero Urunana rw’Urungano, Gen Kabarebe yavuze ko ari umwe mu mpunzi zabashije kwambuka zikaza mu nkambi ya Kibondo mu Rwanda.

Yavuze ko bari babayeho nabi kuko babanje kuba mu nzu z’ibyatsi rimwe na rimwe zikabahiraho abantu bagahiramo, inzara irabica ku buryo ngo bahambaga nibura abantu 30 buri munsi.

Ati “Icyo gihe rero mu 1982, twebwe Abanyarwanda twabaga muri Uganda twaravuye mu nkambi tukajya gushaka inka, amasambu n’ibindi, baratwirukanye, na ko si no kutwirukana, ni nko kutwica, kubera ko haje abasirikare n’abandi barwanyi bafite imbunda, baradushorera, baratwirukana, badukura muri icyo gihugu bati ‘nimusubire mu gihugu cyanyu cy’u Rwanda.”

Nubwo bari bameneshejwe, ngo bagarutse bishimye kuko bumvaga batashye iwabo, bakibwira ko baza kwakirwa neza, ariko bageze mu Rwanda barashwishurizwa, ngo “Ntabwo bishoboka, ntabwo tubakira kubera ko igihugu cyacu cyaruzuye, ntaho twabashyira n’ibyo bika (inka) byanyu byinshi”.

Muri iyo nkambi babanje kwicwa n’inzara, nyuma aho Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku mpunzi (UNHCR) rimenyeye ko bahari, ribazanira ‘iposho’ n’amavuta y’Ubuto.

Mutimura Zeno yavuze ko Leta y’u Rwanda nayo hari impunzi yazaga kuvana mu nkambi, zikajya kwicwa kuko batazishakaga.

Abanyarwanda bagumye mu nkambi muri Uganda nabo ubuzima bwabaye bubi, nta biribwa, batotezwa ndetse bana ababo ntibongera kwemererewa kujya mu mashuri.

Mu nkambi, inzego z’umutekano za Uganda zabaga zicungira hafi ndetse abayoboke b’ishyaka UPC niyo babaga bari mu buyobozi bw’inkambi. Winter yanditse ko abanyamahanga batapfaga kwemererwa kwinjira mu nkambi.

Amahanga yatangiye gusakuza, avuga ko ibiri gukorwa na Leta ya Uganda ndetse n’iy’u Rwanda atari byo.

Ubutegetsi muri Uganda bwasohoye amatangazo buvuga ko nta ruhare rufite mu guhunga kw’abanyarwanda, ko habayeho amakimbirane hagati y’impunzi z’abanyarwanda n’abaturage gakondo muri Uganda, ndetse ko ibintu bidakomeye nkuko bivugwa mu binyamakuru.

Guverinoma ya Habyarimana n’iya Obote zasabwe guhura ngo zifate umwanzuro kuri icyo kibazo, ariko izo nama nta musaruro zatanze ugaragara. Ahubwo Uganda yafashe tumwe mu duce twari dutuwe n’abanyarwanda iduhindura pariki, andi masambu ahabwa abayajyamo.

Muri Werurwe 1983 abayobozi mu Rwanda na Uganda bongeye guhura ngo bashake igisubizo, bemeranya ko u Rwanda rutuza impunzi rufite na Uganda igashaka uko itanga ubutaka bwo kwaguriraho inkambi zari zicucitse ariko byose ntacyo byatanze.

Hari ikiganiro Obote yigeze kubazwamo ikibazo cy’abanyarwanda birukanwa, avuga ko hari bamwe mu bayobozi babo bakorana n’umwanzi kandi ko harimo abari barigaruriye inzu n’imitungo by’abaturage bahunze ubutegetsi bubi bwa Amin, bityo bagomba kuyivamo.

Abanyarwanda biyemeje kurwanya Obote ku mugaragaro

Kubuzwa amajyo kw’abanyarwanda, kwatumye benshi bayoboka inyeshyamba za Museveni, ngo barebe ko baharanira uburenganzira bwabo.

Major (rtd) David Rwabinumi aherutse kubwira IGIHE ko icyatumye bafata imbunda, bashakaga guharanira ko bagira aho bakomoka kuko basaga n’abatereranwe.

Ati “Urumva ko icyo gihe umuntu yagombaga kugira ishyaka ryo kugira aho abarizwa, akagira gakondo, akamenya ko igihugu cyamubyaye yemerewe kukibamo. Niyo mpamvu nyamukuru yatumye abantu bahaguruka bagafata intwaro, si uko bari biyanze cyangwa ibyihebe, cyangwa bashaka urupfu ahubwo icyo twashakaga kwari ukugira ngo tugire aho dukomoka, tube abanyarwanda nk’abandi.

Mu bindi byatumye abanyarwanda benshi binjira mu ngabo za Museveni, Gen Kabarebe yigeze kuvuga ko ari uko amashyamba yo mu Majyepfo ya Uganda Museveni yatangiriyemo imirwano hari hatuye abanyarwanda benshi bafatwaga nabi.

Mu 1986, ingabo za Museveni zafashe ubutegetsi zirukana Obote ariko abanyarwanda bakomeza gutotezwa, bibutswa ko ari abanyamahanga.

Gen Kabarebe ati “Ubwo bari bakiri mu ishyamba barwana ikibazo cy’impunzi cyangwa kuba harimo abanyarwanda ntibyavugwaga, kubera ko burya mu ishyamba usanga abantu basangiye urupfu kandi bakundanye. Byaje kuba bibi ubwo abasirikare bari bageze muri leta, ibibazo by’umunyarwanda bitangira kuvuka, ya leta bafashije kujyaho itangira kubatoteza, kubacunaguza no kubabwira icyo bakora muri Uganda, bakababwira ko baje kurya imishahara yabo, ko bafite amapeti n’ibindi.”

Ibi byakomeje kubagiraho ingaruka batangira kwibaza kuri bwa burenganzira bibazaga ko barwaniye, basanga ntaho babubona uretse gutekereza kurwanira igihugu cyabo.

Mu 1987 nibwo umuryango wa FPR-Inkotanyi washinzwe n’abarimo General Major Gisa Fred Rwigema, Perezida Paul Kagame, Tito Rutaremara n’abandi, intego ari uko bava mu bucakara bari barimo, ariko bakabikora mu bwihisho kuko bari mu gihugu cy’abandi.

Tariki 1 Ukwakira 1990, ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi zatangije urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, rwasojwe muri Nyakanga 1994 ubwo zahagarikaga Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.


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