Sobanukirwa imiterere y’Ururimi rw’Amarenga Nyarwanda

Yanditswe na Rangira G. Aimé Frederic
Kuya 1 Nzeri 2020 saa 03:48
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Iyo ubonye umuntu ufite ubumuga bwo kutumva cyangwa kutavuga, ushobora kwibaza uti “ese ni gute ashobora kuvuga (kugaragaza) ikimuri ku mutima cyangwa icyo akeneye?”

Nta gushidikanya ko ushobora kuba warabonye bumwe mu buryo bakoresha iyo baganira harimo gukoresha amaboko, ibiganza, ibimenyetso by’umubiri cyangwa byo mu maso. Yeee urwo ni rwo rurimi rw’amarenga.

Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumye wita ku Buzima, OMS, rigaragaza ko ku Isi habarurwa abantu bafite ubumuga bwo kutumva cyangwa no kutavuga barenga miliyoni 466, bashobora kwiyongera bakagera kuri miliyoni 900 mu 2050, aba bakaba bakoresha indimi z’amarenga zisaga 135, muri zo harimo Ururimi rw’Amarenga yo muri Amerika, u Bwongereza, u Bushinwa, u Bufaransa ndetse no mu Rwanda.

Imiterere y’ururimi rw’amarenga

Ururimi rw’amarenga ni ururimi nk’izindi zose, aho bitandukaniye ni uko uru rwo rudashyirwa mu nyandiko nk’uko bimenyerewe ku zindi ndimi. Ibi bituma abantu benshi bibaza niba ari ururimi koko.

Si ibyo gusa, kuko abantu benshi bakunze kwitiranya uru rurimi n’ibimenyetso tumenyereye gukoresha mu mwanya w’amagambo nko gupepera, gutunga umuntu urutoki cyangwa kuzunguza umutwe n’ibindi.

Hari ubwo ushobora na none kwibwira ko Ururimi rw’Amarenga ruba rushamikiye ku zindi ndimi nk’Igifaransa, Icyongereza, cyangwa Ikinyarwanda; aho hashakirwa ibimenyetso buri jambo ry’urwo rurimi.

Ibyo rwose ni ukwibeshya, kubera ko ushobora kubona umuntu utazi ijambo na rimwe muri izo ndimi zivugwa zikanandikwa nk’Ikinyarwanda, Icyongereza n’izindi, ariko akaba akoresha neza ururimi rw’amarenga.

Ushobora kuba uhise wibaza uti “niba ari amarenga kuki adakorwa kimwe ku isi hose”? Buri gihugu usanga gifite umwihariko bitewe n’umuco wacyo. Ubwo rero, hari amagambo cyangwa ibikoresho bikoreshwa nk’umwihariko w’igihugu runaka.

Urugero, Umufaransa byamugora cyane kumenya nk’inanga, igisabo, amasunzu cyangwa imbehe.

Ibyo rero bishimangira impamvu muri buri gihugu usanga bafite ururimi rw’amarenga rwihariye. Mu Rwanda dufite Ururimi rw’Amarenga Nyarwanda, mu Bufaransa bakagira Langue de Signes Français (LSF), muri Amerika bakagira American Sign Language (ASL) n’ahandi bikaba uko.

Ururimi rw’amarenga rugira ikibonezamvugo n’inyunguramagambo

Nk’uko izindi ndimi tumenyereye yaba Ikinyarwanda, Igifaransa, Icyongereza, cyangwa izindi zikoreshwa hirya no hino ku isi, ziba zifite amategeko aziranga. Ururimi rw’Amarenga narwo rugira amategeko aruranga, kandi ayo mategeko akurikizwa ku kadomo kugira ngo ubutumwa butanzwe bubashe kumvikana neza.

N’ubwo mu Rwanda nta bushakashatsi bwimbitse burakorwa bugaragaza amategeko agenda Ururimi rw’Amarenga, hirya no hino ku isi cyane cyane mu bihugu byateye imbere, ubwo bushakashatsi bwarakozwe kandi bwagiye bugaragaza ko Ururimi rw’Amarenga rugira ikibonezamvugo ndetse n’inyunguramagambo. Uru rurimi rwubakiye cyane cyane ku byo tubonesha amaso, imico n’imigenzo y’abenegihugu n’isano iri hagati y’ikintu n’ikindi.

Mbere na mbere uru rurimi rukoresha inyuguti (Alphabet) kuva kuri A kugera kuri Z. Ese umuntu uzi izo nyuguti aba azi ururimi rw’amarenga? Oya rwose. Inyuguti ni akantu gato cyane mu bigize uru rurimi.

Ururimi rw’amarenga rugizwe n’ibintu byinshi, ntirukoresha gusa amaboko n’ibiganza, ahubwo runakoresha isura (amaso, ibitsike, umunwa, ururimi, amatama), n’ibindi bimenyetso by’umubiri ndetse n’ibyerekezo bikikije umuntu (imbere ye, iburyo, ibumoso, hejuru, hasi).

Gukoresha urusobe rw’ibyo bimenyetso bitandukanye bigenda byubaka amagambo ashyirwa mu nteruro hakurikijwe amategeko y’ikibonezamvugo.

Iyo habayeho kwibeshya muri uko gukoresha ibice by’umubiri hubakwa amagambo n’interuro, wenda ikiganza ukacyerekeza mu cyerekezo kitari cyo cyangwa ikimenyetso cyo mu maso cyagaherekeje ijambo runaka, usanga rwose ubutumwa washakaga gutanga butumvikanye cyangwa bugateza urujijo uri kubwirwa. Aha niho usobanukirwa ko Ururimi rw’Amarenga rufite amategeko agenga ikibonezamvugo n’inyunguramagambo.

Ururimi rw’amarenga mu burezi bw’umwana ufite ubumuga bwo kutumva no kutavuga

Aha bikwiye gusobanuka neza. Ururimi rw’Amarenga nirwo rurimi kavukire ku mwana ufite ubumuga bwo kutumva cyangwa kutavuga, ntabwo ari Ikinyarwanda. Ushobora kwibaza uti gute se kandi uwo mwana ari Umunyarwanda?

Ni ko bimeze rwose. Ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko umwana atangira kwiga ururimi kuva akiri mu nda y’umubyeyi, akavuka yumva abantu bamukikije baruvuga, yakura nawe akajya abigana, na we akajya aruvuga neza.

Bite se ku mwana ufite ubumuga bwo kutumva cyangwa kutavuga? Abana benshi bafite ubu bumuga bavuka batarumva na rimwe indimi zikoreshwa mu miryango babamo, bakarinda bageza ku myaka yo gutangira ishuri nta rurimi na rumwe bazi, batazi amazina yabo, ibikoresho byo mu rugo uko byitwa, batazi n’amagambo y’ibanze nka “papa”, “mama” n’andi.

Ibi binyibukije umwana twahuye mu 2016 ubwo yari afite imyaka 7. Ubwo twahuraga twasanze nta rurimi na rumwe azi, uretse ibimenyetso yakoreshaga mu rugo hamwe n’ababyeyi be. Nyuma yo kujyanwa mu ishuri aho yashoboraga kwiga amarenga, yabashije kumenya ibintu bishya byinshi cyane ndetse ubu iyo ahuye n’abandi bana bafite ubumuga nk’ubwo afite, baganira neza mu rurimi rw’amarenga.

Iyo umwana abashije kumenya ururimi rw’amarenga akiri muto, usanga bimworohera cyane kumenya izindi ndimi. Bityo rero Ururimi rw’Amarenga rukwiye guhabwa umwanya mu burezi bw’umwana ufite ubumuga bwo kutumva no kutavuga, kugirango ahabwe umusingi ufatika azaheraho yiga ibindi bintu bitandukanye.

Mu yindi nkuru tuzaganira ku Busemuzi bw’Ururimi rw’Amarenga, kurushyira mu ndimi zemewe n’amategeko mu Rwanda ndetse no ku bijyanye no kubona ubutabera bukwiye n’umurimo.


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