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Kuki nta mwami w’u Rwanda wishakiraga umugore?

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 3 September 2022 saa 05:24
Yasuwe :

Urushako ruba rwinshi! Ariko urw’abami batwaye u Rwanda rwo rukabamo akarusho! Akarusho nta kandi ni uko habagamo ibintu byinshi by’amayobera, ku buryo utabashije kumva intekerezo zari zirurimo wagira ngo abo bami bari inganzwa kugeza n’aho batagira ubushobozi bwo kwihitiramo uwo bazarushingana.

Nk’uko tukikura mu mateka y’u Rwanda, ibwami habaga abagore bo mu byiciro bitatu barimo umugore w’ingabwa, abagore b’umwami n’abagore b’imihango.

Nubwo barimo inzego zitandukanye ariko si ko buri mwami yagiraga izo nzego zose. Izo benshi bagiye bahuriraho ni ebyiri zibanza, abandi bazigiraga zombi uko ari eshatu bigendeye ku ntera igihugu cyabaga kigezeho mu iyaguka ryacyo. Igitangaje, ni uko muri abo bagore bose nta n’umwe umwami yabaga afite uburenganzira bwo kumuhitamo ijana ku ijana.

Umugore w’ingabwa ni we wabaga ashinzwe kuzabyarira igihugu umwana w’umuhungu uzazungura se ku ngoma, uyu kugira ngo aboneke, hifashishwaga indagu ku kigero cy’ijana ku ijana.

Abagore b’umwami bandi, ni bo bari bashinzwe guhishira umugore w’ingabwa uzavamo umugabekazi ngo atamenyekana hakiri kare.

Izindi nshingano zabo, zari izo kurumbura imiyango y’ibwami, bityo ikarushaho kugwiza abo mu nda y’ingoma, bazayirinda, bakayinywera igihango, bakiyemeza kuyigwira no kuyivira.

Abagore b’ibwami bungirizaga uw’ingabwa, umwami yagiraga uruhare rwo kubashaka ku kigero cya makumyabiri ku ijana.

Naho abagore b’imihango bo kenshi na kenshi babaga bashinzwe gucunga, gukenura no gukurikirana imitungo y’ibwami iri mu ngoro ze zubatswe aha n’aha.

Kenshi na kenshi wasangaga umwami aba atabitayeho ndetse hari n’abatarigeze babyarana na we. Aba bo umwami yagiraga uruhare rwo kubashaka ku kigero cya mirongo itanu ku ijana.

Mu ntango y’ihangwa ry’u Rwanda, cyane cyane mu kubaka inkingi za mwamba u Rwanda rwagombaga kuzubakirwaho mu myaka ibihumbi n’ibihumbi, Gihanga waruhanze atakiriho, hashyizwe imbaraga mu kubaka inkingi z’imiyoborere ngenderwaho n’amahame y’ihererekanyabutegetsi.

Mbere na mbere Gihanga yaremye igihugu kigengwa n’umwami, kandi umwami ukigenga akazajya akomoka mu muryango mugari w’Abanyiginya.

Yaciye iteka ry’uko umwami agomba kujya atwarana igihugu na nyina, umwe akaba umugabe undi akaba umugabekazi.

Muri uko kugena imisimburanire y’abami ku ngoma no kugena inkomoko yabo yo mu Banyiginya, ni na bwo hatekerejwe imiryango yihariye yajya ivamo abagabekazi nk’uko n’umwami yagize umwihariko-nkomoko we.

Mbere y’uko umugabekazi amenyekana, ni we wahabwaga izina ry’umugore w’ingabwa nk’izina ry’ubwiru.

Umugore w’ingabwa yatoranywaga ate?

Mbere na mbere, Abiru-Bimitsi bo mu nzu y’Abatege bo kwa Nyabutege mu Basinga b’Abasangwabutaka, bari kumwe n’Umwiru wa Nyamweru wakomokaga mu muryango mugari w’Abakono bose barangajwe imbere n’Umwiru Mukuru, ni bo bafataga iya mbere bakajya kuraguriza umugore w’ingabwa uzashyingirwa umwami akazakibyarira umuzungura.

Uwo mugore yatoranywaga mu ibanga rikomeye, ku buryo byamenywaga n’Abiru gusa. Uwo mugore w’ingabwa, ni we wabyariraga igihugu umwami akanakibera umugabekazi.

Muri ibyo bihe ni bwo hagenwe imiryango ine yagombaga kujya ivamo abakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza n’ubwenge, bazabyarira u Rwanda umwami. Iyo miryango ni yo yahawe izina ry’Ibibanda (Ababyarabami) ari yo Abasinga, Abega, Abaha n’Abakono.

Iyo igihe cyageraga cy’uko umwami uzazungura se ku ngoma agejeje igihe cyo gushaka, Umwiru wa Nyamweru (Yitwaga gutyo kuko yari afite umurwa we ku musozi wa Nyamweru wo mu Kagali ka Nyamweru ko mu Murenge wa Kanyinya wo mu Karere ka Nyarugenge), yahitaga agaragaza umuryango utahiwe gutanga Umugabekazi, noneho akaba ari wo bajya gutereza inzuzi ngo barebe niba habonekamo umwari waba umugore w’ingabwa.

Iyo miryango ni yo yazengurukwagamo n’Abiru bashakamo abakobwa bazaba Ababyarabami b’u Rwanda.

Mu bakobwa batoranyaga muri iyo miryango ni bo batorwagamo umukobwa uhiga abandi mu bwiza n’ubwema, ubushongore n’ubukaka, ari na we wahawe izina ry’umugore w’ingabwa bishaka kuvuga umugore uzashyigikira u Rwanda, akarubyarira umwami, akazaba umugabekazi uzafatanya n’umuhungu we kugenga igihugu.

Iyo bamaraga kubona inzu yerejwe n’indagu kuzavamo umugore w’ingabwa, bagasanga bafite abakobwa benshi, na bwo bakoreshaga uburyo bwo kuragura kugira ngo bamenye uzaba umugore w’ibwami.

Uwo zabaga zereye, ni we bajyanaga ibwami, bakamushyingira umuhungu uzazungura se ku ngoma, bakamushyikiriza umugore bati “Akira umugore w’ingabwa, ni we uzagabira igihugu ubuzima, uwo azibaruka azakibera umugabe, na we akibere umugabekazi”.

Muri make umugore w’ingabwa, yashakwaga n’indagu zashojwe n’Abiru, nta mwami wagiraga uruhare mu kumushaka.

Abandi bagore b’umwami bo batorwaga gute?

Inzira zanyurwagamo hatorwanywa umugore w’ingabwa w’ibwami, usanga zijya gusa neza n’izanyurwagamo bashaka abandi bagore b’iwami batari ingabwa.

Itandukaniro ryabo ni rimwe, ni uko uw’ingabwa yatorwanywaga n’indagu, naho abandi bagore bo bagatoranywaga hifashishijwe ibigwi by’imiryango bakomokamo, uburanga n’ubuziramuze bagaragaje ku buryo bashyingirwa umwami koko.

Ahasaga mu wa 1213, ku ngoma y’Umwami Ndoba yashyizeho ikindi cyiciro cy’abakobwa bahiga abandi mu bwiza, ari bo bitwaga “Imirerwa”, ari na bo bashoboraga kuvamo abagore b’ibwami.

Mu gihe umwami w’u Rwanda yahabwaga umugore w’Ingabwa uzabyarira u Rwanda umwami, yashoboraga no gushakiraho n’abandi bagore mu rwego rwo kugira ubwiru uzaba umugabekazi.

Iyo umugore w’ingabwa yamaraga kuboneka, abandi bagore b’ibwami bamwungirizaga, batoranywaga mu gihugu n’Abiru cyangwa se Abatware batwaraga imisozi bakamenyeshwa ko umwami ashaka abagore, bityo buri mutware wese akaba asabwa kuzana ibwami umukobwa wese uzwiho guhiga abandi mu bwiza, umwami akazahitamo abo ashaka akabagira abagore.

Abo bakobwa batoranywaga hirya no hino mu gihugu, ni bo bahabwaga izina ry’Imirerwa bisobanuye abakobwa barezwe neza, bagahiga abandi mu bwiza no mu bwenge.

Itandukaniro ry’Imirerwa n’Ibibanda, ni iry’uko yatoranywaga mu Banyarwandakazi bose hatitawe mu miryango bakomokamo.

Imirerwa iyo yageraga ibwami, yatoranywagamo abagore b’umwami bane, batanu cyangwa barenga, abasigaye badatoranyijwe, ni bo bitwaga “Ibyendajuru”.

Ibyendajuru ni byo byavagamo abaja b’abagore b’ibwami, bakanashingwa imirimo yose yo mu rugo cyane cyane ijyanye n’ibiribwa n’ibinyobwa n’andi mabanga y’ibugabekazi.

Ibyendajuru mu mateka y’u Rwanda byashyingirwaga ibikomangoma ( abandi bana b’umwami batagize amahirwe yo kuragwa ingoma) hakaba n’aho umwami yagiraga uwo yishimira mu bagaragu be cyangwa se abatware be, akamushyingira umwe muri abo.

Abasigaye ntibashakaga abagabo mu minsi yo kubaho kwabo. Hari n’imiryango ikomeye mu Rwanda yacaga mu gikari ikajya ibwami gusaba abakobwa babo ngo bajye kubashyingira ahandi mu gihe batatoranyijwe nk’abagore b’umwami.

Mu Rwanda nta rwego rw’umwamikazi rwabagaho. Inzego z’abagore zose zari zigize urushako rw’umwami, zabaga zibumbye icyiswe “Abagore b’umwami”.

Nta wasumbaga undi, nta mwamikazi wabagaho, cyane cyane abo mu rwego rwa mbere n’urwa kabiri ahubwo habonekaga umugabekazi muri ba bagore, iyo umwami yatangaga kugira ngo umuzungura we yimane na nyina.

Abagore b’imihango

Mu nzego z’abagore b’ibwami, habagaho n’abagore b’imihango babaga n’ubundi mu ngo z’imihango, bakabonana n’umwami azanywe no guterekera umukurambere wubakiwe urwo rugo, cyangwa aje kugenzura uko abaturage bo muri ako karere bayoboka.

Ikindi kandi ni uko abo bagore b’imihango bari bashinzwe no gucunga imitungo y’ibwami iri mu karere urwo rugo ruherereyemo. Birumvikana ko habaga hari abagaragu n’abaja b’ibwami nk’ab’ahandi hose habaga ingoro y’umwami.

Abagore b’imihango batoranywaga mu Byendajuru, ari bo bakobwa basagutse mu Mirerwa. Usibye ko habaga n’ubwo ibwami hadutse n’undi utari muri abo agashyirwa mu bagore b’imihango. Umubare w’abagore b’imihango wagenwaga hakurikijwe umubare w’ingoro umwami afite mu gihugu.

Icyakora hari n’ubwo umwami yagiraga uwo akumbura akamutumaho, undi akamusanga, atamukumbura akagumaho kugeza ubwo iwabo bamusabye ibwami.

Yakwemera kumubasubiza bakamushyingira ahandi, aho yari umwami akaharongorera undi nk’uwo kuko nubwo izo ngo atazigeragamo kenshi, ari ko na none ntabwo hagombaga kubura umuntu wo kuhakenura no gucunga imitungo ihari. Ni yo mpamvu kenshi na kenshi abo bagore babitaga ‘abagore b’imihango’.

Gicanda Rosarie ni umwe mu bagore b'ibwami batoranyijwe mu nzira y'Imirerwa ubwo yashyingirwaga Mutara Rudahigwa

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