Amateka y’ibyorezo by’inzara, indwara z’abantu n’amatungo byayogoje u Rwanda kugeza mu 1946

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 31 Werurwe 2020 saa 11:54
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Mbere y’imyaka 74 ishize(1946-2020) ishize, u Rwanda rwabaye mu byorezo by’inzara, indwara z’abantu n’amatungo, byoretse imbaga y’abatagira ingano, bishegesha igihugu ku buryo ubuyobozi bwariho icyo gihe bwagiye bufata ingamba zikomeye.

Igitabo “Imizi y’u Rwanda” cyanditswe n’umusizi Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, kigaragaza ko ubwo hari hashize imyaka mike umwami Mibambwe Sentabyo yimye ingoma, ni ukuvuga ahasaga mu wa 1746, mu Gisaka hateye ubushita burimbura abatagira ingano.

Icyo ihe mu Rwanda hari intambara itoroshye hagati ya Mibambwe Sentabyo na Gatarabuhura washakaga ingoma ku mbaraga. Sentabyo yahashyije Gatarabuhura ahungira mu Gisaka. Mu gihe biteguraga gutera mu Gisaka hateye indwara y’ubushita bituma Abanyarwanda batinya gutera yo ngo batazana icyo cyorezo ndetse n’ umwami ubwe aca iteka ko nta muntu ugomba kwambuka Nyabarongo agana iburasirazuba bw’u Rwanda kugira ngo atagira aho ahurira n’iyo ndwara.

Umwami na we yarimutse aza gutura muri Taba ya Gitarama ahitwa i Remera ndetse n’amato yose yambutsaga abantu muri Nyabarongo abuzwa kongera kwambutsa abantu mu rwego rwo gushyira mu kato igice cy’uburasirazuba.

Kimenyi Getura umwami wategekaga i Gisaka icyo gihe ; na we yatinyaga u Rwanda kandi ahora azi neza ko isaha ku isaha igihugu cye cyaterwa n’abanyarwanda bakacyigarurira. Ibyo byatumye yigira inama yo gushyigikira Gatarabuhura akanamutiza amaboko bagafata ubutegetsi mu Rwanda bityo na we igihugu cye kikagira amahoro.

Yashyizeho Inkoto( Bariyeri) hirya no hino mu gihugu cyane cyane ku mbibi zihuza u Rwanda n’i Gisaka.

Uyu mwami Kimenyi Getura yaje guhimba amayeri yo kohereza umuntu mu Rwanda agenda yiyita ko ahunze igihugu bityo akaba ashaka ubuhungiro ku mwami Sentabyo. Uwo muntu ngo yaje yitwaje n’impano y’impuzu ikoze neza, ariko iyi mpano yari iy’uburozi kuko ngo yari yarambawe n’umunyabushita.

Sentabyo ntiyagize amakenga y’ikigambiriwe, yahise akenyera iyo mpuzu imwanduza ubushita ari nabwo bwamuhitanye. Nubwo Sentabyo yahitanywe n’ubushita, yagerageje gukingira abanyarwanda, ntibabwandura ngo bubakukumbe. Yategetse ko nta munya-Gisaka winjira mu Rwanda, abanyarwanda nabo babuzwa kujyayo ndetse mu gihugu hose hashyirwaho za bariyeri (Inkoto) zikumira abashoboraga kukinjirana mu Rwanda.

Hagati y’umwaka wa 1746 na 1946, mu Rwanda hadutse indwara z’ibyorezo zitandukanye zahitanye n’amatungo. Muri zo twavuga nko mu 1890-1891 ubwo hateraga indwara y’amatungo yitwa Muryamo yibasiraga cyane amatungo magufi, mu 1907-1908 hateye indwara y’amatungo yitwa Uburenge bwibasiraga cyane inka, mu 1920-1927 hateye indwara y’amatungo yitwa Iragara, mu 1934-1935 hongeye gutera Muryamo yibasira cyane cyane amatungo magufi n’indwara y’amatungo yitwa Amashuye bwibasiraga cyane inka inka yadutse mu 1936-1937.

Kugira ngo abami b’u Rwanda bahoshe ibyo byorezo byibasiraga amatungo, bakoraga imihango yo gufukura amariba mashya bakayatera n’ibyuhagiro bivura izo ndwara n’indi mihango yateganywaga n’Ubwiru.

U Rwanda kandi rwigeze kugira n’ibihe by’amapfa akomeye hatera ibyorezo by’inzara, zihitana abatari bake. Nko mu 1890 hateye inzara bise Muhatibicumuro, mu 1902 -1903 hateye inzara bise Ruyaga, mu 1917-1918 hateye Rumanura( Rumanurimbaba), mu 1924-1925 hateye Gakwege, mu 1927-1928 hateye Urwakayihura ( Yitiriwe Kayihura wataraga u Bugoyi kuko ariho yatangiriye), mu 1931 hateye inzige ziyogoza imyaka naho mu 1942-1944 hatera Ruzagayura.

Mu bihe by’inzara n’amapfa, Abami b’amatungo n’imyaka bajyaga mu miterekero, bagatanga imbuto n’ibyuhagiro by’imyaka kugira ngo irumbuke. Kera mu Rwanda hakundaga gutera Inzara bitaga amazina bahereye ku cyayiteye, cyangwa se ku bimenyetso byayo no ku nkurikizi zayo

Mu byorezo by’inzara , Abami b’imbuto bajyaga ku misozi miremire, bakahaca ibiraro, bagaterekera, ari na ko bavuza ingoma; imvura yabaga yahagamye, ikagwa. Ibyonnyi na byo byatera mu mirima, Abahoryo bakazivuma zikagenda.

Hari n’indwara z’ ibyorezo zateraga mu bantu ku mpamvu zo kubura imiti zikarimbura imbaga , abarokotse zikabasigira ubusembwa. Indwara z’ibyorezo zateye mu Rwanda zikibasira abantu, zirimo ubushita bwateye hagati ya 1893 na 1894, mu 1916-1917 bwarongeye buratera, mu 1917-1918 ; hateye Mugiga inagaruka mu 1935 naho mu 1945 hatera ibihara.

Iyo ibyorezo by’indwara nk’izo byateraga, Abami b’ imbuto n’amatungo batangaga amasubyo, ariyo miti y’amahumane yo gucubya ibyo byorezo by’indwara.

Mu Rwanda rwa kera habaga n’indi mihango yajyanaga n’ingoma, igakorwa n’abavubyi b’imvura, bakayikorera ahantu inkuba yabaga yakubise, bakahaterekerera , kugira ngo bahavane umwaku wayo , bakahagangahura.

Mu Rwanda rwo hambere hateye ibyorezo bitandukanye bikangiza byinshi

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