Yaduhozaga ku nkeke: Ubuhamya bwa Murashi wiganye na Col Théoneste Bagosora

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 19 Kanama 2020 saa 01:16
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Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, ni umwe mu banyarwanda bamenyekanye cyane mu mahanga nk’umucurabwenge wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahitanye abasaga miliyoni mu 1994.

Ku wa 9 Mutarama 1993 i Arusha muri Tanzania ubwo hari hamaze gusinywa igice cy’amasezerano ya Arusha kirebana no kugabana ubutegetsi, Bagosora yasohotse arakaye aravuga ati “Ndatashye ngiye gutegura imperuka (yakoresheje ijambo ry’igifaransa Apocalypse)”.

Bivugwa ko kandi ubwo yari mu mishyikirano ya gisirikare yabereye i Byumba ahitwa i Ngondore, yeruye ko nta mututsi uzakandagira mu Ngabo z’u Rwanda icyo gihe.

Izo mvugo n’imyitwarire byatumye ubwo Jenoside yatangiraga tariki 7 Mata 1994, aba umwe mu bagize uruhare mu kuyikwirakwiza no kuyicengeza mu baturage, byatumye Urukiko Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda rumukatira imyaka 35 y’igifungo.

Isaïe Murashi ni impuguke mu mateka, akaba umwanditsi w’ibitabo bitandukanye bigaruka ku mateka y’u Rwanda. By’umwihariko, Murashi yiganye na Bagosora mu Iseminari Nto ya Nyundo mu myaka ya 1961 mbere y’uko Bagosora ajya mu gisirikare.

Murashi yabwiye IGIHE ko imyitwarire ya Bagosora muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itamutunguye akurikije uburyo yitwaraga no mu buto bwe, ngo kuko yigeze kubwira abatutsi bahigaga ko umwanya wabo ubarizwa mu mahanga.

Isaïe Murashi aherutse gushyira hanze igitabo “Isaïe Murashi sur les origines du Génocide contre les tutsi. La fausse Théorie de peuplement initial du Rwanda” kigaruka ku mizi ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’uburyo yahereye mu nyandiko n’inyigisho z’abakoloni zavugaga inkomoko y’abanyarwanda n’uburyo u Rwanda rwatuwe.

Muri icyo gitabo, Murashi avuga ko kuva kera hari umugambi wo kuzatsemba abatutsi mu buryo budasubirwaho; akerekana uburyo abakoloni bari barise abatutsi ubwoko bubereyeho kuzashira n’ibindi.

Yavuze ko inkomoko-muzi ya Jenoside ari uko abakoloni b‘Abadage bahimbye amoko atabaho, bakavuga ko abatutsi ari abanyamahanga kandi bose bagendera kuri icyo ‘kinyoma’.

Mu gitabo avuguruza ayo mateka yita ‘mahimbano’, akagaragaza uburyo u Rwanda rwatangiriye kubaho, ukuntu rwahanzwe n’imiryango y’abatutsi n’uburyo rwagiye ruturwa.

Ati “Nifashishije ibihamya by’inyandiko n’ubucukumbuzi ku bisigazwa by’abantu ba kera (Archéologie) n’imvugo karande y’amateka, ubumenyi bw’akarere(géohistoire), navuguruje ikinyoma cy’abakoloni ku miturire ngo habanje abatwa hakurikiraho abahutu, haheruka abatutsi […] nerekana uko u Rwanda rwahanzwe n’uko rwagutse bikozwe n’abatutsi n’abatwa. Nta miryango yitwa iy’abahutu yabagaho.”

Bagosora, umujenosideri w’ibihe byose

Nyuma yo gusobanura inkomoko y’u Rwanda, Murashi mu gitabo cye anakomoza ku ngaruka zo guhimba amateka y’u Rwanda n’uburyo yigishijwe, igice kimwe cy’abanyarwanda kikumvishwa ko bagenzi babo ari abanzi badakwiriye kubana nabo.

Niho atanga ubuhamya bwa Col Bagosora wigaga imbere ye mu Iseminari nto ku Nyundo. Murashi avuga ko Bagosora witwaga Kigatura kubera gukinira nabi abandi mu mupira w’amaguru, ngo imyitwarire ye yababazaga cyane abana b’abatutsi ku ishuri.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Murashi yagize ati “Bagosora muzi nkiri umwana. Yaturutaga ubukuru amaze kuba umusore. Mu Iseminari ku Nyundo aho namusanze yari umukuru w’ameza twafunguriragaho.”

Murashi yibuka umunsi umwe ubwo Bagosora yabwiraga abatutsi ko umwanya wabo uri mu mahanga, nyuma y’uko bagenzi babo birukanywe ku bwinshi mu mashuri.

Ati “Yaduhozaga ku nkeke avuga ko umwanya w’abatutsi ari mu mahanga. Umunsi umwe, aza kutubwira ngo kimwe na bakuru bacu bari birukanywe ari benshi icyo gihe, ngo tugenewe kuzajya kuba muri Congo. Abandi bana b’abatutsi twari kumwe baracecetse. Njye narihaze ndamusubiza nti oya uribeshya hano niho iwacu. Nti kandi turacyari abana, ariko nidukura muzatubona.”

Abize mu mashuri yisumbuye mu myaka itambutse, bazi uburyo byabaga bikomeye umunyeshuri wiga mu myaka yo hasi guhangara uwiga mu myaka yo hejuru.

Murashi avuga ko na we yabwiye gutyo Bagosora asa nk’uwihebye kubera kurambirwa agasuzuguro.

Ati “Twarabatinyaga na biriya namubwiye kwari ukurambirwa no guhara amagara kubera kudutoteza. Bagosora n’abandi bose batari abatutsi, abapadiri b’ababiligi bayobowe na Padiri Léon Naveau wakoreraga Musenyeri André Perraudin, babigishaga kwanga abatutsi, kwinjira muri Parmehutu no kujya kuba abasilikare bo kurwanya abatutsi.”

Padiri Naveau yari yarashinze umuryango witwa SECA w’abanyeshuri gatolika. Uwo muryango wari ufite ishami ku Nyundo ryayoborwaga n’umupadiri witwa Guy Claensens. Murashi avuga ko Claensens na Naveau bajyaga bakoresha inama za rwihishwa n’abana b’abahutu.

Nyuma yo kubahuka Bagosora, Murashi avuga ko nta ngaruka byamugizeho kuko bahuriraga ku meza bagiye kurya gusa.

Ati “Uretse aho ku meza nta handi yantegekaga, na we yari umunyeshuri kandi dufite abayobozi. Nyuma aho agendeye nongeye kumubona Arusha yambaye amapingu.”

Abiganye na Bagosora mu buto bemeza ko no ku ishuri yari afite imyitwarire idasanzwe ku buryo uruhare rwe muri Jenoside rutabatunguye

Ingaruka zikomeye z’imyitwarire ya Bagosora na bagenzi be , Murashi azibonera muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, kandi yanagiye kubimushinja mu rukiko Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda i Arusha.

Ati “Ingaruka ni Jenoside. Nicyo gituma mvuga ko ari génocidaire à vie [Umujenosideri w’ibihe byose]. Bivuze ko yateguwe kuva cyera. Na Arusha narabimushinje.”

Col Théoneste Bagosora yavukiye mu yahoze ari Komini Giciye muri Perefegitura ya Gisenyi mu 1941, yinjira mu gisirikare arangije amashuri yisumbuye mu Iseminari Nto ya Nyundo mu 1962, asohoka ari Sous-Lieutenant mu 1964. Yakoze mu mitwe myinshi y’ingabo, aza gukora muri Minisiteri y’Ingabo, aba Umuyobozi w’Ikigo cya Gisirikare cya Kanombe na Bataillon LAA n’ibindi.

Amateka mahimbano, igisasu ku banyarwanda

Murashi avuga ko Jenoside ifite umuzi mu iyigamoko mahimbano yahimbwe n’abakoloni.

Uko guhimba amateka y’u Rwanda no gucamo ibice abanyarwanda, Murashi yemeza ko ari bwo buryo abakoloni babonaga ko buzabafasha kugera ku ntego zabo zo gutegeka abanyarwanda.

Ati “Winjiye mu gisobanuro cy’ubukoloni, nta kindi bashoboraga kudukorera uretse kuduteza ibibazo ngo basugire basagambe kuko ibyago byacu niyo mahirwe yabo.”

Ikibazo u Rwanda rugihanganye nacyo muri iki gihe ni abahakana bakanapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bakomeje kwiyongera haba mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga, inyandiko n’ibindi.

Aba ahanini barimo abanyarwanda bagize uruhare muri Jenoside cyangwa abafite aho bahuriye n’abayikoze. Harimo n’abanyamahanga bakibona abanyarwanda nk’uko abakoloni bababonaga.

Murashi yavuze ko udashobora kwitega icyiza ku muntu uri mu buyobe, ahubwo ngo ni umukoro ku banyarwanda.

Ati “Nitwe tugomba kubatesha dusobanura neza ubwo buyobe bwabo cyane cyane kugira ngo badakomeza gukongeza ikinyoma, kuko burya abagome ni bake ugereranyije n’injiji zabeshywe na n’ubu zikibeshywa.”

Yavuze ko mu gihe cyose abanyarwanda batarasobanukirwa amateka nyakuri yabo, bakumva ko bazakomeza kugendera ku byo abanyamahanga babakoreye, bizakomeza kuba nk’igisasu bicariye.

Ati “Twicariye umurage mubi wa gikoloni tutarikuramo neza. Uwo murage mu gitabo nawise ‘Mines anti Rwanda’ zubakiye ku kinyoma cyubatswe na Musenyeri Léon Classe. Izi mines ni twebwe abanyarwanda tuzazitegura. Si abanditsi b’abanyamahanga batifuza ko bishira kuko kuri bo ni ikiraka kibubaka kitatwubaka.”

Murashi yagarutse ku rubyiruko, avuga ko uko rutegurwa kuri ubu n’ababyeyi babo aribyo bizagira uruhare kuri ejo habo n’ah’igihugu.

Yavuze ko nta kintu cyiza cyaturuka ku rubyiruko kitavuye ku babyeyi babo. Ati “Icyo twebwe tuzabagira nicyo bazaba cyo. Nitubagira beza bazaba beza, nitubasigira umurage mwiza bazawukomeza. Nitubaraga amacakubiri bazayakomeza. Nitubaraga gufata impu zombi bizabayobera.”

Yakebuye abanditsi nyarwanda b’amateka kwitonda mu gihe bacukumbura amateka y’u Rwanda, bakamenya gutandukanya Amateka n’Iyigamoko mahimbano (Historiographie na Ethnographie).

Ati “Ari abandika barize amateka, ari abapfa kwandika batarize amateka, ntawe ndabona ushishikajwe no gutandukanya ibyo bintu uko ari bibiri. Abize amateka bagenda basubiramo ibyanditswe cyera nta gutanga umurongo mushya w’amateka. Abatize amateka bo usanga badumbaguza, ndetse bayobya abantu.”

“Abize amateka bagomba kwitandukanya n’umurage wa gikoloni w’iyigamokomahambano no gufata impu zombi. Abatize amateka bo rwose bakwiye kwikuramo kuko kwandika amateka bikorwa n’abayize […] usanga hari abata imyuga bigiye bakajya mu kwandika amateka batize, batazi uko yandikwa bityo bakayobya abanyarwanda. Ni ikibazo gikomeye cyiyongera kuri byinshi dufite.”

Yakomeje agira ati “Abantu benshi ntibazi gutandukanya amateka n’ubuhamya, amateka n’imigani, amateka n’inkuru, amateka no kwirarira, cyangwa kwihaya no kwihara, ukuri n’ikinyoma. Nk’umuntu wubahuka gushushanya abantu atigeze abona, agashyira ayo mashusho ahagaragara., abyita amateka y’igihugu. Ni ugutinyuka bikabije , ni ugusuzugura u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda.”

Isaïe Murashi ni umwe mu banyarwanda bashegeshwe bikomeye na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Mu 1959 ubwo abatutsi mu gihugu batwikirwaga, n’iwabo mu Bigogwe mu Karere ka Nyabihu baratwikiwe. We n’muryango we bahungiye ku Nyundo, nyuma bamwe bajyanwa i Nyamata, bakomereza i Burundi, abandi muri Congo.

Murashi we yagumye ku Nyundo ahunga muri 1968. Yaje kugaruka mu Rwanda mu 1987. Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ubwo yakorwaga, umugore we n’abana be bose barishwe, bicirwa hamwe n’abandi mu nyubako za Kiliziya Gatolika ku Nyundo. Na we niho yarokokeye.

Ibyo bizazane yanyuzemo byose nibyo byamuteye kwandika igitabo ‘Isaïe Murashi, Sur les origines du Génocide contre les tutsi. La fausse Théorie de peuplement initial du Rwanda”. Kiboneka muri Librairie Caritas Rwanda; ku rubuga Amazon no mu nzu z’ibitabo zitandukanye zo mu bihugu bivuga Igifaransa.

Isaïe Murashi ni umwe mu banyarwanda bashegeshwe bikomeye na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kuko yiciwe umugore, abana n'abandi
Igitabo cya Isaïe Murashi kigaruka ku nkomoka nyayo y'u Rwanda n'uburyo abakoloni bayagoretse bikageza igihugu kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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