Ukuboko k’u Bufaransa muri Coup d’État yabereye mu Rwanda mu myaka 48 ishize

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 16 Werurwe 2021 saa 09:28
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Imyaka 48 igiye gushira mu Rwanda habaye ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi rya mbere ari naryo rizwi mu mateka yarwo kuva rubonye ubwigenge mu 1962. Ni coup d’état abanyamateka bavuga ko ari imwe mu zabaye mu mahoro kuko nta bantu bazwi bahasize ubuzima tariki ya 5 Nyakanga 1973 ubwo yakorwaga, nubwo nyuma gato benshi mu bahoze muri Guverinoma yahiritswe bishwe buhoro buhoro, abandi bagafungwa mu buryo bwiganjemo itoteza.

Ni gake ubutegetsi bwahirikwa by’umwihariko muri Afurika, ngo haburemo akaboko k’amahanga. Iyo bibaye hari ubwo abayikoze bisanga mu mazi abira, bakomanyirijwe hose nk’uko byagendekeye Gilbert Diendéré muri Burkina Faso, ubwo yahirikaga Perezida w’inzibacyuho Michel Kafando muri Nzeri 2015.

No mu Rwanda ubwo Général Major Habyarinama Juvénal wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo yahirikaga ku butegetsi Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda, u Bufaransa na Zaïre bitungwa agatoki kuba byaragizemo uruhare rukomeye.

U Bufaransa mu cyuho cy’u Bubiligi..

By’umwihariko u Bufaransa, bugaragazwa nk’igihugu cyari gishishikajwe no kugira ijambo rikomeye mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, mu bihugu byakoreshaga cyane Igifaransa birimo u Rwanda, u Burundi na Zaïre byahoze bikolonijwe n’u Bubiligi.

Ntabwo kwigarurira u Rwanda byari byoroshye by’umwihako kuhatsinsura u Bubiligi bwari bwarafashije Kayibanda kugera ku butegetsi, kandi bumaze imyaka isaga 40 mu gihugu

Nimero 101 y’ikinyamakuru Golias cyo mu Bufaransa, yasohotse muri Werurwe na Mata 2005 hagaragazwamo ko coup d’état Habyarimana yakoreye Kayibanda, u Bufaransa bwari bumaze igihe buyiteze kandi buyishyigikiye.

Ku rupapuro rwa 21 mu nyandiko Olivier Thimonier yise "Habyarimana, un ami de la famille", avuga ko ubwo u Rwanda rwari rumaze kubona ubwigenge, u Bubiligi bwakomeje kuba umufatanyabikorwa wa hafi mu by’iterambere. U Bufaransa bwasanze aho gupfumurira ari mu gisirikare kuko ari icyo Kayibanda yasaga nk’udashyize imbere cyane.

Kudaha agaciro igisirikare bigaragara no mu gitabo "The Teaching of History of Rwanda, A Participatory Approach", kivuga ko muri Repubulika ya mbere, Kayibanda yakomeje kudaha agaciro cyane igisirikare, acyoherezamo Abahutu benshi baturukaga Iburengerazuba n’Amajyaruguru. Ngo yirindaga kubashyira muri Politiki kuko yasaga nk’uwabihariye Abahutu bo mu bice byo mu Majyepfo aho yakomokaga.

U Bufaransa bumaze kubona ko igisirikare kidahabwa agaciro cyane, bwatangiye kuhashyira ingufu no kucyiyegereza nubwo cyari kigifashwa n’u Bubiligi.

Guhera muri Kamena 1960 ubwo u Rwanda rwagiraga ingabo ziswe Garde Nationale, ikibazo gikomeye rwari rufite cyari icyuho cy’ibikoresho bya gisirikare n’abasirikare bashoboye, nk’uko Colonel Guy Logiest yabishyize mu gitabo cye ’Ma Mission au Rwanda, 1988’.

Icyo cyuho cy’ibikoresho no kutitabwaho nicyo u Bufaransa bwinjiriyemo, butangira gukorana bya hafi n’uwari Minisitiri w’ingabo, Général Major Habyarimana Juvénal.

Thimonier avuga ko guhera mu 1965, abasirikare bakuru muri Ambasade y’u Bufaransa i Kinshasa bahoraga i Kigali mu biganiro na Leta y’u Rwanda bashaka uburyo babafasha mu bya gisirikare.

Muri Nzeri 1965, Ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda, Jean Fines yagize ati “Tugomba kwitonda ntitwivange mu mikorere y’igisirikare cyaragijwe inshuti zacu [u Bubiligi] ariko ntabwo bibujijwe kuba twafasha aba-ofisiye basohotse mu ishuri ry’i Kigali [rya gisirikare] kuba bakomereza kwiga mu Bufaransa kugira ngo turusheho kumenyekanisha igisirikare cyacu mu gihugu cyitwereka ko kidukeneye.”

Mu gihe cyose abo bayobozi b’ingabo muri Ambasade y’u Bufaransa i Kinshasa babaga baje mu Rwanda, ngo bakirwaga neza n’abayobozi b’u Rwanda. Thimonier mu nkuru ye avuga ko by’umwihariko, abo bayobozi batangiye kugirana umubano mwiza na Juvénal Habyarimana, wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo.

Ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa yavuze ko Habyarimana yagaragazaga amatsiko yo "kumenya neza inzego n’ubuzima bw’igisirikare cy’u Bufaransa".

Habyarimana yifuzaga ko u Rwanda rugira igisirikare na Jandarumori byubatse nk’iby’u Bufaransa, agashaka ko ibihugu byombi byagirana imikoranire abasirikare b’u Rwanda bakajya guhugurirwa mu Bufaransa, by’umwihariko ibijyanye na Jandarumori u Rwanda rwifuzaga gushyiraho.

Ni ko byagenze koko, ibihugu byombi byaje kwemeranya, koko Abanyarwanda b’abasirikare boherezwa mu mashuri ya jandarumori mu Bufaransa arimo Melun na Charenton.

Mu 1966, ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa yavuze ko «Abashinzwe ibya gisirikare bacu babona ko hari igihe kizagera igisirikare cy’u Rwanda kigashaka abatekinisiye bagikwiriye, kandi ko bazabona ko u Bufaransa aribwo bukwiriye gusimbura u Bubiligi. Uruzinduko rwa Colonel Aron rweretse Guverinoma ya Kigali ko dufite ubushake bwo kutabatererana muri ibi bihe imbaraga z’u Bubiligi ziri kugabanuka.»

Guhera mu 1966, u Bufaransa bwabonaga ko hari igihe kizagera bugasimbura u Bubiligi mu Rwanda mu bijyanye n’ubufasha mu bya gisirikare.

U Bufaransa bwatangiye kwifuza coup d’état mu Rwanda

U Bufaransa bumaze kubona ko umubano n’u Rwanda mu bya gisirikare ushoboka no kubona ko Habyarimana yifuza cyane kubana n’u Bufaransa, icyo gihugu cyatangiye kwifuza ko habaho ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi, ndetse bakabona ko nta wundi wabikora utari Habyarimana.

Golias ivuga ko hari telegaramu ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda yohereje icyo gihe avuga ko « Haramutse habaye ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi, ryaba rikozwe na Minisitiri w’Ingabo kuko niwe ufite ibitekerezo bitanga icyizere kandi ufite mu ntoki imbaraga nyinshi mu gihugu.»

Muri Nzeri 1966, Habyarimana yagiriye uruzinduko i Paris kugura imodoka 12 nini z’intambara zizwi nka automitrailleuses légères Panhard (AML) n’indege ebyiri z’intambara. Ibyo byose byaje kugera mu Rwanda tariki 6 Werurwe 1967.

Ku modoka z’intambara, u Rwanda rwishyuye 20% naho sosiyete yo mu Bufaransa COFACE (Compagnie Française d’Assurance du Commerce Extérieure) yishyura 80% by’igiciro cyose, nk’uko Thimonier yabivuze mu gitabo cye gisoza amashuri ya maîtrise cyo mu 2001, muri Kaminuza ya Paris.

Tariki 26 Mata 1967 nibwo u Rwanda rwakiriye indege ebyiri za kajugujugu nazo zatanzwe ku nguzanyo ya COFACE.

U Bubiligi bwatangiye kureba nabi uwo mubano w’u Bufaransa n’u Rwanda mu rwego rukomeye nk’igisirikare.

Ababiligi batangiye kwikanga cyane u Bufaransa mu Rwanda ndetse abashyitsi b’u Bufaransa baza mu Rwanda bagacungirwa hafi. Ikigaragaza uku kwikanga k’u Bubiligi, ni uruzinduko Lt Col Salvat wari ushinzwe ibya gisirikare muri Ambasade y’u Bufaransa i Kigali ariko abarizwa i Kinshasa yagiriye mu Rwanda muri Kamena 1970. Uyu yari yaranahaje mu 1968 na 1969.

Abasirikare b’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda nibo bakurikiraniye hafi iby’urwo ruzinduko ndetse bari n’abahuza hagati ye n’abayobozi b’u Rwanda. Byari biteganyijwe ko Salvat ahura na Habyarimana ariko uwo mubonano waburijwemo kuko ababiligi bikangaga ibyaganirirwamo.

Ni ibintu byababaje Salvat. Uwari ambasaderi w’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda icyo gihe, Jean-François Doudinot de La Boissière yagize ati “ Salvat yabonye ko ingabo z’u Bubiligi zigifite ijambo mu Rwanda, bitandukanye n’uko bimeze mu Burundi no muri Congo.”

Yavuze ko kandi Salvat atashimishijwe n’uburyo abasirikare b’ababiligi bitwaye mu kuburizamo ikiganiro cye na Habyarimana wari umugaba mukuru w’ingabo, ibintu yafashe nk’agasuzuguro.

Mu 1970, ambasaderi yongeye gukomoza ku bya coup d’état, aho yagize ati “Kuri ubu uko bimeze, igisirikare ntabwo gishobora gufatira urugero ku basirikare bo mu bindi bihugu bya Afurika byafashe ubutegetsi. Umubare munini w’abasirikare bakuru n’abato b’Ababiligi bibangamiye uburyo bwose bwageragezwa bwo guhirika ubutegetsi. Icyakora ubuyobozi bw’igisirikare buri kugenda gahoro gahoro bwigaragaza mu gihugu hose.”

Icyari ikibazo ku mubano w’ingabo z’u Bufaransa n’u Rwanda cyavuyeho tariki 5 Nyakanga 1973 ubwo Habyarimana yahirikaga ku butegetsi Kayibanda. Byahinduye bidasubirwaho umubano w’ibihugu byombi by’umwihariko mu bya gisirikare.

Ntabwo hagaragazwa neza uruhare rw’ako kanya u Bufaransa bwagize mu ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda ariko ikigaragara ni uko bwabyifuzaga cyane.

Umunyapolitiki w’umuhezanguni Faustin Twagiramungu wigeze no kuba Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Rwanda, mu mwaka wa 2019 yavugiye mu kiganiro Imvo n’Imvano cya BBC ko yigeze kujya muri Zaïre, akabonana na Perezida Mobutu Sese Seko ari naho yasobanukiwe uburyo umugambi wo guhirika sebukwe Kayibanda wanogerejwe i Kinshasa.

Icyo gihe yagize ati “Mu Ukwakira 1995 nagiye i Kinshasa njya n’i Gbadolite. Nahamaze iminsi itanu nganira na Mobutu. I Kinshasa nabonye n’ishuri abantu bajyaga baza kwigiramo ukuntu bazakora coup d’état.”

Ntabwo Twagiramungu yavuze neza abateguraga uwo mugambi wo guhirika ubutegetsi i Kigali, ariko bishobora guhuzwa n’u Bufaransa kuko ’attaché militaire’ w’ambasade y’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda ari we Salvat, yakoreraga i Kinshasa.

Nyuma y’amezi make Habyarimana ahiritse ubutegetsi, u Bufaransa bwahise bumwereka ko bumushyigikiye cyane. Mu mpera za 1973, Thimonier avuga ko icyo gihugu cyahaye Habyarimana impano y’indege yo mu bwoko bwa Caravelle.

Kubera ko u Rwanda rwari rugifite ikibazo cy’inzobere mu nzego zitandukanye za gisirikare, hateguwe imbanzirizamushinga y’amasezerano mu by’ubufatanye hagati y’ibihugu byombi. Nubwo ayo masezerano yashyizweho umukono mu 1975, yari yaratangiye gutekerezwaho Kayibanda akimara guhirikwa mu 1973.

Tariki 18 Gicurasi 1975 nibwo ibihugu byombi byasinye amasezerano y’ubufatanye mu bya gisirikare.

Muri ayo masezerano, u Bufaransa bwiyemeje gufasha mu guhugura no kwita ku basirikare n’abajandarume b’u Rwanda. Hagati ya 1976 na 1979, u Bufaransa bwahaye u Rwanda inkunga ingana na miliyoni y’amafaranga yakoreshwaga muri icyo gihugu.

Kuva mu 1980 kugeza mu 1982 iyo nkunga yageze kuri miliyoni 15 z’amafaranga yo mu Bufaransa, harimo indege eshatu za kajugujugu u Bufaransa bwahaye u Rwanda. Inkunga u Bufaransa bwahaga u Rwanda yarazamutse irenga ibya gisirikare igera no mu zindi nzego.

Umubano w’u Bufaransa wasaga nk’utagaragara kubwa Grégoire Kayibanda wabaye ubukombe kubwa Habyarimana. Mu bijyanye n’ubucuruzi, sosiyete z’abafaransa zatangiye kubona amasoko mu Rwanda, mu bijyanye n’amabuye y’agaciro n’ibindi.

Uwari ambasaderi w’u Rwanda mu Bufaransa yigeze kwandika agira ati "Urukundo n’ubuntu igihugu cyacu cyagaragarije u Rwanda byatumye muri Mata 1977 Général Habyarimana avuga ko u Rwanda rwiyumva rwose nk’umunyamuryango w’ibihugu byakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa muri Afurika."

Ababiligi nibo bafashaga igisirikare cy'u Rwanda nyuma gato y'ubwigenge ariko u Bufaransa bwinjirira mu cyuho cyabo
Bamwe mu basirikare bakuru biyise 'camarades du 5 juillet 1973' bafashije Habyarimana guhirika Kayibanda
Igisirikare nicyo cyahiritse ubutegetsi nyuma y'igihe u Bufaransa bugaragaza ko Habyarimana ari we ufite ububasha mu gihugu
Mobutu Sese Seko wa Zaire (iburyo) yari inshuti y'akadasohoka ya Habyarimana. Twagiramungu aherutse kuvuga ko Coud d'etat yateguriwe i Kinshasa
Habyarimana agifata ubutegetsi, u Bufaransa bwaramwiyegereje cyane. Aha yari kumwe na Perezida Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Perezida Habyarimana na Valéry Giscard d'Estaing ndetse n'abafasha babo. Giscard niwe Perezida wa Mbere w'u Bufaransa wasuye u Rwanda mu 1979
Ubutegetsi bwagiye busimburana mu Bufaransa bwakoranaga bya hafi na Habyarimana. Aha Habyarimana na Mitterrand bari bari gusuhuza abaturage
Mitterrand yari inshuti y'akadasohoka ya Habyarimana
Guhera mu 1980, u Bufaransa bwahaye u Rwanda inkunga nyinshi, iva mu by'igisirikare igera no mu zindi nzego
Caravelle, ubwoko bw'indege u Bufaransa bwahaye Habyarimana nk'impano nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi

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