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Uko Kayibanda yanze ubukerarugendo ngo butazana ubusumbane mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 7 Nzeri 2021 saa 06:51
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Ubukerarugendo kuri ubu bwabaye rya shyiga ry’inyuma mu bukungu bw’u Rwanda, bwavamo ubuzima bw’abanyarwanda bwahungabana. Biragoye kwiyumvisha ko urwego rufatiye runini ubuzima abantu ibihumbi kuri ubu, rwigeze kwimwa agaciro, Perezida akavuga ko adakeneye ubusumbane mu baturage be.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge, ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika byasigaye bicungira ku byoherezwa hanze nk’amabuye y’agaciro n’ibihingwa nk’ikawa, icyayi n’ibindi bidatunganyije.

Ibihugu bimwe nka Kenya na Tanzania byahise bibengukwa ubukerarugendo kuko hari hakiri ibyanya birimo inyamaswa zitabonekaga mu bihugu byitwaga ko bikomeye by’i Burayi, kugira ngo ayo madovize biyakoreshe mu bindi bikorwa by’iterambere.

U Rwanda nubwo rwabarizwaga mu bihugu bituwe cyane, rwari rugifite ibyanya binini bidakoreshwa byuzyemo inyamaswa, amashyamba kimeza n’ibindi byakurura ba mukerarugendo, icyakora Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda yanze guteza imbere urwo rwego, avuga ko adakeneye ibintu bizana ubusumbane n’imibereho itamenyerewe mu Banyarwanda.

Nyuma y’ubwigenge, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zatangiye kwiyegereza ibihugu byari bikibona ubwigenge, ahanini iryo tangatanga ryari ukubibuza gukorana na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti n’Abashinwa, batajyaga imbizi mu ntambara y’ubutita.

Inyandiko za Ambasade ya Amerika zo muri Werurwe 1973 zashyizwe hanze n’urubuga WikiLeaks, zigaragaza ko u Rwanda rwasabye inkunga Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, yo kubaka ibikorwa remezo.

Aho kubasubiza babyemera, Amerika yasubije u Rwanda ko amafaranga ifite ahubwo yashyirwa mu bukerarugendo.

Ambasaderi August R. Lindt wari Umujyanama wa Kayibanda yabwiye Ambasaderi wa Amerika mu Rwanda ko Perezida Kayibanda yababajwe n’icyo gisubizo cya Amerika.

Inyandiko za Wikileaks aho Ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda yatangaga raporo i Washington DC zigira ziti “Lindt yavuze ko u Rwanda rushyize imbere imishinga yo kubaka imihanda, rwitondera cyane ibijyanye no guteza imbere ubukerarugendo. Lindt yavuze ko Kayibanda yababajwe n’ubufasha budasanzwe u Rwanda rwahaye Amerika mu nteko rusange ya Loni iherutse.”

“Perezida yavuze ko uko gushyigikira Amerika kwagabanyije ijambo ry’u Rwanda mu muryango uhuza ibihugu bya Afurika ariko ko yari yizeye ubufasha bwa politiki mu mishinga yo guteza imbere imihanda.”

Lindt ngo yavuze ko abo mu biro bya Perezida Kayibanda baganiriye, bagasanga ubukerarugendo atari bwo igihugu cyifuza.

Bati “ Banze icyifuzo cyo guteza imbere ubukerarugendo kubera impamvu ebyiri. Benshi mu baza mu bukerarugendo bari kujya banyura muri Uganda kandi ntabwo ari igihugu umuntu yakwishingikirizaho. Ikindi ni uko guteza imbere ubukerarugendo bizatuma habaho ubusumbane mu baturage, hakabaho ikindi cyiciro cy’imibereho.”

Ambasade ya Amerika yagaragaje ko kubera ko nta benegihugu bari bafite ubushobozi bwo gushora imari mu bukerarugendo cyangwa kujya gusura ibyiza nyaburanga, nta bunararibonye bari bafite mu bijyanye n’ubukerarugendo ngo byari gutuma byiharirwa n’abanyamahanga.

Kuba ubukerarugendo butari buri muri gahunda za Kayibanda bigaragazwa n’uburyo nta bikorwa by’ingenzi by’ubukerarugendo byubatswe mu gihe cy’imyaka 11 yamaze ku butegetsi. Nta n’urwego mu zari ziriho icyo gihe rwari rubushinzwe. Pariki nzima yariho ni Akagera kandi nayo yashinzwe n’Ababiligi mu 1934.

Icyo gihe hoteli zifatika zari muri Kigali ni Hôtel des Mille Collines na Diplomate nazo ubushobozi bwazo mu kwakira abantu bukiri hasi.

Pariki zatangiye gushingwa…..

Hashize amezi atatu gusa Kayibanda yanze ubufasha bw’Abanyamerika mu guteza imbere ubukerarugendo, yahiritswe ku butegetsi n’inshuti ye magara akaba na Minisitiri we w’Ingabo, Gen Maj Juvenal Habyarimana.

Habyarimana amaze guhirika Kayibanda yashyizeho umwanya w’umunyamabanga Mukuru ushinzwe guteza imbere ubukerarugendo na za Pariki. Hashyizweho Ikigo cy’Ubukerarugendo na Pariki z’Igihugu mu Rwanda (ORTPN).

Hoteli nziza zatangiye kubakwa nka Village Urugwiro yubatswe mu 1975 u Rwanda rwitegura kwakira inama y’abakuru b’ibihugu bigize Umuryango wahuzaga Ibihugu bya Afurika cyane cyane ibyakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa n’ibikoresha Igifaransa, Organization Commune Africaine et Malgache (OCAM).

Mu mezi make yakurikiye ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda kandi hahise hafungurwa pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga. Mu mwaka wa 1979 nibwo abantu bemerewe gusura ingagi mu birunga, mbere icyabaga cyemewe kwari ukuzamuka ibirunga. Gufungura iyi pariki byazamuye umubare w’abasuraga u Rwanda ndetse iba iya mbere yinjizaga amafaranga menshi ugereranyije n’izindi nkuko bigaragara mu nyandiko J.-F. Gotanègre yise ‘Le tourisme au Rwanda : une émergence éphémère ? yasohotse mu kinyamakuru Les Cahiers d’Outre-Mer mu 1992. Pariki ya Nyungwe yo yafunguwe mu 1988.

Mu 1974 ni nabwo hatangiye kubarwa uruhare rw’ubukerarugendo mu bukungu bw’u Rwanda. Imibare ya ORTPN igaragaza ko mbere ya 1974, abasuraga u Rwanda mu bikorwa by’ubukerafrugendo babaga bari munsi ya 2000 nubwo imibare itazwi neza kuko nta rwego rwabigenzuraga rwabagaho. Nyuma yo gushyiraho ikigo kibigenzura mu 1974, abasura u Rwanda bariyongereye. Ubukerarugendo bwinjizaga atarenga 2 % by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu.

Nko muri pariki y’Ibirunga, abayisura bavuye ku bihumbi hafi birindwi mu 1979, bagera ku bihumbi 15 mu 1986. Nibura buri mwaka hagati ya 1981 na 1987, u Rwanda rwakiraga abakerarugendo bangana na 28700.

Hafi 71 % by’abakerarugendo binjiraga mu Rwanda mu myaka ya za 1980, babaga ari abaturutse mu Burayi, kimwe cya gatatu cyabo baturutse mu Bubiligi, abandi ari Abafaransa n’Abadage.

Mu mwaka wa 1988 u Rwanda rwari rufite hoteli 39. ORTPN yacungagamo hoteli 11 zigizwe n’ibyumba 163 mu gihe izindi hoteli 28 zigizwe n’ibyumba 443 zahawe sosiyete zigenga ngo zizicunge nka sosiyete y’ababiligi yatwaraga abantu mu ndege, SABENA yari ifite 61 % mu micungire ya hoteli zigenga. Niyo yacungaga hoteli zari zikomeye icyo gihe zirimo Milles Collines, Diplomates zombi zabarizwaga mu mujyi wa Kigali, Guest House de Gabiro na Hotel Akagera mu Burasirazuba.

Société de Promotion Touristique et Hotelière (SOPROTEL) yacungaga Hotel Méridien-Umubano. Sosiyete Méridien, yari ishamikiye kuri sosiyete y’indege ya Air France yo yacungaga Hotel Izuba-Méridien ku kiyaga cya Kivu.

Gotanegre avuga ko hoteli zari mu maboko y’abantu ku giti cyabo ari hotel Chez Lando ya Ndasingwa Landouard na Rebero-Horizon yari iy’umuryango wa Perezida Juvénal Habyarimana. Icyo gihe ubukerarugendo bw’u Rwanda bwari butunze abantu basaga 2500.

Inyandiko ya Rwanyiziri Gaspard wo muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda yise “Le tourisme pratiqué dans les aires protégées du Rwanda (1974-2008) : Evolution, politiques et acteurs”, ivuga ko guhera mu myaka ya 1990 na 1999 u Rwanda rwinjiye mu bibazo by’intambara na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, byagize uruhare rukomeye mu gusubira inyuma kw’ibikorwa by’ubukerarugendo.

Jenoside imaze guhagarikwa, imbaraga nyinshi zashyizwe mu kugarura umutekano ku buryo iby’ubukerarugendo byongeye kugarukwaho cyane mu 2000 ubwo hatangizwaga icyerecyezo 2020.

Mu 1997 nibwo Leta yashyizeho imbibi nshya za Pariki y’Akagera yari imaze kwigabizwa n’abatuarge bashakaga aho gutura n’aho kororera. Imbibi za Pariki zaragabanyutse cyane ku buryo bibiri bya gatatu by’ubuso pariki yari ifite mbere ya Jenoside byahawe abaturage.

Pariki ya Nyungwe yo yongeye gufungurwa mu 1995 ariko abayisura bari bake ahanini kuko no mu bindi bice by’igihugu umutekano wari muke.

Rwanyiziri agaragaza ko mu 2000 ubukerarugendo bwashyizwe mu nkingi za mwamba ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwagombaga kubakiraho. Mu 2002 ORTPN yakozwemo amavugurura, igabanywamo ibice bibiri harimo igishinzwe kwita ku bukerarugendo mu gihugu hose, Rwanda Tourism Agency, RTA.

Ubukerarugendo bwakoze agashya, ikawa n’icyayi byimurwa ku ntebe

Hagati ya 2004 na 2008, hakozwe gahunda y’imyaka ine igamije guteza imbere ubukerarugendo. Sosiyete yo muri Amerika, On-The-Frontier yahawe ikiraka cyo gukora inyigo y’icyerecyezo ubukerarugendo bw’u Rwanda bwahabwa, igaragaza ko hakiri ibibazo birimo kuba nta buryo buhamye bwo kwamamaza ubukerarugendo bw’u Rwanda, Ishoramari mbarwa mu bijyanye n’ubukerarugendo, no kuba ubukerarugendo bushingiye cyane ku mafaranga aturuka mu gusura ngagi gusa.

Muri iyo myaka ine abasura u Rwanda mu bijyanye n’ubukerarugendo bariyongereye. Nko mu 2003 abasuye pariki y’Ibirunga bari hafi ibihumbi umunani, mu 2007 bari bageze ku bihumbi 15.

Amafaranga igihugu cyinjizaga mu basura pariki z’igihugu nayo yariyongereye. ORTPN igaragaza ko mu 2007 hinjiye miliyoni 47 z’amadolari avuye kuri miliyoni imwe y’amadolari yinjiye mu 1989.

Mu mwaka wa 2007 kandi nibwo bwa mbere kuva u Rwanda rwabona ubwigenge, ubukerarugendo bwaje ku mwanya wa mbere mu kwinjiriza igihugu amadovize mu byoherezwa hanze. Ni umwanya wari warihariwe cyane n’icyayi ndetse n’ikawa.

Uwo mwaka mu Rwanda habarizwaga hoteli 92 zivuye kuri 39 mu 1989. Hoteli 52 zabarizwaga muri Kigali, 12 Ruhengeri, 11 ku Gisenyi, umunani Butare n’eshatu i Rwamagana. Icyo gihe ishoramari ry’Abanyarwanda mu bijyanye n’ubukerarugebdo ryari ryihariye 54 % by’ishoramari ryose muri urwo rwego. Mu bukerarugendo n’amahoteli hari hamaze guhangwa imirimo 200 000.

Mu myaka 20 ishize u Rwanda rwakomeje gushyira ingufu mu bukerarugendo ndetse nibwo buhanzwe amaso mu gufasha igihugu gutera imbere.

Byitezwe ko umusaruro uva mu bukerarugendo uzava kuri miliyoni Magana ane z’amadolari ya Amerika (400M $) uriho kuri ubu ukagera kuri miliyoni magana inani z’amadolari ya Amerika (800M $) muri 2050.

Kugeza mu 2017, mu Rwanda habarizwaga hoteli 486 zifite ibyumba 10,766. Imibare y’ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare mu 2020 (NISR, Statistical Yearbook 2020) igaragaza ko mu 2017 u Rwanda rwakiriye abakerarugendo 1,567,943, barimo abasaga ibihumbi 460 bitabiriye inama.

Kayibanda yanze ubufasha bwo guteza imbere ubukerarugendo ngo yanga ko byazana ubusumbane
Pariki y'Ibirunga mu myaka yashize itaritabwaho uko bikwiriye
Abanyaburayi nibo babaga biganje mu basuraga Pariki y'Ibirunga mu 1982
Mu myaka ya 1982, Pariki y'Ibirunga yasurwaga na ba mukerarugendo mbarwa kuko ubukerarugendo butari isoko ihambaye y'ubukungu bw'u Rwanda
Abakerarugendo baba ab'imbere mu gihugu no mu mahanga bishimira ibyiza biboneka muri Pariki y'Ibirunga
Pariki y'Ibirunga yabungabunzwe kurushaho, ikaba imwe muri nke zibarizwamo ingagi zo mu misozi
Ingagi zo mu misozi zisigaye hake ku isi ziri mu bikurura ba mukerarugendo benshi basura u Rwanda
Uretse ibinyabuzima bitandukanye bibonekamo, kwitegereza ibirunga ubwabyo biteye ubwuzu
Inyamaswa zirimo imparage ziragwiriye muri Pariki y'Akagera
Pariki y'Akagera yongewemo inyamaswa zirimo Intare
Pariki y'Akagera irimo ibiyaga bibereye ijisho, bikaba isoko imara inyota inyamaswa ziyibarizwamo
Kigali Convention Centre ni ihuriro ry'ubukurarugendo bushingiye ku nama, ikunganirwa na Radisson Blu icumbikira abasuye u Rwanda
Hôtel des Mille Collines, imwe muri hoteli zimaze igihe mu Rwanda
Marriott Hotel, imwe muri hoteli zongereye umubare w'ibyumba bicumbikira abakerarugendo u Rwanda rufite
One&Only Gorilla's Nest, hoteli y'akataraboneka iherutse gufungurwa i Musanze, munsi y'Ibirunga
Onomo Hotel, imwe muri hoteli zigezweho mu marembo ya Kigali y'ubucuruzi mu karere ka Nyarugenge
Ubukerarugendo bw'u Rwanda bwarenze ubwa za pariki, aha ni Nyarutarama mu mujyi wa Kigali ahuzuye ikibuga mpuzamahanga cya Golf kizakurura ba mukerarugendo
Imyidagaduro n'imikino u Rwanda rubihanze amaso mu guteza imbere ubukerarugendo. Kigali Arena yatangiye kuba igicumbi cy'imikino n'imyidagaduro mpuzamahanga

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