Uko ikawa yakoze akantu hagati ya Habyarimana na Idi Amin Dada

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 17 Ukwakira 2019 saa 11:14
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Idi Amin Dada avugwa nk’umunyagitugu, umusazi, intwari ya bamwe n’umugabo utaravugirwagamo wayoboye Uganda mu gihe cy’imyaka umunani kuva mu 1971 kugeza mu 1979.

Ubusanzwe amazina yiswe n’abamubyaye ni Idi Awo-Ongo Angoo, nyuma aza kwiyita Idi Amin Dada ubwo yayobokaga idini ya Islam. Ingoma ye yaranzwe n’ubwicanyi bukomeye mu gihugu hagati, mu gihe politiki ye y’imibanire n’amahanga yahoraga ari gatebe gatoki.

Amin wari ufite abana 50 (abahungu 36 n’abakobwa 14) bivugwa ko mu myaka yamaze ku butegetsi, yivuganye abantu barenga ibihumbi 500.

Uyu mugabo ntiyari asanzwe habe na mba! Imibanire ye n’ibihugu mpuzamahanga yahoraga ari gatebe gatoki yaba ibyo mu karere cyangwa se n’iby’amahanga ya kure.

Nk’umuntu wayoboraga igihugu cyakolonijwe n’u Bwongereza, Amin ntiyatinyaga no kuzana agasomborotso ku Mwamikazi Elizabeth ku buryo byageze aho bikamurenga, mu 1977 akavuga ko nakandagiza ikirenge cye i Londres agomba kwicwa.

Bijya binavugwa ko Amin yigeze kuvuga ko ashaka kurongora Umwamikazi w’u Bwongereza, akamubera umugabo, ndetse mu ibaruwa yamwandikiye mu 1997, yasoje abwira ati “Ndi inshuti yawe ikomeye”.

Ibaze nawe ko yigeze kwandikira Umwamikazi amubwira ko yiteguye gutanga ubufasha bw’ibiribwa, akohereza indege zuzuye ingano n’imboga mu Bwongereza kugira ngo bicungure iki gihugu cyari mu bihe bibi by’ubukungu ahagana mu 1974.

Usibye u Bwongereza, yagiranye ibibazo byinshi n’ibindi bihugu birimo na Israel ari naho haturutse igitero abakomando bayo bagabye i Entebbe, cyanaguyemo mukuru wa Benjamin Netanyahu.

Inkoni ye ntiyagarukiye ku banya-Uganda cyangwa Abanya-Isiraheli gusa kuko no mu Rwanda yabagezeho, ahagarika amaraso y’abanyarwanda guhera mu 1977 kugeza ubwo yavagaho mu 1979 Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ikandika itangazo ry’ibyishimo.

Imvano yo gushwana hagati y’u Rwanda na Uganda

Ubusanzwe u Rwanda na Uganda mu gihe cya Amin byasaga n’ibibanye neza ariko bitavuye ku rukundo ahubwo ari inyungu igihugu cyabonaga mu kindi.

U Rwanda buri gihe rwahoraga rwigengesereye kuri Uganda kuko niho honyine rwanyuzaga ibicuruzwa bivuye mu mahanga bivuye ku cyambu cya Mombasa mu gihe bitaje n’indege.

Habyarimana Juvénal wafashe ubutegetsi mu Rwanda mu 1973, yabanje kwiyegereza ibihugu by’amahanga ahereye ku byo baturanye birimo na Uganda.

Yabaye inshuti ya Idi Amin ndetse amutumira gusura u Rwanda mu 1975. Yaraje ararusura, umubano ukomeza kuba mwiza ariko bigeze mu 1976 bijya irudubi.

Icyo gihe Idi Amin yatangije umwuka w’intambara hagati ye na Kenya, ashaka kwigarurira uduce twahoze ari utwa Uganda mbere y’ubukoloni biteza umwuka mubi mu karere.

Uganda yafunze imipaka iyihuza na Kenya, ibicuruzwa byambukaga biva i Mombasa bibura aho bica, u Rwanda n’u Burundi birahababarira cyane kuko byatungwaga ahanini n’ibicuruzwa byanyuze muri ibyo bihugu.

Inyandiko za Ambasade ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu Rwanda zahishuwe n’urubuga WikiLeaks, zivuga ko mu gihe Uganda na Kenya byabaga bishwanye, u Rwanda n’u Burundi bitari mu ntambara byahababariraga kuruta abari mu ntambara.

Ku bw’amahirwe ntabwo umwuka mubi hagati ya Uganda na Kenya wamaze igihe, ibintu bisubira mu buryo u Rwanda rwongera kwifashisha umuhanda Mombasa-Kampala-Kigali mu kohereza cyangwa kuvana ibicuruzwa mu mahanga.

Uwo muhanda niwo wanyuzwagamo 85% by’ibicuruzwa biza cyangwa biva mu Rwanda, ibindi bikanyuzwa mu ndege dore ko umuhanda uva i Kigali kugera ku cyambu cya Dar es Salaam, utari wakubatswe.

Ibyo byatumaga u Rwanda ruhora rwibombaritse kuri Uganda, ngo rudakoma rutenderi ikarufungira amazi n’umuriro.

Idi Amin akijya ku butegetsi, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’ibihugu byinshi byagiye bifatira igihugu cye ibihano bitandukanye.

Mu myaka ya 1977, Amerika yari yarafatiye ibihano Uganda, ikawa yabo yangirwa kugera ku masoko ya Amerika.

Ibyo byatumye abahinzi benshi bo muri Uganda, bahitamo kugurisha ikawa yabo mu Rwanda kuko ariho bahabwaga amafaranga menshi.

Inyandiko ya ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda yo mu Ugushyingo 1978, ivuga ko “Mu myaka ibiri yabanje, u Rwanda rwohereje hanze ikawa irenze 80 % by’iyo rusanzwe rweza kandi iyo irengaho yaturutse muri Uganda.”

Bisa nk’ibyarakaje Uganda maze mu Ukwakira 1977, ishyiraho amabwiriza ko nta kamyo cyangwa imodoka igomba guca ku butaka bwayo yikoreye toni zirenze 35.

Byagabanyije umubare w’amakamyo yakoraga ubucuruzi hagati ya Mombasa- Kampala- Kigali ndetse n’ingano y’ibyo zazaga zikoreye iragabanuka.

Leta y’u Rwanda yo yavuze ko kuba abahinzi ba Uganda bagurisha ikawa mu Rwanda atari ikibazo mu gihe yaba umuguzi n’ugura bose ntawe uhendwa.

Guhagarika urujya n’uruza ruca muri Uganda, byatumye ibicuruzwa bigera mu Rwanda biba bike, ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa byinshi biriyongera.

Urugero, nk’ikamyo yikoreraga litilo 33 000 za peteroli, zaragabanyijwe ikajya izana litilo 22000. Ibyo byatumye ba nyir’amakamyo bongera ibiciro, kwikorera toni bongera ibiciro ho 25 % kuko umwanya munini wazaga urimo ubusa.

Byatumye n’ibindi biciro ku masoko yo mu Rwanda byiyongeraho hafi 11 %. Inyandiko za Ambasade ya Amerika zivuga ko nk’aho agafuka ka sima kaguraga amadolari atatu muri Kenya, mu Rwanda kageze ku madolari 16.

Minisitiri wari ushinzwe ibikorwa remezo bya Uganda, Paul Etiang, muri Kamena 1978 yavuze ko bashyizeho toni ntarengwa amakamyo atagomba kurenza mu kubungabunga ikiraro cya Jinja gica hejuru y’ikiyaga cya Victoria ngo kizatasenyuka.

Icyo kiraro nicyo cyanyuzwagaho ibicuruzwa biva cyangwa bijya mu muhora wa ruguru, bivuye cyangwa bigiye ku cyambu cya Mombasa.

Tariki 28 Gashyantare 1978 Habyarimana yagiriye uruzinduko rutunguranye rw’iminsi itatu muri Uganda.

Ibyavuye mu itangazo ryashyizweho umukono hagati y’ibihugu byombi bigaragaza ko baganiriye ku mubano w’ibihugu ariko abasesenguzi bavuga ibindi.

Ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda muri uko kwezi, yandikiye Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga ya Amerika ivuga ko Habyarimana yagiye kwinginga Idi Amin kugira ngo adohore, amakamyo aca muri Uganda yongere kwikorera toni nyinshi.

Bivugwa kandi ko Habyarimana yagiye hashize iminsi icumi ikamyo y’umunyarwanda ishimutiwe muri Uganda ivuye i Mombasa kandi irimo ibicuruzwa by’agaciro. Amerika yavuze ko ifite amakuru nyayo ko abashimuse iyo kamyo bari ingabo za Uganda. Umushoferi n’abari bamuherekeje barishwe, ibicuruzwa bijyanwa na Guverinoma ya Uganda.

Hari hashize kandi icyumweru abacuruzi bahuye na Habyarimana bamubwira ko agomba kugira icyo akora kuri ubwo bushimusi, ndetse bivugwa ko hari andi makamyo y’abanyarwanda asaga ijana yari amaze igihe i Mombasa yarangiwe guca muri Uganda, kubera ko yari arengeje ibiro ntarengwa.

Abacuruzi babwiye Habyarimana ko kubera ko amakamyo menshi azana ibicuruzwa bike byatumye ibiciro byiyongera mu gihugu, bityo akwiriye kugira icyo akora.

Nubwo Habyarimana yamaze iminsi itatu muri Uganda ariko Amerika ivuga ko nta cyo urwo ruzinduko rwatanze kuko ibiciro byakomeje kwiyongera, itegeko ntarengwa rya toni amakamyo atagomba kurenza rigumaho.

Muri Gicurasi 1978, uwari Perezida wa Tanzania, Julius Nyerere yasuye u Rwanda, mu ntego z’uruzinduko rwe harimo gushaka inkunga zo kubaka umuhanda uva i Kigali ukagera ku cyambu cya Dar es Salaam.

Uwo muhanda u Rwanda rwari ruwukeneye cyane nk’amahirwe ya kabiri yo kwifashisha mu bucuruzi mu gihe uwa Uganda wagize ibibazo.

Uruzinduko rwa Nyerere mu Rwanda rushobora kuba rwararakeje Idi Amin kuko batacanaga uwaka nyuma y’uko Tanzania icumbikiye Milton Obote wahiritswe ku butegetsi muri Uganda, n’abandi barwanya Leta ya Uganda.

Umwuka mubi hagati ya Uganda na Tanzania wakomeje kujya irudubi, mu gihe u Rwanda na Tanzania byo umubano wakomezaga kwiyongera.

Mu Ukwakira 1978, intambara hagati ya Tanzania na Uganda yaratangiye ku mipaka y’ibyo bihugu. Ni intambara yamaze amezi menshi, ibihugu bimwe birayamagana ibindi birinumira.

U Rwanda rwabuze aho ruhagarara, rusaba impande zombi kumvikana ndetse rugerageza no kuba umuhuza ariko biranga.

Tariki 8 Ugushyingo 1978, Idi Amin yandikiye u Rwanda aruburira gukomeza gucudika na Tanzania.

Ngo yari yamenye amakuru y’uko hari ingabo za Tanzania u Rwanda rwaretse zikinjira ku butaka bwarwo zigacengera zikambuka muri Uganda zinyuze ku mupaka wa Kagitumba.

Amin yabwiye Habyarimana ko niyongera kumuhemukira azafata ingamba zikomeye.

Amakuru avuga ko u Rwanda rwasubije Uganda ruhakana ibyo rushinjwa, kandi rudashobora gukora ibintu nk’ibyo. Nyamara Amerika yo igaragaza ko ibyo Uganda yashinjaga u Rwanda byari byo ariko mu rwego rwo kwirinda ingaruka z’uburakari bwa Uganda rukabihakana.

Muri uko kwezi k’Ugushyingo, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Amerika yari yanzuye ko Uganda ifatirwa ibindi bihano nyuma yo gushoza intambara kuri Tanzania.

Ambasade ya Amerika mu Rwanda yandikiye Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’amahanga iwabo, ibamenyesha ko nibafatira Uganda ibindi bihano bishobora kugira ingaruka ku Rwanda kurusha Uganda yashoje intambara.

Bagize bati “Nituramuka dufashe umwanzuro wo kongera ibihano nkuko byafashwe n’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko kugira ngo twerekane ko dushyigikiye Tanzania, Leta ya Amerika izirengere ingaruka bizagira ku banyarwanda.”

Mu gihe Idi Amin yari asumbirijwe n’ingabo za Tanzania, yandikiye umunyamabanga mukuru wa Loni, Kurt Josef Waldheim amumenyesha ko Perezida Nyerere ari we udashaka amahoro, ko ingabo ze n’inyeshyamba zirwanya Uganda basenye ibiraro bihuza Uganda n’ibindi bihugu, ku buryo byateje ibibazo by’ubukungu mu Karere.

Intambara ya Uganda na Tanzania, yakomeje gukaza umurego kugeza muri Mata 1979 ubwo ingabo za Tanzania zafataga umujyi wa Kampala, Idi Amin agahunga igihugu, Yusuf Kironde Lule afata ubutegetsi.

Ihirima rya Amin ryashimishije cyane u Rwanda, ruhita rwandika ibaruwe ishyigikira ubutegetsi bushya, inagaragaza ko Amin yari yararuzonze.

Ati “Twishimiye ko ubu bukangurambaga bwavushije amaraso burangiye. Guverinoma y’u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda bashimishijwe n’ibimenyetso by’ubufatanye n’amahoro bigaragazwa na Guverinoma nshya muri Uganda iyobowe na Dr Lule.”

Nyuma y’ubutegetsi wa Amin, amategeko y’uko amakamyo aca muri Uganda atagomba kurenza toni 35 yakuweho urujya n’uruza rw’ibicuruzwa rurakomeza, ibicuruzwa mu Rwanda byongera kuboneka ku bwinshi nka mbere.

Nyuma umuhanda uva muri Tanzania, nawo warubatswe u Rwanda rugira amahitamo ya kabiri yo kujya ruvana ibicuruzwa hanze biciye ku cyambu cya Dar es Salaam.

Aha ni mu 1975 Habyarimana na Idi Amin babyinana n'abaturage ubwo Amin yari yasuye u Rwanda
Perezida Habyarimana yakomeje kwibombarika kuri Idi Amin (uri inyuma ahagana iburyo) kugira ngo atazafungira u Rwanda rukabura ibicuruzwa
Habyarimana (ibumoso), Michel Micombero wayoboraga u Burundi (hagati) na Idi Amin Dada ubwo bari muri Uganda mu myaka ya za 1970

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