Uko byagenze ku munsi ubwami bwakuweho mu Rwanda, mu myaka 59 ishize

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 25 Nzeri 2020 saa 07:46
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Imyaka 59 irashize bwa mbere mu Rwanda habaye amatora ya referandumu yiswe ‘kamaparampaka, yari agamije guhindura imitegekere igihugu cyari kimazemo imyaka amagana y’ubwami, hagatorwa ubutegetsi bugendera kuri Repubulika.

Tariki 25 Nzeri 1961 abanyarwanda batandukanye bazindukiye mu matora, yagombaga kwemeza niba bemera ko ubwami bugumaho cyangwa babuhakana. Ni amatora yakozwe umwami yarirukanywe, ibihumbi bya bamwe mu baturage biganjemo Abatutsi barafashe iy’ubuhungiro nyuma y’itotezwa bari bamaze iminsi bakorerwa n’abo mu bwoko bw’Abahutu.

Uwo munsi wa kamarampaka hatoye abantu 1.274.631. Urupapuro rw’itora rwari ruriho ibibazo bibiri, icya mbere kibaza niba utora yemera ko ubwami bugumaho mu Rwanda, icya kabiri kibaza niba Kigeli V Ndahindurwa yakomeza kuba Umwami w’u Rwanda.

Ibyavuye mu matora bigaragaza ko abatoye Oya kuri ibyo bibazo byombi bari 79 .60 %, naho abatoye Yego baba 20.40 %.

Uwo munsi kandi nibwo habaye amatora y’abadepite, aho ishyaka PARMEHUTU rya Grégoire Kayibanda ryayatsinze ku kigero cya 77 % rikabona imyanya 35 mu nteko.

Nubwo abatoraga basabwaga kuvuga niba bemera ubwami cyangwa batabwemera, Umwami Kigei V Ndahindurwa yari amaze umwaka n’igice yarahejejwe hanze y’igihugu, nyuma yo kwemererwa kwitabira ibirori byo kwizihiza ubwigenge bwa Congo tariki 30 Kamena 1960, yashaka kugaruka mu gihugu ababiligi bari bararagijwe u Rwanda bakamwangira.

Ibyabaye tariki 25 Nzeri 1959, ni umusozo w’inkundura yari yaratangijwe mu 1957, iyobowe n’abarimo Kayibanda Grégoire, Gitera Joseph bashyigikiwe n’ababiligi, inkundura bitaga ko igamije kubohora rubanda rugufi rwari rwarakandamijwe n’ubwami.

Umunyamateka, Innocent Nizeyimana yabwiye IGIHE ko amatora ya kamarampaka yo kuwa 25 Nzeri 1961, mu migambi y’ababiligi batifuzaga ko ubwami bukomeza. Ni ibintu avuga ko byari byaratangiye guhera ubwo umwami Mutara II Rudahigwa yatangiraga i Bujumbura tariki 25 Nyakanga 1959.

Yagize ati “Amaze gutanga, visi Guverineri (wa Ruanda-Urundi) Jean Paul Harroy yavuze ko bumvaga ubwami mu Rwanda burangiye, ariko ku munsi wo kumutabariza (Rudahigwa) abanyarwanda barasizora, bararahira barirenga ko bidashoka ko umwami atabarizwa hatabanje kwimikwa undi umusimbura.”

“Himitswe Kigeli Ndahindurwa. Harroy yavuze ko basanze nta kundi babigenza bagapfa kumushyiraho, ariko bagashaka uburyo atazagira ijambo mu gihugu. Niyo mpamvu kuwa 20 Kamena 1960, bamuhaye ubutumire bwo kujya mu munsi mukuru w’ubwigenge bwa Congo, kuva icyo gihe ntiyongeye kwemererwa kugaruka mu gihugu.”

Mu mpera za 1960, ikibazo cy’u Rwanda cyagejejwe mu Muryango w’Abibumbye, maze mu nama ya wo ya 15 ifata imyanzuro isaba ko umwami agaruka mu gihugu akabona uko yiyamamaza, ndetse impunzi zikabanza gutaha mbere y’uko amatora ya kamarampaka aba.

Nizeyimana avuga ko iyo myanzuro imaze gutangazwa, amashyaka arimo Parmehutu ya Kayibanda bayamaganiye kure ndetse bashakisha uburyo bwose itazashyirwa mu bikorwa.

Ati “Parmehutu n’amashyaka y’abahezanguni b’abahutu bateguye coup d’etat y’i Gitarama, ababiligi babafasha kuyishyira mu bikorwa. Colonel Guy Logiest wari Rezida udasanzwe, abyivugira mu gitabo cye yise Mission au Rwanda, aho agira ati ’ku wa 25 Mutarama 1961 ahagana saa yine z’ijoro, mbona Kayibanda ageze iwanjye mu buryo butunguranye. Mubaza ikimugenza ambwira ko asize imodoka ye nko muri metero 200 ngo hatagira umubona. Ambwira ko biriwe i Gitarama, basesenguye bagasanga imyanzuro y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye iha amahirwe UNAR kuko kwigiza amatora imbere, no kureka umwami agataha bidaha amahirwe PARMEHUTU yo kuzatsinda amator’, ati ’none turashaka gusezerera ubwami kuwa 28 Mutarama 1961’.”

Guy Logiest mu gitabo cye avuga ko yahise abemerera ubufasha mu gutegura iyo nama yahirikiwemo ubwami i Gitarama.

Agira ati “Byose byagenze neza nk’uko nari nabiteguye njye na Kayibanda. Gusa nababajwe no kuba nta muzungu wagiye muri iyi guverinoma nshya yari igiyeho".

Nyuma yo guhirika ubwami binyuranyije n’ibyo Loni yari yasabye, byababaje cyane uwo muryango ndetse Guy Logiest mu gitabo cye avuga ko yari agiye kwirukanwa abizira.

Ubwami bumaze guhirikwa, Loni yarabyanze ndetse isaba ko haba amatora ya kamarampaka, tariki 25 Nzeri 1961 uba umunsi w’ayo matora.

Buri buke ngo amatora abe, tariki 24 Nzeri 1961, umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yagerageje kwinjira mu Rwanda rwihishwa nibura ngo amatora abe ahari, abanyarwanda bumve ko ubwami buhari, baze gutora babyemeza.

Abibiligi bamaze kumenya ko yinjiye mu gihugu, baramuhize bamuvana i Nyamirambo mu Mujyi wa Kigali, bamwuriza indege bamusubiza hanze y’igihugu.

Nizeyimana avuga ko icyerekana ko kamarampaka bwari uburyo bwateguwe bwo guhereza Kayibanda ubutegetsi, ari uko Guy Logiest ubwe yivugiye ko amaze gufasha Kayibanda guhirika ubwami abikoreye i Gitarama, intego yari yamuzanye yumvaga yayigezeho.

Guy Logiest mu gitabo cye agira ati “N’iyo bari kunyirukana ariko akazi kanjye nk’umukoloni nari nkarangije kuko ubutegetsi nari maze kubushyira mu maboko y’abahutu, ndetse n’igisirikare gishyashya nari maze kubaka cyari kigizwe n’abahutu gusa.”

Kuri we, ngo n’iyo abatutsi baza gutsinda, byari byoroshye ko abahutu bashyizwe mu gisirikare bari kubahirika

Nyuma yo gukuraho ubwami binyuze mu matora, Loni yatangiye imyiteguro yo guhereza u Rwanda ubwigenge, bugerwaho tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962.

Muri Kanama 2018 ubwo yamurikaga igitabo cye ‘Rwanda 1959-1962, La Révolution manquée’, Antoine Mugesera yavuze ko kuba ubwami bwari buvuyeho mu Rwanda ntacyo byari bitwaye, iyo biza gukorwa ku neza y’Abanyarwanda bose.

Yagize ati “Bashoboraga gukuraho Rudahigwa ariko ntibashyireho irondamoko. Ubwami nta gihe butavuyeho, ariko ikibazo bimitse irondamoko. Nta cyerekezo abashakaga revolisiyo bari bafite. Iyo batimika irondamoko bari kubona ubutegetsi ariko ntihabe ibyago nk’ibyo twagize. N’abahutu ntibababohoye, babatamitse uburozi bw’irondamoko.”

Yakomeje avuga ko ikibazo u Rwanda rwagize ari uko habuze abashaka impinduramatwara nyabo, baharanira ineza y’Abanyarwanda bose.

Ati “Iyo haza izindi ngufu zitari iza Rukeba, Kayibanda na Gitera, hakaza abavuga bati ‘twibohoze abakoloni’, byari gufata igihe ariko byari gushoboka. Ntabwo Ababiligi bakunze Kayibanda, bakunze uwabahaga icyizere ko bazakomeza gutegeka. N’abatutsi bari kubona ubwigenge iyo baha icyizere Ababiligi, bati ‘ibyo mushaka ko dukora tuzabikora.”

Mugesera avuga ko irondomoko ryabibwe guhera mu 1957 n’amashyaka yavugaga ko aje kubohoza Abahutu, ariryo ryagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994.

Tariki 25 Nzeri 1961, mu gihugu hose hakozwe amatora ya Kamarampaka n'ay'abadepite

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