U Rwanda rw’Umwami Rudahigwa, ingoma yavangiwe

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 21 Werurwe 2019 saa 01:40
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Amateka y’u Rwanda yerekana ko Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa yimitswe Se Yuhi V Musinga, amaze kwirukanwa n’abakoloni mu gihugu. Kimwe mu byatumye abakoloni bamutoranya ngo amusimbure, ni uko yari muto kandi yemeye gukorera ku mategeko yabo nk’uko babishakaga.

Guhera mu 1931 kugeza mu 1940, Rudahigwa yagerageje gukurikiza amategeko y’Ababiligi ndetse anategeka abatware kubyubahiriza.

Mu mitegekere y’u Rwanda, Rudahigwa ntiyagombaga kandi kwirengagiza ingufu za Kiliziya Gatolika, kuko kuyisuzugura byashobora kumukurira ibyago dore ko ifatanyije n’Abakoloni bari bamaze gukura Se ku butegetsi.

Byatumye ayiyegereza cyane, abigaragaza abatizwa we na nyina Kankazi mu 1943, yongera kubyerekana mu 1946 atura u Rwanda Kristu Umwami ndetse na tariki 26 Gicurasi 1947 ubwo i Kabgayi, yambikwaga impeta yahawe na Papa Piyo XII amushimira ko yateje imbere ubukiristu mu Rwanda.

Rudahingwa yatangiye kuyobora akunzwe n’abakoloni ariko bamwe mu baturage ntibari bamwishimiye kuko babonaga ari igikoresho, ntacyo akora ngo abarenganure abakize ubuhake n’uburetwa bakoreshwaga amanywa n’ijoro.

Yimye mu gihe abakoloni bari bazanye imirimo mishya yitwaga iy’iterambere yo gukora uburetwa bakora imihanda, bahinga ibihingwa bategetswe nk’ikawa n’ibindi byatumaga umwanya munini bawumara bakorera abakoloni kurusha uko bakorera ingo zabo.

Abatware biganjemo ab’abatutsi nibo bakoreshaga rubanda rugufi uburetwa nk’uko bari barabitegetswe n’abakoloni. Mu buretwa habagamo ibihano ku banze kubukora cyangwa ababukoze nabi, hakabamo imirimo ivunanye kandi idahemberwa, ku buryo byageze aho abaturage banga urunuka abatware ndetse batangira kubabonamo ikibazo kurusha abakoloni.

Mu 1931 Ababiligi batangiye ibarura rusange ry’abaturage bose bafite imyaka 18, bapima uburebure, ubutunzi, bagenzura ibisekuru n’ibindi.

Nyuma y’umwaka umwe (1932), hatanzwe amakarita ndangamuntu yiswe ‘Ibuku’ ku bari bujuje imyaka, zisohoka zirimo n’ubwoko bwa buri umwe hashingiwe ku bipimo by’ubutunzi, indeshyo n’ibindi.

Iyo karita yari yanditse mu Kidage n’Ikinyarwanda niyo yashyizwemo bwa mbere ubwoko bw’Abatutsi, abahutu n’abatwa kugira ngo abazungu babashe gutandukanya abanyarwanda.

Bamwe mu banyarwanda barabyamaganye ariko Rudahigwa arabacyaha abategeka kubaha abazungu.

Umwami Rudahigwa kugeza mu 1940 yasaga n’ukiri mu kwaha kw’abazungu. Nta butegetsi na bumwe yari afite dore ko n’abo batware bapyinagazaga rubanda rugufi nta bubasha yari abafiteho kuko bahembwaga n’abakoloni.

Guhera mu 1940 kugeza mu 1948 Rudahigwa yatangiye gukanguka, atangira kubona akarengane abaturage bari bafite ndetse abona ko nta cyubahiro afite mu gihugu mu gihe nta mwanzuro n’umwe ashobora gufata cyangwa ngo avuganire abaturage be.

Mu 1941, bamwe mu banyarwanda babwiye umwami ko bafite ubwoba bw’uburyo abantu batangiye kwanga ubuhake kubera ko bigoye kububangikanya n’uburetwa. Rudahigwa yatangiye kwiga uko azabigeza ku bakoloni.

Mu 1945 Rudahigwa yamenyesheje Guverineri wa Ruanda-Urundi Eugène Jungers, ko icyaba cyiza ari uko ubuhake bwacika.

Jungers yategetse ko hakorwa iperereza hakarebwa koko niba abanyarwanda benshi bifuza ko bucika, icyo gihe barabigaragaza.

Ababiligi babanje kwanga gukuraho ubuhake, Rudahigwa akomeza kubitsimbararaho.

Ababiligi babonye Rudahigwa yatannye bashaka kumukuraho

Raporo ‘The unity of Rwandans before the colonial period and under the colonial rule’ yo mu 1998 yakozwe na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda, ivuga ko abakoloni batangiye kubibona ko Rudahigwa atangiye kwiyegereza abaturage no kubavuganira ari nako ashaka gusubirana icyubahiro nk’umwami.

Byarababaje cyane maze mu 1945 Guverineri Jungers ashaka kumukura ku butegetsi. Yari afite umugambi wo kumusimbuza undi wize mu ishuri ry’abana b’abatware (Indatwa) ufite indangagaciro n’umuco by’abanyaburayi.

Icyo gitekerezo cyari gishyigikiwe na Frère Secundien wayoboraga Ishuri ry’Indatwa. Secundien yamuhaye amazina y’abanyeshuri yigishije abona bashobora gusimbura Rudahigwa, mu batanzwe harimo Bwanakweli Prosper na Ndazaro Lazare.

Ntabwo uwo mugambi wahise ushyirwa mu bikorwa kuko babonaga bahubutse bishobora gutera imvururu, bakomeza gucungira hafi Rudahigwa.

Mu 1948 mu Rwanda haje intumwa za Loni zari zije kureba imiyoborere y’ababiligi n’uburyo bari gufasha igihugu kwiteza imbere ngo kizagere ubwo kigenga.

Icyo gihe Ababiligi bagize ubwoba ko Rudahigwa ashobora kubarega akavuga amakosa bakora ariko siko yabigenje ahubwo yavuze ko babanye neza. Rudahigwa yasabye n’abatware kutabwira intumwa za Loni ibibi by’ababiligi ari nabyo byatumye Raporo y’intumwa za Loni, isohoka ishima uburyo ababiligi bayoboye u Rwanda.
Byashimishije ababiligi bahemba Rudahigwa gusura igihugu cyabo mu 1949.

Icyakora hari byo Raporo ya Loni yanenze ababiligi birimo kudashyiraho uburyo buteza imbere uburezi no kutagira gahunda ihamye yo kugeza u Rwanda, ku bwigenge busesuye.

Rudahigwa yaciye ubuhake atangira gusaba ubwigenge

Tariki 14 Nyakanga 1952, Umwami w’u Bubiligi, Baudouin, yaciye iteka ryemeza ivugururwa ry’imiyoborere y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi hagamijwe kubigeza ku bwigenge.

Icyo gihe habaye impinduka zimwe na zimwe nko gushyiraho inama njyanama kuri buri Chefferie na Sous Chefferie, ku rwego rw’Intara no ku rwego rw’igihugu hashyizwe inama nkuru y’igihugu (Conseil Superier du Pays, CSP).

Guhera mu 1953 habayeho amatora muri izo nzego ariho hatangiye kuzamuka cyane ikibazo cy’abahutu n’abatutsi.

Intandaro yabaye ko mu nama njyanama zatowe icyo gihe, uretse kuri za sous Chefferies ahandi imyanya yari yihariwe n’abatutsi. Ibyo byaterwaga nuko lisite zo gutoramo abajyanama zatoranywaga n’umwungiriza w’umutware kandi abatware bari abatutsi, ibyo byatumaga hatoranywa bene wabo cyangwa inshuti zabo.

Iryo teka rishya kandi ryahaga ububasha bwinshi umwami n’abatware. Bamwe mu bahutu bari barize byabateye impungenge, batangira gutekereza ko noneho bagiye gukandamizwa kurusha mbere ububasha bukiri mu maboko y’abakoloni.

Ikibazo cy’ubuhake n’uburetwa cyakomeje kuremerera abaturage ku buryo benshi bari barakariye abakoloni kimwe n’abatutsi barimo abatware babategekaga.

Rudahigwa yakomeje kubona ko ari ikibazo maze akigeza ku Nama Nkuru y’Igihugu bakiganiraho. Tariki 1 Gicurasi 1954, umwami yasinye iteka rica ubuhake mu Rwanda hose ndetse anategeka abatware kugabana n’abagaragu babo.

Mu 1955 Rudahigwa yongeye kugirira uruzinduko mu Burayi, amaze kubona iterambere abandi bagezeho inyota yo gushaka ubwigenge irushaho kwiyongera.

Ikibazo cy’abahutu n’abatutsi cyafashe intera

Muri Nzeri 1957, rya tsinda rya Loni ryagombaga kugaruka mu Rwanda kureba uko ibintu bimeze.

Muri Gashyantare uwo mwaka, abagize Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu basohoye inyandiko bise ‘Mise au Point’ yari ikubiyemo ibibazo by’ingenzi igihugu gifite n’icyakorwa ngo bikemuke.

Mu byo basabye harimo kubaka amashuri menshi abanyarwanda bakabasha kwiga, guha u Rwanda ubwigenge Rudahigwa akaba Umwami uganje, guha ubwisanzure iyo nama Nkuru ikajya ifata ibyemezo itabanje kugisha inama abazungu, gushinga sosiyete z’ubucuruzi zihuriweho n’abirabura n’abazungu n’ibindi.

Bamwe mu bahutu bari barageze mu ishuri bamaganye iyo nyandiko bavuga ko ubwigenge abatutsi (abakomeye ibwami) bari gusaba ari uburyo bwo gushaka gukomeza kubakandamiza, bakikubira ibyiza by’igihugu bonyine.

Nyuma y’ukwezi kumwe, kuwa 24 Werurwe 1957 abo bahutu barimo Grégoire Kayibanda wari umwanditsi mukuru wa Kinyamateka na Calliope Mulindahabi bandikiye Visi Guverineri wa Ruanda-Urundi, Jean Paul Harroy, bamugaragariza ibibazo biri mu Rwanda.

Iyi nyandiko yamenyekanye ku izina rya Manifesto y’Abahutu hari ibyagaragajwemo bijya gusa n’ibya Mise au Point nko mu bukungu n’uburezi. Icyakora iyi nyandiko yazamuye ikindi kibazo cy’amoko.

Kayibanda na bagenzi be bavuze ko mu gihugu hari ubusumbane bw’amoko, basaba ko abahutu na bo bashyirwa mu nzego z’ubutegetsi, kuvanaho uburyo abajya mu nama nkuru y’igihugu batorwamo, kohereza abana mu mashuri hashingiwe ku bwoko ngo hatagira ubuhezwa, ubwigenge bushingiye kuri Repubulika n’ibindi.

Bivugwa ko nubwo iyi nyandiko yasinyweho n’abagera ku icyenda, ngo yanditswe na Kayibanda we na Mulindahabi, bafatanyije n’abapadiri babiri b’ababiligi babaga i Kabgayi.

Manifesto y’abahutu imaze gusohoka, hari abatutsi bakomeye byarakaje, tariki 17 Gicurasi bakwirakwiza indi baruwa yavugaga nta mubano uri hagati y’umututsi n’umuhutu.

Ibibazo by’abahutu n’abatutsi byatangiye gufata indi ntera hatangira gushingwa amashyirahamwe ashingiye ku moko nka Mouvement Sociale Muhutu ya Kayibanda ari nayo yaje kuvamo ishyaka rya Parmehutu.

Umwami Rudahigwa yaje kubona ko ibintu bikomeye maze tariki 30 Werurwe 1958 ashyiraho Komisiyo iyari gizwe n’abahutu batandatu n’abatutsi batandatu yagombaga gusesengura niba koko mu gihugu harimo ikibazo cy’abahutu n’abatutsi.

Raporo yagombaga gutangazwa ubwo inama nkuru y’igihugu yari kuba iteranye muri Kamena uwo mwaka. Bivugwa ko hari abantu bamwe barimo abagize inama nkuru bayitambitse hakemezwa ko mu gihugu nta kibazo cy’amoko gihari.

Rudahigwa yasabye ababiligi ko amoko yavanwa mu ndangamuntu agaragaza ko ateye ikibazo ariko bamwe mu bahutu baramwamagana, bavuga ko amoko avuye mu ndangamuntu abatutsi babona urwaho rwo kwigwizaho ibyiza by’igihugu nta we ubaburanyije kuko atabona ibimenyetso.

Ababiligi bamaze kubona ko abahutu batangiye guhaguruka bakivumbura ku batutsi, bafashe umwanzuro wo kubajya inyuma.

Impamvu ahanini ni uko umwami Rudahigwa n’abandi bakomeye ibwami basabaga ko bahabwa ubwigenge kandi abazungu ntibongere kugaragara mu mitegekere y’igihugu, mu gihe Kayibanda n’abandi bahutu bamwe bagaragazaga ko ikibazo bafite ari abatutsi babatsikamiye, ko ubwigenge bukwiye gutegurwa hakaba amatora kandi ababiligi bagakomeza gufasha igihugu kwiyubaka.

Col Guy Logiest wari Rezida udasanzwe mu Rwanda, mu gitabo cye ‘Mission to Rwanda’ yanditse ko nyuma yo kuganira na Musenyeri André Perraudin na Grégoire Kayibanda, ku kibazo cy’abahutu n’abatutsi, ngo yahise yumva neza uburyo abahutu baryamiwe maze yiyemeza kubarenganura mu buryo bwose bushoboka.

Kuwa 11 Gashyantare 1959, Musenyeri Perraudin wa Kabgayi na we yandikiye abakiristu be ibaruwa yiswe Super Omnia Caritas cyangwa ‘Urukundo mbere ya byose’. Yavuzemo ko mu gihugu hari ikibazo gikomeye cy’ubusumbane hagati y’amoko, agaragaza ko ashyigikiye ibitekerezo bya Kayibanda na bagenzi be byo kwigaranzura abatutsi.

Nyamara ibaruwa ya Mgr Aloys Bigirumwami yo kuwa 5 Nzeri 1958 mu kinyamakuru Christian Paper yavuze ko kuba mu Rwanda hari abahutu, abatutsi n’abatwa atari cyo kibazo ko igikenewe ahubwo ari uburyo bwiza bwo kuzamura imibereho y’abaturage.

Rudahigwa yakomeje gushaka uburyo yakemura ikibazo cyari mu Rwanda ariko by’umwihariko ashaka ko haboneka ubwigenge bwihuse kugira ngo ibibazo by’abanyarwanda babyikemurire ubwabo.

Bitunguranye yaje kugwa i Bujumbura kuwa 25 Nyakanga 1959 apfa nyuma yo guhura n’umuganga we. Yari yagiye muri uwo mujyi guhura n’ababiligi bayoboraga Ruanda-Urundi.

Rudahigwa yatanze hashize iminsi abakoloni bemeye ko mu gihugu hashingwa amashyaka ya politiki mu kwitegura amatora y’inzego z’ibanze yari agiye kuza. Nyuma y’urupfu rwe nibwo havutse amashyaka menshi nka za APROSOMA, UNAR, RADER na Parmehutu.

Ibihe bitandukanye by'amwe mu mateka y'u Rwanda
Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa mu 1938
Rudahigwa mu Ugushyingo 1958
Umwami Rudahigwa ari kumwe n'abapadiri
Umwami Rudahigwa yerekwa inyambo mu myaka ya 1950
Umubiligi ari kumwe na Rudahigwa mu birori
Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa
Rudahigwa arimo gusoma igitabo
Umwami Rudahigwa n'umwamikazi mu ngoro yabo i Nyanza
Umwami Rudahigwa n'umwamikazi Rosalie Gicanda
Col Guy Logiest wari Rezida w'u Rwanda
Mu 1932 nibwo habayeho ibarura rigaragaza abatutsi n'abahutu nyuma yo gupimwa

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