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Runguruka mu buzima bw’abakozi ba leta nyuma gato ya Jenoside: Bakoreraga ibiribwa

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 7 June 2022 saa 12:00
Yasuwe :

"Ni gute igihugu cyasenyutse mu buryo bukabije cyaje guhinduka urugero rwiza rw’ubukungu mu ruhando rw’ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere?". Iyi ni interuro uzasanga ku gitabo Rwanda Inc cy’Abanyamerika, Patricia Crisafulli na Andrea Redmond, gishima iterambere ry’u Rwanda nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Buri wese uzi u Rwanda ubwo Jenoside yahagarikwaga, atungurwa bikomeye n’aho rugeze rwiyubaka. Ni urugendo rwasabye imbaraga nyinshi, ubwitange n’umutima wo kongera kubaka igihugu cyari cyarabaye umuyonga.

Uwabona minisitiri cyangwa umuyobozi ukomeye ahembwa agatubutse uyu munsi, agenda mu modoka itabonana, ntiyakwemera ko hari igihe abari ku rwego rwe bajyaga ku kazi n’amaguru ukwezi kwashira bagahembwa ibiribwa bagataha bishimye.

Mu 1994, ubwo ingabo zari iza RPA zahagarikaga Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi zikanabohora u Rwanda, byari inzozi kwiyumvisha ko igihugu kizongera kubaho kikiyubaka kikagera ku rwego kiriho ubu.

Muri Kigali n’ahandi imirambo y’abishwe muri Jenoside yari ikiri mu mihanda, inzu zarasenyutse, banki zarasahuwe, leta nta faranga yagiraga, nta bikoresho, abantu bari mu rujijo, nta cyizere bafite.

Icyo gihe abari batuye iwabo bari mbarwa, abenshi bari barabohoje. Abarokotse Jenoside ibikomere byari bibisi cyane, ubwoba, amarira n’agahinda ari byose, utibagiwe impunzi zari uruhuri cyane cyane mu nkambi za RDC na Tanzania.

Ku wa 4 Nyakanga 1994, ubwo hatangazwa ko igihugu kibohowe ndetse na jenoside imaze guhagarikwa, FPR Inkotanyi yahise ijya mu mishyikirano n’andi mashyaka kugira ngo hashyirweho guverinoma n’inteko ishinga amategeko. Icyo gihe hakumiriwe amashyaka yijanditse muri jenoside ari yo; MRND, CDR, n’amashyaka yari yarabaye "Power".

Ni bwo bwa mbere hari habaye impinduka mu byo amasezerano ya Arusha yari yarateganyije. Imyanya yo muri guverinoma n’inteko yagabanywe n’amashyaka hakuwemo ya yandi yijanditse muri Jenoside, hanashyirwaho umwanya wa Visi Perezida. Ikindi gishya ni uko hatanzwe imyanya itanu mu nteko y’abadepite bahagarariye igisirikare barimo Rose Kabuye, Maj Furuma n’abandi.

Amateka yerekana ko u Rwanda rwigeze kubaho nta leta, nta nteko, nta bucamanza, ni igihe Leta yiyise iy’abatabazi ya Theodore Sindikubwabo yahungaga muri Mata kugeza ku wa 19 Nyakanga 1994, ubwo guverinoma nshya yarahiye iyobowe na Perezida Bizimungu Pasteur, Visi Perezida Gen. Maj Paul Kagame na Minisitiri w’Intebe, Faustin Twagiramungu.

Icyo gihe, uhereye kuri za Minisiteri nta bakozi zari zifite, nta ngengo y’imari, nta bikoresho, inyubako zari zarasenyutse, ibigo bya leta ari uko, muri make byari uguhera kuri zeru.

Abari abakozi ba leta bamwe bishwe muri Jenoside abandi barahunga, iri ryari ihurizo rikomeye kubona abakora akazi ngo igihugu cyongere cyiyubake. Byasabye ko hajyaho komisiyo yari iyobowe na Gahima Gerard, yashakishaga abantu ikabashyira mu myanya igendeye ku makuru bo bitangiye kuko nta bushobozi bwo kugenzura ko ibyo bavuze ari ukuri bwari buhari.

Abari batahutse bavuye muri Zaïre, Burundi, Uganda bo bashoboraga gutanga ibyangombwa ariko aho bakoze badashobora kuhagaragaza ngo bishoboke ko bigenzurwa. Iyi yari imbogamizi ku kubona abakozi bashoboye. Ntibitangaje ko hashobora kuba hari ababigendeyeho batanga umwirondoro utari wo kandi babona imirimo myiza.

Abahabwaga akazi bari bazi neza ko batazahembwa, nta bikoresho bifashisha mu kazi bafite. Gusa igishimishije muri ibyo ni uko abo bose bahawe akazi bari bameze nk’abakorerabushake, bafite inyota yo gukora kandi babyishimiye.

Twibutse ko abenshi mu bakozi babaga mu nzu babohoje zitujuje ibyangombwa, zimwe nta miryango, nta madirishya bashyiramo ibitenge, nta mazi, bakabanamo ari benshi cyane. Ubwo buzima bwari bugoye bwo kubona iby’ibanze, ntibyabaciye intege kuko hari umuhate w’indashyikirwa wo kubaka igihugu.

Birumvikana nk’igihugu cyari kivuye mu ntambara na jenoside nta mishahara cyari gifite yo guhemba abakozi. Icyo gihe hagiyeho porogaramu yitwa ’Food for work’, abantu bagahembwa ibiribwa.

Abantu barasaranganyaga kandi hatarebwe urwego rwa buri muntu ahubwo byagenderaga ku mubare w’abari mu rugo. Urugero ukora isuku ufite abantu batanu yanganyaga ibiryo ahabwa n’umuyobozi mukuru ufite batanu kandi buri wese akanyurwa.

Kujya ku kazi abantu bagendaga n’amaguru. Ba Minisitiri b’icyo gihe nta pfunwe baterwaga no kugenda n’amaguru kuko bose bagendaga mu muhanda. Wabonaga ikivunge cy’abakozi mu muhanda bishimye bagiye cyangwa bavuye mu kazi. Reka tubyite ko byari bimeze nko kuri wa munsi wa siporo rusange ’Car Free Day’.

Mu mpera za 1995 ni bwo habonetse uburyo bwo guha abantu imishahara bitaga ’urusenda’ kubera ubuke. Nk’umuyobozi muri Minisiteri uhembwa muri za miliyoni uyu munsi, yahembwaga ibihumbi 150Frw ariko ntibimubere umutwaro.

Muri 1997 kubera imishinga myinshi yari muri za Minisiteri kandi abakoraga muri iyo mishinga bagahembwa neza bagendeye ku gipimo cy’abaterankunga, haje kuba ubwumvikane n’abaterankunga kugira ngo bidatera ishyari abakozi ba leta, hajyaho gahunda yo gutanga uduhimbazamusyi ku bakozi.

Umuterankunga mu mishinga runaka mu ngengo y’imari ye yashyiragamo agahimbazamusyi k’abakozi. Urugero nka wa muyobozi mukuru wahembwaga ibihumbi 150Frw hiyongereyeho andi ibihumbi 150Frw y’agahimbazamusyi.

Ibi byarinze amahari n’ubwivumbure bwashobokaga hagati y’abakorera imishinga n’abakozi ba leta, byatumye kandi abakozi ba leta batajya mu mishinga bakurikiye ko yahembaga neza.

Ibikoresho byo kwifashisha mu biro byari ikibazo. Abaterankunga n’imishinga bakorana na za Minisiteri bazigeneraga ibikoresho nk’intebe, ameza, impapuro, imodoka ababyibuka bazi pulake za VP (Vehicules de Projet) zari zuzuye muri za Minisiteri cyangwa ikamyo zanditseho Don de l’Unicef kuko wenda Minisiteri ikora mu byo kurengera abana.

Uwabona ibiro abakozi bakoreramo uyu munsi yagira ngo ni ko byahoze. Wageraga kuri Minisiteri ukabona yarasenyutse, inyinshi zavuguruwe n’ingengo y’imari y’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’u Burayi.

Uko leta yiyubakaga ni nako ku ruhande igisirikare cyahanganaga n’abacengezi mu Majyaruguru n’u Burengerazuba. Icyo gihe mu bakozi ba leta harimo indi ntambara, abakoze ku bwa Habyarimana hari abasubijwe mu myanya bakoragamo cyangwa bashyirwa ahandi ariko ukabona bagitsimbaraye ku bya kera.

Bari bafitanye imikoranire n’abari mu nkambi zo muri RDC ku buryo no ku mushahara bahembwaga uko wari muto kose batangaga umusanzu wo kwitegura ngo bazongere baze gutera bakureho ubutegetsi bwa FPR.

Muri make, uko Leta yiyubakaga ni nako hari bamwe bayimungaga. Hari intambara ebyiri; iy’amasasu n’iy’uko inkingi za leta zubakwa zari zifite abazimunga.

Uwaganiriye na IGIHE wakoraga mu rwego rw’ubutabera yaduhaye urugero rw’abacamanza bakoraga mbere mu nkiko ku bwa Habyarimana, bamwe basubizwa muri iyo myanya ariko mu mikorere ya buri munsi byagaragaraga ko bakurura basubiza inyuma bakanabivuga.

Aba barangwaga no gusuzugura ababayobora ku mugaragaro, batumirwa nu nama ntibajyeyo, ntibatange n’impamvu, baba bayigiyemo bakajya kunaniza.

Hari abibuka inama nkuru y’ubucamanza iyobowe na Jean Mutsinzi isaba kwirukana Maj Cyiza Augustin wayoboraga urukiko rusesa imanza, Jean Rubaduka, Alype Nkundiyaremye wahunze mbere y’uko inama yo kumwirukana iterana n’abandi.

Icyo kintu cyari mu nzego nyinshi. Nko mu nteko ishinga amategeko, hari abadepite bagiye birukanwa kubera kwitwaza ko bafite uburenganzira bwo kuvuga bakagaragaza ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside, bakananiza bagenzi babo bitwaje ko ari ibitekerezo batanga.

Hari abakozi ba Leta bakoze iminsi bahembwa 'patte jaune' bitewe n'uko amikoro yari ataraboneka

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