Mwalimu Julius Nyerere; umugabo wabaniye u Rwanda kugeza ku munsi wa nyuma

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 14 Ukwakira 2019 saa 04:02
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Imyaka 20 irashize umugabo ufatwa nk’intwari ya Afurika, umubyeyi wa Tanzania Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere yitabye Imana.

Kuwa 14 Ukwakira 1999, nibwo inkuru mbi yatashye muri Tanzania na Afurika yose ko Mwalimu Nyerere yashizemo umwuka mu bitaro bya St Thomas i Londres, nyuma y’iminsi mike agize ikibazo cyo guturika k’udutsi tw’ubwonko.

Afatwa nk’Umunyafurika nyawe, waharaniye ko uyu mugabane ugira ubwisanzure busesuye, ko Afurika igira ijambo, akaba n’umwe mu bashinze Umuryango w’Ubumwe bwa Afurika, OUA ubu yahindutse AU.

Umubano wa Tanzania n’u Rwanda mu ntekerezo za Nyerere

Tanganyika (yaje kwihuza na Zanzibar bikaba Tanzania) yabonye ubwigenge mbere y’u Rwanda, tariki 9 Ukuboza 1961, ibukuye mu maboko y’Abongereza.

Ntibyatinze u Rwanda tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962 narwo rubona ubwigenge, buvuye mu maboko y’u Bubiligi. Umubano mwiza w’ibihugu byombi watangiye ubwo, dore ko u Rwanda rwari ruyobowe na Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda na Tanzania ya Julius Nyerere, bombi bari bahuriye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Politiki ya socialisme igamije guteza imbere abaturage icyarimwe, aho kuba umuntu umwe ku giti cye (capitalisme).

Umubano mwiza w’abo bakuru b’ibihugu byombi wahereye aho ariko imigirire yabo itandukanye. Nyerere yari arajwe ishinga no guhuriza hamwe abaturage b’igihugu cye no gukora ibizamura imibereho myiza yabo.

Mu Rwanda ho byari bitandukanye kuko igice kimwe cy’abaturage, Abatutsi bari bari kumeneshwa mu gihugu , bicwa abandi babayeho mu bwoba kandi bikozwe cyangwa bishyigikiwe n’ubutegetsi.

Iyo migirire Nyerere yarayibonye ndetse arayamagana yivuye inyuma. Bivugwa ko Kayibanda akijya ku butegetsi yasuye Tanganyika agahura na Perezida Nyerere.

Mu biganiro bagiranye, ngo Nyerere yamubajije yarakaye ati “Ese ubona koko turi kumwe? Ibindi bihugu bya Afurika birajwe ishinga no kwirukana abakoloni ariko wowe usa n’aho urajwe ishinga no kwirukana abaturage bawe mu ngo zabo.”

Ntabwo Kayibanda yamusubije ahubwo ngo “ yataye umutwe, azimya isigara yari afite mu ntoki, amaboko ayashyira mu mifuka y’ikoti rye” aramwihorera.

Nubwo Nyerere atishimiye imiyoborere ya Kayibanda, yakomeje kuba inshuti y’u Rwanda nkuko bigaragara mu gitabo White Paradise, Hell for Africa cyanditswe na Nsekuye Bizimana, kuko yizeraga ko ubumwe bwa Afurika buzava mu gufatanya.

Ibihugu byombi byatangiye imishinga y’iterambere. U Rwanda rwifuzaga umubano mwiza na Tanzania kugira ngo rubashe kugera ku cyambu cya Dar es Salaam kibone inzira yo kunyuzamo ibicuruzwa, mu gihe Nyerere yari arajwe ishinga no kwishyira hamwe kwa Afurika ibihugu bikorana.

Ibyo byatumye tariki 15, Gashyantare 1973 Perezida Kayibanda na Nyerere bafungura ku mugaragaro ikiraro cya Rusumo gihuza Tanzania n’u Rwanda cyuzuye gitwaye miliyoni 3.8 z’amashilingi ya Tanzania. Amasezerano yo kucyubaka yari yarasinywe mu 1966 ariko imirimo itangira mu 1971.

Umubano wa Tanzania n’u Rwanda warakomeje no muri Repubulika ya kabiri ya Gen Maj Habyarimana Juvenal. Nyerere yahoraga avuga ko iterambere rya Afurika rizaturuka mu bufatanye bw’ibihugu biyigize, ibyo byatumaga intego ze za mbere ziba kubana n’ibihugu ahereye ku bimwegereye.

Tariki 11 Gashyantare 1976, Perezida Habyarimana wari umaze imyaka ibiri ku butegetsi ashaka ko Leta ye yemerwa n’amahanga by’umwihariko igihugu gikomeye kandi gituranyi nka Tanzania, yagiriye uruzinduko muri icyo gihugu.

Yakiriwe na Perezida Nyerere mu mujyi wa Mwanza, baganira cyane ku bikorwa by’iterambere birimo iyubakwa ry’umuhanda Kigali- Rusumo, no gushaka uko hubakwa igice kiva ku Rusumo gikomeza kugeza Isaka muri Tanzania.

Bivugwa ko mu gushyira ingufu kuri Tanzania, u Rwanda rwashakaga andi mahitamo rwajya rwitabaza mu gihe umuhanda wa Kigali-Kampala –Mombasa ugize ikibazo.

Ntibyatinze, tariki 11 Gicurasi 1978 Perezida Nyerere agirira uruzinduko rw’iminsi itatu mu Rwanda. Inyandiko z’ibanga za Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zahishuwe na WikiLeaks, zigaragaza ko abakuru b’ibihugu bombi bemeje ko umubano w’ibihugu byabo uhagaze neza.

Mu Rwanda, Nyerere yasuye aho bacukura nyiramugengeri, asura uruganda rutunganya ibireti mu Ruhengeri, yakirwa n’abarwanashyaka ba MRND kuri Stade ya Ruhengeri, akora umuganda anasura n’imirima y’ikawa i Kanombe ndetse n’uruganda rwenga urwagwa.

Ubwo Perezida Habyarimana yakiraga Perezida Nyerere ku kibuga cy'indege cya Kigali mu mwaka wa 1978

Nyerere yavuze ko hari ibyo ibihugu byombi byakwigiranaho, u Rwanda rukigisha Tanzania uburyo rwakoze amavugurura mu burezi nayo ikarwigishwa imiyoborere ya socialisme ishyira imbere imibereho myiza y’umuturage.

Yagize ati “Nta n’umwe muri twe wagera ku bukungu yifuza hatabayeho gufatanya ngo tubyaze umusaruro umutungo kamere wacu.”

Hemejewe ko bashakisha amafaranga yo gushyira kaburimbo mu muhanda Rusumo -Isaka , gutangiza umushinga wa gariyamoshi uhuza ibihugu byombi, n’uburyo bwo kwagura icyambu cya Dar es Salaam.

Kubera ikibazo cy’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage mu Rwanda, Nyerere yemeye ko ashobora no gutanga ubutaka abanyarwanda bagera ku bihumbi 500 bakimukira muri Tanzania.

Tariki 13 Nyerere agiye guhaguruka asubira muri Tanzania yagize ati “Twiteguye no kwakira abanyarwanda 500 000 icyarimwe kuko dufite ahantu hanini hadatuwe. Abazaza bazashyirwa mu midugudu izwi nka Ujamaa nkuko abandi Banyatanzaniya bameze.”

Nyuma y’uruzinduko rwa Nyerere mu Rwanda, Tanzania yahise ifungura ambasade yayo i Kigali. Umubano wa Tanzania n’u Rwanda wakomeje kuba mwiza kugeza ubwo yavaga ku butegetsi mu 1985.

Ku butegetsi bwa Nyerere, benshi mu banyarwanda bari barameneshejwe na Repubuka ya mbere bagakumirwa n’iya kabiri, bahawe ubuhungiro muri Tanzania, bamwe banemererwa kwiga no gukora muri icyo gihugu.

Nubwo yavuye ku butegetsi, Nyerere yakomeje kugira ijambo rikomeye mu miyoborere ya Tanzania cyane cyane binyuze mu ishyaka CCM no kuyivuganira mu ruhando mpuzamahanga.

Na nyuma yo kuva ku butegetsi, urukundo rwa Nyerere ku Banyarwanda rwagiye rwigaragaza. Ni umwe mu baharaniye ko igihugu cye kiba umuhuza mu masezerano y’amahoro hagati ya Leta ya Habyarimana na FPR Inkotanyi yari mu rugamba rwo kubohora igihugu.

Nubwo ayo masezerano atageze ku ntego yayo, uwo muhate Nyerere yagaragaje, yarawushimiwe mu 2009 ubwo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yamuhaga umudari w’ishimwe uzwi nk’Uruti, kubw’ubufasha bwe mu rugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda.

Tariki 4 Nyakanga 2009, Perezida Kagame mu izina ry’Abanyarwanda yambitse umudari w’ishimwe Madamu Maria Nyerere, kubw’umuhate umugabo we yagaragaje afasha mu rugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda.

Uwo munsi Perezida Kagame yagize ati “Nk’umunyafurika wubashywe, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere yari ijwi ridatuza, wababajwe kandi wumva akaga kagwiririye u Rwanda mu maso y’abanyamahanga.”

“Tanzania yiyemeje kuba umuhuza mu rugendo rwari rugamijje gukemura amakimbirane yari amaze igihe mu gihugu cyacu. Na nyuma ya Jenoside, Mwalimu Nyerere yatubaye hafi, agasura kenshi u Rwanda ariko atanga inama zuje ubunararibonye mu bibazo byabaga bitwugarije.”

Tariki 17 Ukwakira 2011 ubwo yaganiraga n’itsinda ry’intumwa zavuye mu muryango mpuzamahanga mu by’Imari, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Kagame yongeye kugaragaza uburyo yubaha Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, amushimira kuba umugabo utaraterwaga ubwoba no gukora icyo yumva kibereye abaturage be.

Ati “Nagize amahirwe yo guhura na nyakwigendera Mwalimu Julius Nyerere wahoze ari Perezida wa Tanzania. Nashimishishijwe n’imico ye , yari wa muntu utaraterwaga ubwoba no gukora icyo yizera ko kibereye abaturage be.”

U Rwanda rwa mbere rwaramutengushye

Nyerere yapfuye hashize imyaka itanu gusa u Rwanda rubohowe. Rwari rukigoswe n’ibibazo by’umutekano muke watezwaga n’imitwe yiganjemo iyasize ikoze Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

No mu minsi ye ya nyuma, Nyerere yakomeje kurwana ku Rwanda agira uruhare mu biganiro bigamije kugarura amahoro mu burasirazuba bwa Congo, hashyirwayo ingabo za Loni zigamije guhangana n’izo nyeshyamba ziganjemo izashakaga kugaruka gusenya u Rwanda.

Mu mwaka wa 1995, Nyerere yagaragaje uburyo yababajwe na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, aho Ubunyarwanda bwasenywe bugasimbuzwa amoko ku nyungu z’abayobozi yise ‘Indyarya’.

Ubwo yaganiraga n’itangazamakuru yagize ati “Mu Rwanda, umwaka ushize baricanye cyane. Ntimutekereze ko ari ubwoko bubiri butandukanye, hari abitwa Abahutu n’Abatutsi, bose ni abanyarwanda. Si amoko kuko ari ubwoko bwakabaye bufite ururimi rwabwo. Nta rurimi rwitwa Igitutsi, nta rurimi rwitwa Igihutu, habe na mba. Ururimi rwabo ni Ikinyarwanda.”

Yakomeje agira ati “ Ubwoko ubundi bwakabaye bufite ubutaka bwabwo, uti hariya ni ku Batutsi hano ni ku Bahutu ariko ibyo nta bihari, baravanze. Nyamara umuntu afashe ubuyobozi, arashaka kuyobora mu manyanga nk’indarya agacamo abantu ibice, ngo aba ni abahutu aba ni abatutsi. “

Ashingiye ku byabaye mu Rwanda, yagiriye inama Abanyatanzaniya kuba umwe, bakirinda uwabazanamo ibice kuko ntaho byabageza.

Ati “ N’idini ryabo ni rimwe kuko 85 % ni abakiristu b’I Roma ariko baricanye kugeza no mu nsengero. Ibintu nk’ibi byo kubiba urwango witwaje amoko, idini nibitangira tukabiha umwanya hari urwego bizageraho tubure n’umwe ubyamagana.”

Nubwo Nyerere yatengushywe n’u Rwanda rwa mbere ya Jenoside, nyuma y’imyaka 25 ba banyarwanda yifuzaga ko bunga ubumwe byarakunze, iterambere yashakiraga Tanzania n’u Rwanda riragerwaho gahoro gahoro ndetse ibihugu byombi bifitanye imishinga ikomeye y’iterambere harimo n’uwo yatangije wo kubaka umuhanda wa gariyamoshi uhuza u Rwanda na Tanzania.

Perezida Nyerere (ibumoso) na Kayibanda ubwo bari i Dar es Salaam mu 1966
Mu mwaka wa 1995, Nyerere yagaragaje uburyo yababajwe na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, aho Ubunyarwanda bwasenywe bugasimbuzwa amoko ku nyungu z’abayobozi yise ‘Indyarya’
Tariki ya 4 Nyakanga 2009, ubwo Perezida Kagame yahaga umudari w'ishimwe Maria Nyerere mu izina rya nyakwigendera Julius Nyerere ku ruhare yagize mu rugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda

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