Inkomoko y’Ingoma z’imisango mu muco n’amateka by’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu
Kuya 16 Kanama 2018 saa 10:16
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U Rwanda ni igihugu cyamye igifite umuco uganje wo gushakira igihugu imbuto n’amaboko, uwo muco wubaka u Rwanda kuva mu ntango kugeza magingo aya. Ni muri ubwo buryo Ingoma z’imisango zizwi mu gususurutsa ibirori mu Rwanda no mu mahanga nk’umwihariko zageze mu Rwanda.

Ukurikije ibirari by’amateka y’ingoma, Ingoma z’imivugo nizo zikomokaho Ingoma z’imihango n’ Ingoma z’imisango zivugira mu ruhame.

Nk’uko tubikesha igitabo “Umuco mu Buvanganzo” cyanditswe na Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu, inzobere mu muco, mu busizi n’amateka y’u Rwanda, muri iyi nkuru tugiye kubatekerereza ibirari by’amateka y’ingoma z’imisango dufite ubu, hakazabaho igihe tuzabatekerereza n’amateka y’izindi ngoma zizwi mu mateka y’u Rwanda nk’ Ingoma z’amakondera, ingoma z’imihango ndetse n’ingoma y’Indamutsa.

Ingoma z’imisango ni ikimenyetso gikomeye mu birangamuco w’Abanyarwanda ariko ikaba yari ifite byinshi isobanura mu muco n’amateka y’u Rwanda, ikaba n’igikoresho cy’imyidagaduro mu buvanganzo bunyuranye mu mateka y’Abanyarwanda.

Ingoma yari umuhuza w’umwami na rubanda. Ingoma ni igikoresho cyifashishwa mu bintu bitandukanye mu muco n’imibereho y’Abanyarwanda, byagera mu myidagaduro zikaba akarusho mu gushimisha Abanyarwanda no kugaragaza umwihariko w’ibyo bishimira.

Ingoma z’imivugo izi tuzi zivuzwa muri ibi bihe byacu mu birori mpuzambaga, byaba ibyo mu gihugu imbere cyangwa se mu mahanga u Rwanda rwatumiwemo, zadutse ku ngoma ya Cyilima I Rugwe, ahasaga mu mwaka wa 1345.

Zadukanywe n’umunyamahanga Rwamuhama w’Umutoro, aje kuzamamaza nk’igikoresho ashaka ko cyasamaza andi mahanga aturanye na Toro. Muri icyo kibariro ni nabwo Cyilima Rugwe yari amaze kwigarurira u Buliza. Ubwo muri icyo gihe niho Rwamuhama yambukiranyije u Bufumbira n’u Bukamba ho i Ndorwa, Ubusigi n’u Buliza, aje aturutse muri Toro ari naho yakuye ingoma yadukanye ziba iz’u Rwanda.

Byari bisanzwe mu muco n’amateka y’u Rwanda gushakira igihugu imbuto n’amaboko, ariko n’ubwo bagiraga uwo muco bwose, ikinjiraga i Rwanda kivuye mu mahanga babanzaga kugihumanura, bakacyoza, bakagiha ubwera bw’i Rwanda, bakagitoza umwuka wa Benimana.

Mu iyaduka ry’amazi y’ubuhoro yavomwaga mu iriba rya Rwezangoro ku ngoma ya Kigeli Mukobanya, nibwo hadutse imigirire mishya yo kweza ikivamahanga cyose, aho bagiteraga amazi y’ubuhoro ubundi kigahumanuka. Ni kubw’’iyo mpamvu ingoma zazanywe na Rwamuhama w’Umutoro zageze i Rwanda, bakazihindura, imirimba yazanye nk’ibikoresho byo kuzivuza i Rwanda bayihindura imirishyo. Izo ngoma ubusanzwe zari zifite umurishyo umwe rukumbi witwaga ‘Bihubi’.

Rwamuhama yasanze Rugwe amaze kwigarurira ingoma y’u Buriza, amaze gushinga ingoro ye ku nkuka za Nyabarongo ahateganye na Nduga mu mbavu za Shyorongi, ashaka uburyo yayineka akazahangana nayo byo kuyirimbura mu maguru mashya yo kwigarurira u Buriza.

Rwamuhama amaze gushyikiriza ingoma Rugwe, yanejejwe cyane n’uburyo zirangira, yiyemeza kuzigira iz’i Rwanda. Rugwe yahise asaba Rwamuhama kumwereka uko baramvura izo ngoma, ingoma y’imisango ya mbere mu mateka y’u Rwanda yambikiwe kuri uwo musozi, unakurizaho kwitwa ‘RWAHI’ bikurije ku izina ry’uruhu bambika ingoma mu ruhanga rwayo, ahagenewe kumamata imirishyo igihe bazivuza.

Ku ngoma ya Cyilima Rugwe, gukomereza ku bamuzunguye cyane cyane umuhungu we Mukobanya n’umwuzukuru we Sekarongoro, ingoma bazitayeho cyane zihabwa umurongo ukomeye ku buryo zigira imihango igaragara mu kubaka igihugu haba mu bya Politiki, mu mibereho myiza y’abaturage, mu ntambara no myiyereko y’ingabo n’ibindi, byose bikagendana no kurushaho guhanga imirishyo, izajya ihamagara buri gikorwa kuko mu buhanga nyarwanda, ubwoko bw’ingoma ni umurishyo wo ndangagikorwa iki n’iki.

Muri icyo kibariro niho havutse ubuhanga bwo kuziremamo amoko atandukanye, aho havutse Ingoma z’imihango zifashishwaga mu mihango y’ibwami n’igihugu muri rusange, ingoma z’imisango zifashishwaga mu birori bikomeye by’igihugu, haziraho no kuziremamo ingoma y’Indamutsa, yari ifite umuhango wo kubikira no kubambura umwami. Zose zaje ziyongera ku zari zisanzwe mu Rwanda harimo Ingoma-Ngabe n’Ingoma z’ibigamba zo zahanganywe na Gihanga ubwo yahangaga ingoma y’i Gasabo.

Kubera ko ingoma zizihiye Abanyarwanda cyane, Abami b’u Rwanda bahisemo kuzigira umwihariko w’ibwami kugira ngo zirusheho kwitabwaho zitazata umwimerere wazo.

Kuva ubwo kugeza ku ndunduro y’ingoma ya cyami, Ingoma z’imisango zari zikiri mu Buvanganzo nyemvugo bw’ibwami, zihabwa Abiru b’u Rwanda ngo barusheho kuzimenya byo kuzikeneka guhera ku iramvurwa ryazo, uko zambikwaga, guhugukira kuzivuza no kurushaho kwiyungura ubwenge n’ubuhanga mu kuzishakira imirishyo. Niyo mpamvu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ingoma z’imisango zavuzwaga n’Abiru yewe n’iz’imihango ndetse n’izibikira zikanabambura.

Mu gukomeza kuziha umurongo, hadutse ubuhanga bwo kuziremamo uburyo bwo kuzikoresha bazishyira mu matsinda. Muri ibyo bihe nibwo baremye icyo bise ‘Umutagara’. Umutagara akaba ari umubare w’ingoma zigize umukino w’’ingoma n’ubundi. Umutagara w’ingoma z’imisango y’i Rwanda ugirwa n’amoko ane y’ingoma: ishakwe, Inyahura, Inumvu n’Ibihumurizo.

Ishakwe: Ni ingoma nto, ishaka nyine igaterera izindi imirishyo zigomba kwikiriza ku buryo bugenwa n’Inyahura. Ishakwe zivuga mu ijwi rirongoroye kandi umujyo wazo ntutezuka, ntuhwema kuva mu musuko w’ingoma kugera mu itunga ryazo. Muri uwo muriri wose, Ishakwe igomba kugaragira Inyahura igatera umurishyo uw’Inyahura iyibwirije.

Inyahura: Ni ingoma y’umubyimba uringaniye, ni yo iyobora imirishyo y’izindi ngoma iyo zisutse. Ijwi ryayo rirenga riyobora umutagara w’ingoma.

Inumvu: Ni ingoma zigira amajwi avumera n’Umubyimba w’Ibihumurizo. Inumvu iyo ijya gutanga inkuru iranumvura, mbega igashoza urugamba ikirigita Inumvu ziyiri mu bikokora. Umutimbo ukagusha mu Musuko, zigasuka. Umunyenyahura akura ijwi ku Nyahura, Inumvu igahumuriza Umutimbo, agatanga inkuru avugutira n’amaboko yombi ahuza n’ishakwe bikitwa “Kunumvura”.

Ibihumurizo: Ibihumurizo ni ingoma z’umubyimba uhagaze zivuga zinihira zivumera, zigahuza amashagaga n’Inumvu n’umurego w’Inyahura, Umutagara ukagira ireme.

Umutagara w’ingoma z’imisango, ushobora kugira ingoma eshanu, umunani ndetse n’icumi, biterwa n’Abiru. Itorero ryiza rigira Umutagara ( Ingoma zigize umukino ) w’Ingoma 10 ziba ziteye muri ubu buryo: Ishakwe imwe, Inyahura eshatu, Inumvu ebyiri n’Ibihumurizo bine.

Ibigwi by’ingoma z’imisango nta wabiva imuzi ngo abigere imuzingo kuko ni birebire! Icy’ingenzi ni uko ari umwarihariko w’Abanyarwanda mu muco n’amateka yabo. N’aho twazihashye (muri Toro ) ntabwo bigeze bazitangaho igihe ngo bagire ubuhanga n’ubumenyi bwo kuzicukumbura mu buryo bwo kuzikoresha nk’Abanyarwanda.

Mu nkuru zikurikira tuzarushaho kubatekerereza uko imirishyo y’ingoma yagiye ivuka ivuye ku Gihubi cyazanywe na Rwamuhama. Kugeza ubwo aya mateka yandikwaga, ingoma z’imisango zari zifite imirishyo isaga 28.


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