Imyaka 76 irashize Umwami Yuhi Musinga atanze, umugogo we n’ubu waburiwe irengero

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 13 Mutarama 2020 saa 10:36
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Imyaka 76 irashize, Umwami Yuhi V Musinga atangiye mu buhungiro, i Moba muri Congo nyuma yo kwirukanwa mu Rwanda n’Ababiligi, agasimbuzwa umuhungu we Mutara II Rudahigwa.

Birashoboka ko Musinga ari umwe mu bami b’u Rwanda bayoboye mu bihe bibi cyane, nta bunararibonye bwo guhangana nabyo afite.

Musinga yimye ingoma ahagana muri Werurwe 1897, ayambuye mukuru we bahuje se, Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa. Byakurikiwe no kwitwikira mu nzu kwa Rutarindwa n’umuryango we wose amaze kumenya ko yagambaniwe, urwo rupfu rukurikirwa n’izindi z’abari bashyigikiye Rutarindwa. Ibyabaye icyo gihe bivugwa mu mateka nka coup d’etat yo ku Rucunshu.

Musinga yimye ingoma akiri muto, ku myaka 17 gusa, ari nayo mpamvu mu minsi ye ya mbere yayoborerwaga na nyina Kanjogera. Ni imyaka yari iruhije kuko Abakoloni b’Abadage n’abamisiyoneri ba mbere bari bari kwinjira mu Rwanda, bashaka abayoboke mu banyarwanda.

Abapadiri bera n’Abadage baje mu 1900, basanze Yuhi V Musinga amaze imyaka ine ari umwami w’u Rwanda.

Umwami Yuhi V Musinga mu ntebe ya kijyambere na nyirarume Kabare (ifoto yahawe izurashusho na Alphonse Kirimobenecyo)

Ku wa 2 Gashyantare 1900, abapadiri bera basabye uruhushya rwo gukorera mu Rwanda, ibwami babanza kubyanga ariko baza kwemeranya kuhakorera, gusa basabwa kutivanga mu mikorere y’umwami.

Musinga yabanye neza n’Abadage, yanga urunuka Ababiligi

Musinga yari afite ibibazo bye bwite by’abigumuraga hirya no hino mu gihugu cyane cyane mu majyaruguru barimo n’abavandimwe be bamuzizaga kujya ku butegetsi yishe Rutarindwa.

Igitabo Defeat Is the Only Bad News, Rwanda Under Musinga cyanditswe na Alison des Forges kigaragaza ko Musinga yatangiye guhura n’ibibazo mu 1915 mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi, ubwo Ababiligi n’Abongereza bateraga ingabo z’u Budage mu Rwanda.

Mu 1915, Abadage basabye Musinga abasore bato bo kujya ku rugamba guhangana n’Ababiligi, ababaha adashidikanya kuko atifuzaga ko Abadage batsindwa, ikindi yumvaga ko abo basore bazaba baratijwe kurwana nibagaruka bazaba bamwe mu bagize ingabo ze.

Mu 1916, Abadage baratsinzwe basimburwa n’Ababiligi, biyegereza cyane abapadiri bera ndetse batangira gusa n’abananiza Umwami Musinga.

Ababiligi bashakaga umubano n’abapadiri bera, bifuzaga ko umwami n’abatware ububasha bwabo bugabanywa, ntibakomeze gukandamiza abakene bari biganjemo abahutu.

Igitabo cya Des Forges kivuga ko “Bamwe mu basirikare b’Ababiligi biyemeje guha abahutu uburenganzira busesuye ku butaka bwabo n’umusaruro wabo. Umusirikare wagombaga kumva umuhutu winubira umutware we, yagombaga kumenya mpamvu yo kwinuba kwe akabikemura.”

Musinga yatangiye kubahukwa

Musinga yakomeje guhura n’ibibazo, bamwe mu muryango we n’abatware batangira kumwitaza kuko bari bamaze kubona ko Ababiligi ari bo bakomeye kumurusha.

Mu mpera za 1916, Rwagataraka umuhugu wa Rwidegembya watwaraga i Kinyaga, yashatse uburyo atabara se wari watangiye kwangwa akanafungwa n’Ababiligi.

Mu kugura se, Rwagataraka yabeshyeye Musinga ko ahishe Captain Wintgens wari umugaba w’ingabo z’Abadage. Ababiligi baraje basaba Musinga kumubaha ariko undi agira ubwoba abaha umuja we. Padiri Huntziger abimenye yabwiye Ababiligi ko uwo yabahaye atari we, bituma Ababiligi bafata Musinga baramufunga.

Nyuma yo gukora iperereza, baje gusanga Musinga arengana baramurekura.

Ibi ubwabyo ryari ishyano, kumva ko umwami wafatwaga nk’Imana mu banyarwanda ahangarwa n’abanyamahanga agafungwa ku kagambane k’umuturage we.

Akababaro ka Musinga, uburyarya bw’Ababiligi

Mu 1917, Ababiligi batangiye kubona ko batahindura ibintu badakoranye na Musinga. Baramwiyegereje bamwumvisha ko niyemera gukorana na bo bazakomeza kurinda ingoma ye n’icyubahiro cye. Bamuhaye impano zirimo imyenda n’imodoka, bamusaba guha amadini ubwisanzure.

Umwami Yuhi V Musinga ari kumwe na nyirarume Kabare (ifoto yahawe izurashusho na Alphonse Kirimobenecyo)

Mu kurushaho kumwiyegereza, mu ntangiriro za 1918, Rezida militaire w’Ababiligi i Kigali, Major Gérard-François Declerck yagiye kwa Musinga ngo yumve uburyo asuzugurwa n’Abapadiri bera.

Akababaro ka Musinga kagaragara muri Raporo yanditswe na Oscar Anthème Defawe, umusirikare w’umubiligi wabaga i Nyanza, akaba n’Umujyanama w’Umwami.

Hari aho Musinga agira ati “Mu gihe cy’Abadage, abatutsi bose n’abahutu bisanzuraga iwanjye, buri wese yaranyubahaga n’abapadiri ubwabo baranyubahaga. Ubwo bazaga bambwiye ko bazanywe n’Imana yabo, ko ntawe bazagirira nabi kandi ko batazivanga mu mikorere yanjye."

"Umunsi Ababiligi bazaga, Abapadiri bahinduye imyitwarire. Batangiye kwivanga mu mikorere yanjye n’ibindi bibi bitavugwa. Nubwo bavuga ko kubeshya ari icyaha, bo babeshye abayobozi babo bakuru.”

Musinga yakomeje agira ati “Iyo ngize icyo mbwira umututsi, iyo atagishaka ajya kureba padiri akamubwira ngo ntanyumvire. Iyo ngize icyo nsaba abahutu baturiye Misiyoni kugira icyo bankorera, bajya ku bapadiri bagasakuza ngo babagiriye nabi.

"Ahantu hose nshyize umutware, Abapadiri bashyirayo umukiristu ngo amugenzure. Uwo mukristu agakoranya abatishimiye umutware, hakaba impande ebyiri zitavuga rumwe ku musozi.”

Musinga yanavuze ko ngo umunsi umwe Padiri Huntziger yigeze kumubwira ngo “ Guhera ubu Musinga wamanuwe mu ntera, ni njye mutware wawe. Ntabwo bikiri nka cya gihe ku bw’Abadage […] Yavuze ko njyana abana banjye kwiga iwe ariko ntabo azabona. Yanyambuye imisozi, yanyambuye abaturage banjye, antwara ubutware bwanjye none arashaka no kunyambura abana kugira ngo nyuma bazansuzugure, ibyo ntibizigera bibaho.”

Muri Kanama 1917, Ababiligi bongeye gusaba Musinga gusinya iteka riha abahutu ubutaka bukubye kabiri ubwo bari bafite no kugabanya igihe cy’uburetwa kikava ku minsi itatu ikaba ibiri mu cyumweru.

Umwami ubundi yubahirwaga kuba afite ububasha bwo guhana, kwica agakiza. Mu 1917 Ababiligi bamusabye kujya abanza kubamenyesha igihe agize uwo ashaka guhana, kwica n’ibindi. Mu 1920 bamutegetse kujya abanza kubamenyesha mbere yo kugira uwo agira umutware cyangwa uwo ahindura. Ibyo byari bisobanuye kumwambura n’igitinyiro gike yari asigaranye.

Ababiligi bongeye gusaba Musinga n’abatware kohereza abana babo mu mashuri kuko babonaga ejo hazaza abize ari bo bazaba bakenewe mu buyobozi. Bavuze ko nibabyanga amashuri azajyibwamo n’abahutu n’abatutsi bakennye, akaba ari bo bazayobora mu minsi iri imbere.

Muri Kamena 1918, Musinga yemeye ko abana bajya kwiga ariko asaba ko bubakirwa ishuri ryihariye kuko atashakaga ko bigishwa n’abapadiri yashinjaga kwigisha agasuzuguro.

Ababiligi barabyemeye mu 1919 bafungura ishuri ridashamikiye ku bihayimana i Nyanza, yoherezayo abahungu be batatu Munonozi, Rudacyahwa na Rudahigwa, icyakora Munonozi na Rudacyahwa baje kwicwa na mugiga nyuma.

Umwami yasigaye ku izina

Ababiligi bakomeje gukorana bya hafi n’Abapadiri. Impamvu ni uko mu nzego nyinshi z’imitegekere n’iterambere hari hakenewe abantu banyuze mu mashuri kandi abamisiyoneri nibo bari bafite amashuri menshi.

Abapadiri nabo bagombaga gukorana n’Ababiligi kugira ngo abana barangije kwiga bahabwe akazi muri Leta, babeho neza bitume n’abandi bagira ishyari ryo kugana Kiliziya Gatolika no kohereza abana babo kwiga.

Bamwe mu batware bakomeye n’abatutsi b’ibwami bari batangiye gukorana n’abamisiyoneri. Umuhungu wa Musinga, Rwigemera na nyina Nyirakabuga bageze aho baramucika bajya kwibanira n’abamisiyoneri.

Ibwami hatangiye kubaho kutavuga rumwe ku buryo mu 1924, Musinga yari asigaye ari umwami ku izina ariko ubutegetsi bwose bufitwe n’abakoloni.

Igitabo The White Fathers Mission in Rwanda cyanditswe na Ian Linden, kivuga ko nyuma ya 1924 abakoloni bari bafite uburyo bwose bwo kuba bakuraho Musinga, bahura n’ikibazo cyo kubona umuntu wizewe uzamusimbura.

Abaturage ntibari bakimufata nk’umwami kuko amategeko menshi yavaga ku bakoloni, abayobozi ba Kiliziya ari bo baba hafi yabo kurusha ab’umwami.

Abonye ko amaboko atangiye kumushiraho, mu 1927 Musinga yandikiye Musenyeri Léon Classe amumenyesha ko yifuza kongera kuba inshuti n’abamisiyoneri ariko yasaga n’uruhira ubusa kuko ibiganiro hagati ya Kiliziya n’abakoloni byari bigeze kure ngo hashakwe uzamusimbura.

Mu 1927, Guverineri Henri Joseph Voisin yakoze amavugurura mu mitegekere n’imikorere. Hashyizweho imisoro mishya, uburetwa , imirimo y’amaboko nko gukora imihanda, gutegekwa guhinga ibihingwa bimwe nk’ikawa, imyumbati n’ibindi.

Ibyo bikorwa byaremereye cyane abaturage ndetse bamwe bahitamo guhunga. Jean Paul Kimonyo mu gitabo cye Rwanda un Génocide Populaire, avuga ko nyuma y’ayo mavugurura nibura buri mwaka hahungaga abanyarwanda ibihumbi 50.

Musinga yambuwe ubutegetsi, acibwa mu gihugu!

Tariki 11 kugeza kuri 13 Nzeri 1931, Guverineri Mukuru wabaga muri Congo Tilkens yasuye Musenyeri Classe na Voisin ngo bapange itariki yo gukuraho Musinga.

Saa yine n’igice ku wa 14 Ukwakira 1931 igihiriri ry’abaja cyahagurutse i Nyanza giherekeje Musinga, abagore be batanu n’abana be icyenda na nyina Kanjogera n’abo mu muryango wabo, bajyanwa mu nzu yari yabateguriwe i Kamembe.

Musinga yasimbuwe ku ngoma n’umuhungu we Rudahigwa wari warize mu mashuri y’abazungu.

Yakomeje kuba i Kamembe ameze nk’ufungishijwe ijisho. Tariki 2 Ukwakira 1933, nyina wa Musinga, Kanjogera yaje gupfa bakiri i Cyangugu.

Mu 1939 ubwo hadukaga intambara ya kabiri y’isi, Musinga n’abambari be bagaruye icyizere ko Abadage nibatsinda, bazamusubiza ku butegetsi.

Ababiligi bamaze kumenya ibyo byifuzo bya Musinga, bamufunze inshuri ebyiri i Kamembe, babonye akomeje, tariki 18 Kamena 1940 basinya Itegeko ryo kumwohereza muri Congo mu gace ka Moba, hafi y’ikiyaga cya Tanganyika.

Ageze muri Congo, Musinga yongeye gufungwa n’abaturage ba Congo bakeka ko ashaka kongera kwiyimika nk’umwami ku butaka bwabo. Yakomeje kubaho atariho kugeza tariki 13 Mutarama 1944 ubwo yashiragamo umwuka.

Amateka avuga ko umugogo we watwawe n’Ababiligi, ariko nta gihamya na kimwe cyemeza ko ari bo bawujyanye koko.

Mu 2017, Gakuba Jeanne d’Arc wari senateri yasabye inzego zibishinzwe gukora uko zishoboye ngo umugogo w’Umwami Yuhi V Musinga wajyanwe n’Abakoloni b’Ababiligi ugarurwe mu Rwanda.

Icyakora mu mpera z’umwaka ushize, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo k’Ingoro z’Umurage w’u Rwanda, Ambasaderi Robert Masozera yabwiye IGIHE ko nta gihamya ko uwo mugogo wajyanywe mu Bubiligi.

Yagize ati “Twakekaga ko bafite n’umugogo w’umwami Musinga ariko ntabwo byo babyemeza, natwe nta gihamya tubifitiye.”

U Bubiligi bufite n’ibindi bimenyetso ndangamateka byavanywe mu Rwanda mu gihe cy’ubukoloni birimo n’igisingo (ikamba) cy’umwami Kigeli IV Rwabugili.

Umwami Musinga ubwo yari mu birori mu 1930
Umwami Musinga asuhuza igikomangomakazi Elena d'Aosta wo mu Butaliyani
Umwami Yuhi V Musinga imbere y’ibendera Abadage bakoreshaga mu bihugu bakolonije (ifoto yahawe izurashusho na Alphonse Kirimobenecyo)

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