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Ibyaha 8 byagakwiriye kubazwa u Bubiligi mu mateka ashaririye y’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 8 April 2022 saa 07:27
Yasuwe :

Iyo bigenda ukundi, byashobokaga ko u Rwanda tubona uyu munsi ruba ruri ukundi. Byashoboka ko bamwe twabuze tukibakunze baba bagihari, byashoboka ko ubuzima bushaririye twanyuzemo bwari kugenda ukundi….

Umusaraba u Rwanda rugihetse uyu munsi w’amateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, byari gushoboka ko rutawuheka iyo mu 1916 u Bubiligi butarwigabiza, ngo burugenge uko bushaka nk’igihembo cy’uburyo bwitwaye mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose.

IGIHE yakusanyije bimwe mu byaha cyangwa amakosa [Buri wese yabyita uko ashaka] u Bubiligi bwakoze byagize uruhare mu mateka yose ashaririye rwanyuzemo mu myaka isaga ijana ishize.

Gukoloniza u Rwanda

Mu 1916 nibwo Ababiligi bahawe u Rwanda ngo barukolonize nyuma yo gutsindwa k’u Budage mu ntambara ya mbere y’Isi yose.

Ubwabyo kuza mu Rwanda, kimwe n’ahandi muri Afurika nta bubasha bari babifitiye mu gihe nta bwumvikane bwabayeho n’abaruyoboraga icyo gihe.

Kuza kw’abakoloni nta Mwami w’u Rwanda wagishijwe inama, nyamara baje bamuha amategeko, bafata icyo bashaka, bagakora icyo bashaka.

Mu mategeko mpuzamahanga, ibihugu byose bigira ubusugire n’ubutavogerwa, nyamara kuza kw’Ababiligi (tutibagiwe n’Abadage bari bahavuye), ntaho bitaniye n’ibyo Abanyaburayi bari gushinja u Burusiya muri Ukraine kuri iki gihe.

Kunaniza Musinga

Umwami Musinga yacunagujwe n'Ababiligi kugeza ubwo bamucaga mu gihugu cye

Nubwo kugera mu Rwanda kw’Ababiligi ubwabyo ari ikibazo kuko baje batatumiwe, bamaze no kuhagera bitwaye nabi cyane ku buryo byagize ingaruka ku hazaza h’igihugu, bahereye ku mutwe wacyo ariwo Bwami.

Ababiligi baje basanga u Rwanda ruyobowe n’Umwami Yuhi V Musinga ariko bamushyizeho amananiza, bamusuzuguza abaturage, baramucunaguza kugeza ubwo bamwirukanye mu gihugu yavukiyemo.

Igitabo Defeat Is the Only Bad News, Rwanda Under Musinga cyanditswe na Alison des Forges, hari aho umwami Musinga agira ati “Mu gihe cy’abadage, abatutsi bose n’abahutu bisanzuraga iwanjye, buri wese yaranyubahaga. n’abapadiri ubwabo baranyubahaga.”

“Umunsi ababiligi bazaga, abapadiri bahinduye imyitwarire. Batangiye kwivanga mu mikorere yanjye n’ibindi bibi bitavugwa. Iyo ngize icyo mbwira abaturage, iyo atagishaka ajya kureba Padiri akamubwira ngo nta nyumvire, ngo ntacyo mvuze […]Ahantu hose nshyize umutware, abapadiri bashyirayo umukiristu ngo amugenzure. Uwo mukristu agakoranya abatishimiye umutware, hakaba impande ebyiri zitavuga rumwe ku musozi.”

Ababiligi ku bufatanye n’abamisiyoneri b’abapadiri, bananije Musinga kugeza ubwo n’umuryango we nta jambo yari akiwufitemo. Yageze aho atanga itegeko, ababiligi bagatanga iririvuguruza kugeza mu 1931 ubwo byahumiraga ku mirari, bakamuca mu gihugu burundu.

Guca Musinga no kumwica

Saa yine n’igice kuwa 14 Ukwakira 1931 Umwami Musinga na nyina Kanjogera n’abo mu muryango wabo, baciwe i Nyanza ibwami, boherezwa i Kamembe mu buhungiro.

Mu nzira z’ubwiru bw’u Rwanda cyangwa se icyo twakwita nk’Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Rwanda, Umwami ntiyashyirwagaho cyangwa ngo akurweho n’Abazungu, Abiru nibo bari bafite ubwo bubasha kandi nabwo bakagira uko babikora.

Ibyo byose Ababiligi ntibigeze babyubaha, Musinga yirukanywe mu gihugu cye ndetse mu kurenzaho agasuzuguro, bamusimbuza umwana we Mutara Rudahigwa.

Kwirukanwa kwa Musinga ntaho wabitandukanyiriza n’urupfu rwe ku wa 25 Ukuboza 1944 mu buhungiro i Moba muri Congo. Musinga yatanze amaze imyaka 13 mu buhungiro kuko yari abayeho mu buzima bubi, mu gahinda gakabije.

Iyo batamwirukana mu gihugu cye, wenda aba yararamye indi myaka cyangwa se akagira uruhare mu kunoza imitegekere, ibintu bikagenda ukundi.

Ibuku

Ibarura ryo mu 1931 ryashingiraga ku miterere y'umuntu n'ingano ye mu kwemeza ubwoko abarizwamo. Ni nabyo byashyirwaga mu Ibuku

Ibuku niryo kosa cyangwa se icyaha kirenze ibindi u Bubiligi bwakoreye u Rwanda. Iki ni icyemezo cyangwa se indangamuntu yatangiye guhabwa abanyarwanda bose bujuje imyaka 18, harimo ubwoko.

Mu 1931 ababiligi batangiye ibarura rusange ry’abaturage bose bafite imyaka 18, bapima uburebure, ubutunzi bagenzura ibisekuru n’ibindi. Hatanzwe ‘Ibuku’ ku bari bujuje imyaka, zisohoka zirimo n’ubwoko bwa buri umwe hashingiwe ku bipimo by’ubutunzi, indeshyo n’ibindi.

Iyo karita yari yanditse mu Kidage n’Ikinyarwanda niyo yashyizwemo bwa mbere ubwoko bw’Abatutsi, abahutu n’abatwa mu Rwanda.

Bamwe mu banyarwanda barabyamaganye ariko biba iby’ubusa. Mu 1958, Rudahigwa yasabye ababiligi ko amoko yavanwa mu ndangamuntu agaragaza ko ateye ikibazo ababiligi barabyanga.

Iyi buku yabaye nka fotokopi y’ibyangombwa byagiye bitangwa na Repubulika ya mbere n’iya kabiri, kugeza mu 1994 ubwo indangamuntu irimo ubwoko yifashishwaga kuri bariyeri n’ahandi hose, mu kurimbura Abatutsi muri Jenoside.

Iyo Ibuku itabaho, wenda benshi bari kurokoka muri Jenoside kuko abicanyi byari kubagora gutandukanya Umututsi n’utari we.

Guhitana Rudahigwa

Ubutegetsi bwa Rudahigwa bwajujubijwe n'Ababiligi kugeza ubwo yapfaga amarabira

Urupfu rwa Rudahigwa tariki 25 Nyakanga 1959, ni ikindi gikomere gikomeye Ababiligi bazahora bibukirwaho mu mateka y’u Rwanda.

Rudahigwa yatanze ari i Bujumbura mu Burundi aho yari anyuze ngo akomeze urugendo yari agiyemo mu mahanga. Yavuye mu Rwanda nta gicurane arwaye, Kigeli Ndahindurwa wamusimbuye ku ngoma yigeze kubihamya.

Ati “Mutara yashakaga kujya muri New York gusaba Loni guha u Rwanda ubwigenge. Ubwo yari muri Usumbura yahinduriwe umuganga wari usanzwe amuvura, amutera urushinge mbere y’uko agenda. Agisohoka mu biro bya muganga yikubise hasi. Twumvishijwe ko urupfu rwe rwabaye impanuka ariko mukuru wanjye ntiyari arwaye kandi nta n’isuzuma ry’umurambo ryakozwe.”

Imyaka ibaye mirongo Rudahigwa atanze, nyamara nta mucyo u Bubiligi bwigeze butanga ku rupfu rwe. Nta wabura kubukeka ukurikije uburyo bari bamaze iminsi bameranye nabi kubera inkundura yari yatangije yo gusabira ubwigenge bwuzuye u Rwanda, Ababiligi bakamuca inyuma bakabuha Grégoire Kayibanda n’ishyaka rya Parmehutu.

Byari kugenda bite iyo Rudahigwa aticwa, u Rwanda rukabona ubwigenge ari we uruyoboye?

Gushyigikira Leta zivangura

Col Guy Logiest wagize uruhare mu gushyira Parmehutu ku butegetsi no kumenesha Abatutsi mu gihugu

Aho guha u Rwanda ubwigenge busesuye nk’uko umwami Rudahigwa yabisabaga, Ababiligi bakoze ibindi. Nyuma yo kumukura mu nzira, ubutegetsi bwahawe PARMEHUTU ya Kayibanda, yihimura ku Batutsi, irabamenesha abandi barica.

Ibyo byose byakorewe mu maso y’Ababiligi ndetse nko mu 1959, indege z’Ababiligi n’intwaro zabo byagiye bikoreshwa mu gutwikira no kwica Abatutsi hirya no hino mu gihugu.

U Bubiligi nibwo banze ko umwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa agaruka mu Rwanda, nyuma yo kumuheza ishyanga ubwo yari yagiye gusabira igihugu ubwigenge.

Nubwo Loni yari yatoye isaba ko Kigeli agaruka mu gihugu, u Bubiligi bwakoze ibishoboka byose ngo atakigarukamo.

Colonel Logiest wari Rezida w’u Rwanda niwe wateye inkunga Coup d’etat yo gukuraho ubwami kuwa 28 Mutarama 1961 i Gitarama. Ibyo byose nta buryozwacyaha bwabayeho ku Bubiligi.

Na nyuma y’ubwigenge mu 1962, u Bubiligi bwakomeje kugira ijambo rinini mu Rwanda haba muri politiki, mu gisirikare n’ibindi.

Ingabo zabwo nizo zafashije iza Kayibanda gusubiza inyuma ibitero by’Inyenzi, aho gushyira imbere icyo abo Banyarwanda bari barirukanywe mu gihugu basabaga.

Gusiga Abatutsi mu maboko y’Interahamwe

Tariki 11 Mata 1994, ingabo z'u Bubiligi zasize ibihumbi by'Abatutsi bari bahungiye kuri ETO'O Kicukiro, babasiga mu maboko y'Interahamwe

Ingabo z’u Bubiligi ziri mu zari zishinzwe kugarura amahoro mu Rwanda guhera mu 1993, nyuma y’isinywa ry’amasezerano ya Arusha.

Ubwo Jenoside yari itangiye, aho kurinda no kugarura amahoro nkuko zari zabisabwe, izo ngabo zazinze utwangushye tariki 11 Mata 1994 zisubira iwabo, zisiga ibihumbi by’Abatutsi mu maboko y’Interahamwe.

Urwibutso rwa Jenoside rwa Nyanza ya Kicukiro ni ikimenyetso cy’ayo mateka atazibagirana, kuko rushyinguyemo imibiri y’abatutsi basaga ibihumbi 12, barimo abishwe bakuwe mu ishuri ryahoze ari Eto’o Kicukiro tariki ya 11 Mata 1994 aho ingabo z’u Bubiligi zari zikambitse mbere yo kubasiga aho ngo bicwe.

Byari kugenda gute ingabo z’u Bubiligi iyo zihaguma, zikagumana n’ibyo bihumbi by’Abatutsi muri Eto’o Kicukiro?

Indiri y’abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Nyuma y’urugamba rwo guhagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Abayigizemo uruhare n’abafite imyumvire nk’iyabo, feri ya mbere bayifatiye mu Bubiligi.

Kugeza ubu iki gihugu nicyo usangamo amashyirahamwe apfobya akanahakana Jenoside nka Jambo Asbl yiganjemo abana b’abagize uruhare muri Jenoside, bigakorwa inzego zose zirebera ntihagire igikorwa.

Niho uzasanga abanyapolitiki badatinya kugaragaza ko nta Jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda, ko habaye ebyiri n’ibindi biyitesha agaciro, ariko ntibabibazwe.

Nibyo umubano w’u Rwanda n’u Bubiligi uri kugana aheza ariko hakenewe umucyo kuri aya mateka ashaririye bafitemo uruhare, ibisabirwa imbabazi bigakorwa, ibifatirwa izindi ngamba nabyo bigakorwa.

Muri Mata 2000, uwari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bubiligi, Guy Verhofstadt, yaje i Kigali asaba imbabazi z’igihugu cye kuba ntacyo cyakoze ngo gihagarike Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, icyakora ntacyo yavuze ku bindi byakozwe kuva mu 1916.

Ibuku yagize uruhare mu kubiba amacakubiri mu Banyarwanda
Uwari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bubiligi, Guy Verhofstadt yasabye imbabazi zo kuba igihugu cye kitaratabaye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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