1884-1885: Uko byagenze ubwo Afurika yagabanwaga bugati n’Abanyaburayi

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 4 Kamena 2020 saa 10:08
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Nyuma y’imyaka 300 yo gusahura Afurika abaturage bayo bajyanwa ku ngufu mu mirimo y’agahato n’ubucakara muri Amerika, mu 1884 Abanyaburayi bahinduye umuvuno noneho bajya umugambi wo kugira Afurika iyabo.

Ni umushinga wakoranywe ubugome nk’uwa mbere kuko ubuzima bw’umunyafurika icyo gihe ntacyo bwari buvuze, icyari kibaraje ishinga ni ugukungahaza ibihugu byabo basahura mutungo kamere wa Afurika.

Mu 1884 Abanyaburayi birengagije miliyoni z’abanyafurika bapfiriye mu buretwa no mu nzira bajyanywe mu bucakara muri Amerika, bongera kureba ibiri mu nyungu zabo ku Mugabane wari usanzwe uri ukwawo.

Ku gicamunsi cyo kuwa Gatandatu tariki 15 Ugushyingo 1884, i Berlin mu ngoro y’ubwami bw’u Budage izwi nka Wilhelmstrasse hateraniye inama mpuzamahanga. Iyo nama yari yatumijwe n’uwari Chancelier w’u Budage, Otto von Bismarck.

Intego nyamukuru y’iyi nama yigaragazaga ucyinjira mu cyumba kuko hari hamanitse ikarita y’Afurika ifite uburebure bwa metero eshanu igaragaza ibiyaga by’uwo mugabane, imigezi, imisozi, amazina make y’ahantu hamwe na hamwe n’utudomo tw’umweru hamwe na hamwe h’ingenzi.

Imbere y’ameza y’uruziga hari hicaye abayobozi b’ibihugu 13 by’i Burayi. Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika nazo zari zatumiwe ariko zanga kwitabira kuko nta nyungu nyinshi zabonaga muri Afurika.

Iyo nama yamaze amezi atatu kuko yarangiye tariki 26 Gashyantare 1885, ibihugu byose bimaze kwemeranya uko bizigabanya Afurika, by’umwihariko ibyifataga nk’ibikomeye birimo u Budage, u Bufaransa, u Bwongereza, u Buholandi, u Bubiligi, Portugal na Espagne.

Mu kugabana bari bafite amakaramu y’ibiti, buri umwe aca imiringo aho ashaka gufata, bakabanza kubiganiraho, babyemeza ubwo bagakomereza ku wundi.

Iyo nama yamaze iminsi 104 uvanyemo akaruhuko gato bafashe ngo bajye kwizihiza iminsi mikuru ya Noheli n’Ubunani.

Nyuma y’inama, ibihugu byose bya Afurika uvanyemo Liberia na Ethiopia y’ubu, byaragabanywe kandi birakolonizwa.

Nubwo ibyagabanwaga ari ubukungu bwa Afurika, nta munyafurika wigeze atumirwa muri iyo nama cyangwa ngo hagire ubahagararira. N’umuyobozi wa Zanzibar washatse kwitumira ngo ayijyemo yakumiriwe kure n’Abongereza.

Inzobere mu mateka ya Afurika, Umunyanijeriya Prof Olyaemi Akinwumi yavuze ko kugabanya Afurika byakozwe hatitawe ku mateka cyangwa imibereho y’abatuye uwo mugabane ari nazo ngorane igihura nazo.

Ati “Benshi muri Afurika twemera ko inkomoko y’amakimbirane akigaragara kuri uyu mugabane, yatangiriye mu nama y’i Berlin.”

Akinwumi avuga ko nk’ubwoko bwabaga bubumbiye hamwe, bwajyaga kwisanga bwashyizwe mu bihugu bitandukanye, ibihugu bimwe bikagabanyirizwa ubuso n’ibindi.

Mu mabwiriza ibihugu byaganiye i Berlin byahawe, harimo ko niba igihugu cyageze ku butaka runaka bwa Afurika, buzitwa ubwacyo ari uko kibimenyesheje bigenzi byacyo i Burayi kandi kuri ubwo butaka hakoherezwayo ingabo nke. Intego yo kujya muri Afurika kwari ukuhazana ibyo bise ‘iterambere’, kuhasakaza ubukirisitu no guteza imbere ubucuruzi ‘bwabo’.

Kugira ngo igihugu cyemererwe ko ubutaka cyafashe ari ubwacyo, cyagombaga gisinyana n’abategetsi gakondo baho inyandiko yemera ko bemeye abakoloni ariko bakazahabwa uburinzi n’icyo gihugu cyabakolonije. Ibyo ntibyari bigoye dore ko abategetsi benshi muri Afurika batari bazi kwandika cyangwa gusoma.

Mu gihe cyo kugabana Afurika, uduce duke tw’uwo mugabane nitwo twari twaragezwemo n’Abanyaburayi. Abenshi bari baragiye bakambika ku nkengero z’uwo mugabane ku bice bikora ku nyanja.

Mu 1900 nibwo batangiye kwinjira imbere muri Afurika bashakisha ibyo kwifashisha mu nganda zabo nk’amabuye y’agaciro, Caoutchouc yakoreshwaga mu nganda zikora ibinyabiziga mu Burayi n’ibindi.

U Bubiligi nibwo bwabyungukiyemo cyane kuko umwami Leopold II yahawe ububasha bwo kugenzura ubutaka bwa Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, gusa ategekwa kuhubaka ku buryo haba ahantu h’ubucuruzi hagati y’Abanyaburayi bose muri Afurika, mbese buri gihugu cy’i Burayi gishaka kuhisanzura kikabikora.

Mu bindi yasabwe ni ugukwirakwiza ubukiristu mu bice byose bigize Congo.

Mu bagiye kigwa uko bazagabana Afurika, nta Munyafurika cyangwa uyihagarariye wari uhari

Nubwo Leopold II yari yemeye ko Congo izabyazwa umusaruro n’abanyaburayi bose, siko byagenze kuko amasezerano yo gucukura no gutwara umutungo kamere wa Congo amenshi yasinyishwaga sosiyete zo mu Bubiligi. Mu 1908 byaje kumenyekana ko ku mabwiriza ya Leopold II, abaturage ba Congo bategekwaga kujya gushaka ingano runaka ya Caoutchouc bashyira abatware b’Ababiligi, batabikora bagacibwa amaboko cyangwa ibirenge. Leopold II yaje kwamburwa Congo iherezwa Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi.

Kuva mu 1885 kugeza mu 1908, miliyoni z’abanye-Congo zari zimaze gupfa zishwe, ziciwe amaboko, zikubiswe kubera "ibikorwa by’agakiza" Léopold II yari yavuze ko abazaniye, nyamara byahe byokajya.

Kugeza mu 1914, nibura 90 % by’ibihugu bya Afurika byari mu maboko y’ibihugu birindwi by’i Burayi.

Afurika yasanze guhindura imipaka byateza ibindi bibazo bidashira

Imipaka yashyizweho n’abakoloni niyo ikigenderwaho n’uyu munsi. Mu mabwiriza ibihugu byari byahawe, ni uko abaturage bakolonijwe n’igihugu runaka, babaga batemerewe guhahirana n’abo badahuje igihugu kibakolonije.

Akinwumi avuga ko kubera ko abenshi mu bagiye bacibwaho imipaka babaga ari abaturage bo mu bwoko bumwe, kubategeka kudahahirana kuko baciriweho imipaka byateje amakimbirane akigaragara n’ubu.

Ati “Iriya nama yangije byinshi cyane muri Afurika. Hari ibihugu bikigerwaho n’ingaruka zayo uyu munsi.”

Mu myaka ya 1960, abayobozi b’ibihugu bya Afurika byari bikibona ubwigenge bashatse guhindura imipaka yashyiriweho mu nama y’i Berlin ariko basanga byateza ibibazo byinshi kurusha ibyo byakemura.

Umushakashatsi ku mateka y’ubukoloni muri Afurika, akaba n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza ya Erfurt, Michael Pesek, yagize ati “Abayobozi benshi ahagana mu 1960, bavugaga ko baramutse bayihinduye byaba ari ukwiteza ibibazo byinshi.”

Inzobere zivuga ko icyo gihe nibura amakimbirane yari ashingiye hagati mu baturage atari hagati y’ibihugu. Guhindura imipaka byari kwiyongeraho andi makimbirane hagati y’ibihugu, ibintu bikazamba kurushaho.

Mu mwaka wa 2010 ubwo hizihizwaga imyaka 125 ishize inama y’i Berlin irangiye, abari bahagarariye ibihugu bya Afurika muri uwo munsi wizihirijwe Berlin bavuze ko Afurika ikeneye impozamarira y’ibyangijwe n’ubukoloni ndetse bavuga ko ibyakozwe ari ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu.

Nubwo basabye impozamarira, nta na kimwe cyakozwe. Pesek yemeza ko bidatunguranye kuba ntacyo Afurika yahawe.

Ati “Hari ibindi byagiye bivugwa byo guha impozamarira Afurika kubw’ubucakara ndetse n’impozamarira kubwa Jenoside yakorewe Abayahudi. Nyamara ntawe ujya ukomoza ku myaka isaga ijana abanyaburayi bamaze muri Afurika bayikoloniza.”

Ghana nicyo gihugu cya Afurika cyabashije kwigobotora bwa mbere ingoyi cyashyizweho n’inama y’i Berlin, kibona ubwigenge. Mu 2000 hafi ibihugu byose byahoze bikolonijwe muri Afurika byari bimaze kubona ubwigenge.

Ikibazo nuko byinshi mu bihugu byakolonije Afurika, na nyuma y’ubwigenge byakomeje kugira akaboko mu miyoborere ya Afurika ndetse rimwe na rimwe ushaka kubibangamira akigizwayo.

Mu kwezi gsuhize inama y’abaminisitiri mu Bufaransa, yemeje umushinga w’itegeko rihindura amasezerano bwagiranye n’ibihugu umunani byo mu burengerazuba bwa Afurika ku ikoreshwa rya CFA. Igihugu gikoresha iryo faranga cyasabwagwa kubika kimwe cya kabiri cy’amafaranga n’amadevize yacyo muri Banki Nkuru y’u Bufaransa.

Afurika bayigabanye bugati, hatitawe ku muco, imibereho n'ubwoko bw'abayituye

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