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Ubushakashatsi buciriritse, intandaro y’idindira ry’ikorwa ry’imiti mu nganda za Afurika

Yanditswe na Igizeneza Jean Désiré
Kuya 7 Ugushyingo 2022 saa 07:38
Yasuwe :

Abahanga bemeza ko kimwe mu bintu bituma iterambere ry’urwego rw’ubuzima binyuze mu ikorwa ry’imiti itandukanye rizamuka ari ubushakashatsi ku bijyanye n’indwara ndetse n’imiti ishobora kwifashishwa mu kuzirwanya no kuzirinda.

Ubu bushakashatsi bukaba bugerwaho binyuze mu bufatanye na za Leta kuko ari zo zishyiraho politiki ihamye y’ubuzima ndetse no gutanga amafaranga atandukanye afasha muri bwo.

Ibi kandi binagendana no gukundisha abanyeshuri amasomo ya siyansi hamwe n’ibindi byose bigira uruhare kugira ngo ubushakashatsi bwiyongere.

Urwego rw’ubushakatsi bushingiye ku buzima ruri hasi ku mugabane wa Afurika kuko n’ubwo uyu mugabane ugize 17.5% (abarenga miliyari 1.2) by’abatuye Isi, ubushakashatsi bujyanye n’ubuzima bumaze gukorwa ni 2.5%.

Iyi ni imibare mike cyane ituma ikorwa ry’imiti ritiyongera kuko ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima (OMS) bugaragaza ko 99% by’inkingo Afurika ikoresha zituruka hanze yayo, mu gihe 94% by’imiti na yo ituruka hanze.

Ibi byose bishingira ku bushakashatsi bufatwa nk’ubuciriritse bukorwa n’inzobere za Afurika mu by’ubuzima ndetse n’inzego za Leta mu bihugu, zidashyiraho uburyo bwo kubishyigikira bweruye ndetse n’abashoramari bagatinya gushora imari muri uru rwego batinya guhomba.

Kuri ubu muri Afurika habarirwa inganda 375 gusa zikora imiti n’inkingo aho raporo ya Banki y’Isi igaragaza ko hakenewe ishoramari mu buvuzi riri hagati ya miliyari 25 na 30 z’amadolari kugira ngo abanyafurika babone imiti n’ubuvuzi bakeneye.

Ku rundi ruhande, Afurika ni wo mugabane ufite ibimera byinshi by’amoko atandukanye bishobora kwifashishwa mu ikorwa ry’imiti n’andi mahirwe arimo kuba uyu mugabane ufite isoko ry’imiti ribarirwa agaciro ka miliyari 28.5$ ndetse azikuba kabiri mu 2030.

Banki y’Isi igaragaza ko mu myaka iri imbere Afurika izaba ikeneye gukora imiti igezweho no kuyisakaza, gushora imari mu burezi bw’abakora muri serivisi z’ubuvuzi kuko hazaba hakenewe abahanga mu by’ubugenge 90.000, abaforomo 500.000 ndetse n’abajyanama b’ubuzima 300.000.

Gusa ibi kugerwaho byagorana cyane mu gihe urwego rw’ubushakashatsi mu by’Ubuzima bufatwa nk’izingiro mu kuvumbura imiti itandukanye rwaba rukiri hasi bene aka kageni.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umushakashatsi akaba n’Umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Dr Nadine Rujeni yavuze ko kugira ngo Afurika ibe igicumbi cy’ubushakashatsi mu bijyanye n’ubuzima, uyu mugabane ugomba gushora imari muri uru rwego noneho bugatera imbere ku rugero rwifuzwa.

Ati "Za Leta zigomba gufatanya n’abikorera bagashora imari, ushobora gukora ubucuruzi ukabijyanisha no gukumira indwara runaka. Ariko abayobozi muri Afurika ntibaragira iyi myumvire."

Ku bijyanye n’ubushakashatsi buciriritse bukorwa n’abo kuri uyu mugabane, Dr Rujeni avuga ko biterwa n’imbogamizi abo muri ubu bushakashatsi bahura na zo zirimo inganda nke zikora ibikenerwa kugira ngo ubushakashatsi bukorwe neza kandi bufite ireme.

Dr Rujeni anavuga ko n’iyo abashakashatsi ubwabo bagerageje kwirwanaho bagatumiza hanze ibishobora kubafasha, kubyinjiza mu gihugu biba ari ikindi kibazo bityo bigatuma umusanzu wabo utagaragara neza bitewe n’izo mbogamizi.

Ati "Ugasanga ibikoresho ubitumije i Burayi barabikuguriye biraje byagera kuri gasutamo (douane) ugasanga bimaze umwaka utegereje ko birekurwa kandi bikenewe cyane."

"Nkanjye bikomeza kumbaho kuko mfite abanyeshuri bari gukorera impamyabushobozi y’ikirenga (Phd), kandi baba bafite imyaka itanu yo gukora umushinga wabo, haba ubwo utumije ’reactif’ [ibinyabutabire] hanze, ugasanga uko bafata telefoni yinjiye mu gihugu ariko bafata n’icyo kinyabutabire kandi cyo gishobora kwangirika ugasanga ni ikibazo."

Yemeza ko uko gutinda gutuma byangirika kandi biba byarabahenze cyane bigatuma ubushakashatsi budindira ku mpamvu zitabaturutseho mu gihe byaramuka byitaweho, ibikoresho nk’ibi biba bikenewe mu buzima bikihutishwa byakongera ireme ry’ubushakashatsi.

Rujeni yatanze urugero rw’igihe Isi yari ihanganye na Covid-19, iyi ndwara iri kwihinduranya mu buryo butandukanye, aho byasabye ko inzego z’ubuzima zitozwa uko zatahura Coronavirus yihinduranije ariko kubona ibyo bikoresho byifashishwa mu gutahura izihinduranije byabanje kugorana.

Ati "Umushakashatsi ashobora kuvuga ati ngiye gukora umuti w’indwara runaka wemezwe ugurishwe unifashijwe n’abarwayi ariko binyura mu nzira ndende ku buryo bishobora no gutuma acika intege."

Abarangiza kwiga hanze bakigumira mu mahanga na bo ni imwe bu mbogamizi zugarije ubushakashatsi ku bijyanye n’Ubuzima muri Afurika

Dr Rujeni avuga ko n’abahanga mu gukora ubushakashatsi bugendanye n’ubuzima bakiri bake ku mugabane wa Afurika ndetse n’ababonetse iyo barangije bigumira iyo bize bitewe n’impamvu zitandukanye zirimo amafaranga make bahembwa n’imikorere idafututse baba batinya guhura na yo kuri uyu Mugabane

Ati "Nk’ubu njye mfite abanyeshuri babiri barangije kwiga, bafite impamyabumenyi y’ikirenga (Phd) mu bijyane n’ubudahangarwa (Huminology), aho kugira ngo bagaruke muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda bigumiyeyo."

Asobanura ko impamvu bagumayo bamwe baba bagereranya umushahara bahembwa iyo bagiye kwiga n’uwo bahembwa bagarutse iwabo bagasanga ntibihura yewe "n’abadakunze ayo mafaranga bakabona ko bitazakunda gukora ubushakashatsi bufatika bakigumira ahabafasha kubikora byose."

Ubushobozi bwo gukora ubu bushakashatsi nabwo ni ikindi kibazo kuko ibinyabutabire bikenerwa biba bihenze cyane ndetse n’abaterankunga bakaba bagenda biguruntege mu gutanga amafaranga yabo cyane ko ntacyo baba babona bashingiraho mu gutera inkunga ubwo bushakashatsi.

Dr Rujeni ati "Kugira ngo ubone ibyo kwifashisha ni ikibazo, kandi umuterankunga nawe afasha ibifatika kuko areba ibyo umaze gukora kugira ngo aguhe amafaranga ye, ibi byose bigasa n’ibidashoboka bwa bushakashatsi bugakomwa mu nkokora."

Abishingira kuri gahunda yo kongera umubare w’inzobere mu buzima iterwa inkunga n’imiryango itandukanye aho abarimu basabwa gutegura porogaramu bakayishyikiriza inzego z’uburezi mu bihugu bitandukanye ariko kwemezwa bikaba ikibazo ya mafaranga nayo ntatangwe.

Dr Rujeni ati "Nko mu Rwanda porogaramu irakozwe ariko iragiye imaze amezi atandatu muri HEC kandi umuterankunga agomba gutanga amafaranga ari uko ayibona ndetse inkunga igomba kumara umwaka ibyo byose bigahurirana bikabyara bwa bushakashatsi buciriritse wavugaga."

Hari icyizere ko Afurika nayo yaba igicumbi cy’ubushakashatsi ku buzima

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ihuriro rifasha mu kugeza ibikoresho by’ubuvuzi ku babikeneye kandi vuba, BSMA, Devenndra Mishra yabwiye IGIHE ko kugira ngo Afurika igabanye kwishingikiriza ku bihugu by’amahanga mu kubona imiti ari uko uyu mugabane wazamura ireme ry’Uburezi ndetse n’inganda zikora imiti zikongererwa ubushobozi.

Devendra avuga ko icyagafashije abashakashatsi kuzamura ireme ry’ibyo bakora, harimo ibikorwaremezo birimo ibikoresho na za laboratwari zifite ireme ariko nabyo bikaba bikiri ikibazo kuri uyu mugabane.

Ati "N’ubwo hakenewe ikorwa ry’imiti n’ibikoresho by’ubuvuzi ariko mbere yaho habanza gukenerwa abavumbura n’abateza imbere iyo miti."

Ashimangira ko Afurika igomba kuba igicumbi cy’ubushakashatsi bushingiye ku buzima cyane ko hari indwara zitahurwa zifite inkomoko kuri uyu mugabane zinatandukanye n’izo ku yindi migabane bityo ubushashatsi bukozwe neza Afurika yakwikorera imiti ya nyayo ikiza indwara zihaboneka.

Ati "Urumva iyo miti iba yakuwe ku yindi migabane idashobora guhangana n’izi ndwara zo muri Afurika kuko ubushakashatsi buba bwarakozwe kugira ngo ikorwe buba butarashingiwe kuri izi ndwara zituruka muri Afurika."

Bijyanye n’uko hafi ya 50% by’abaturage bagize umugabane wa Afurika bari munsi y’imyaka 17 y’amavuko Devendra avuga ko uru rubyiruko rwakabaye rwibanda ku masomo y’ubuzima bityo rukazakora mu nzego zitandukanye rutahiriza umugozi umwe mu kugira Afurika igicumbi cy’ubuzima.


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