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Amaraso y’inka n’imihovu ashobora gutangira kwifashishwa mu buvuzi bw’abantu

Yanditswe na Igizeneza Jean Désiré
Kuya 9 January 2023 saa 07:32
Yasuwe :

Mu 2001 Ikinyamakuru Nature gitambutswaho ubushakashatsi bwakozwe n’inzobere ku ngingo zitandukanye cyanditse inkuru yavugaga ko kimwe mu bice bigize amaraso y’inka gifasha gutwara oxygène mu mubiri wayo, cyemewe gukoreshwa no ku bantu muri Afurika y’Epfo.

Ni igice kizwi nka ’Hemopure’ gifasha gutwara insoro zitukura zizwiho kugira uruhare mu gukwirakwiza oxygène mu mubiri bikorewe mu maraso.

Cyakuwe mu nyamaswa zo muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zibarizwa mu muryango wa ‘bovine’ harimo inka, imbogo n’izindi gitunganywa n’abahanga mu by’ubuvuzi bo mu Kigo Biopure cya Cambridge ho muri Massachusetts.

Icyo gihe hemejwe ko cyakoreshwa mu guhangana n’indwara ya ’anaemia’ iterwa no kubura oxygène ihagije mu maraso, n’uko umuntu yabazwe amaraso akamubana make, cyane ko inyamaswa zizwiho kugira ibice byihutisha cyane ikwirakwira ry’amaraso mu mubiri.

Uwari umuyobozi mu Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku buzima, OMS, Luc Noel yavuze ko bizafasha ibice by’icyaro byo muri Afurika y’Epfo kuko abatanga amaraso mazima muri ibi bice bari bake bijyanye n’imibare y’abari bafite virusi itera Sida.

Imibare ya OMS yagaragazaga ko muri iki gihugu umuntu umwe muri batanu yabaga afite Virus itera Sida, Noel akemeza ko gukoresha bimwe mu bigize amaraso y’inyamaswa bizafasha mu kuziba icyo cyuho.

Ni igikorwa cyari kigezweho muri byinshi byatangijwe mu bushakashatsi bugamije gukemura ikibazo cy’ibura ry’amaraso akenerwa mu kuramira indembe mu Isi by’umwihariko abakenera kongererwa amaraso.

Miliyoni 118.54 z’udushashi tw’amaraso zitangwa buri mwaka kugira ngo atabare ubuzima bw’abantu. Aya ntabwo ari menshi ku baturage miliyari umunani batuye Isi.

Ibi ni byo bituma abashakashatsi berekeza amaso ubuhanga bwabo ku nyamaswa harebwa niba zaba igisubizo mu kuramira amagara y’abantu, nubwo bitoroshye cyane ko inyamaswa na zo ziba zifite indwara zakwangiriza umuntu.

Ibikorwa byo gutanga amaraso ku kinyabuzima kimwe agashyirwa mu kindi si ibya vuba kuko hashize imyaka isaga 300 bitangijwe.

Abashakashatsi bakomeje kugerageza ngo barebe niba amaraso y’inyamaswa yakoreshwa mu bantu bigakunda nk’uburyo bwo gukemura iki kibazo ku buryo burambye.

Mu 1667 Umufaransa Jean Baptiste Denis yateye intambwe afata amaraso y’intama ayashyira mu mubiri w’umwana w’umuhungu w’imyaka 15 ndetse n’umugore, nyuma abo bantu bagaragaweho n’indwara zitandukanye bikekwa ko zatewe n’ayo maraso.

Kuva ubwo ikijyanye no gutanga amaraso cyakomeje kuba ingorabahizi cyane, kugeza no mu 1900 ubwo umunyamerika Karl Landsteiner yavumburaga ubwoko bw’amaraso aho umuntu wagombaga kuyatanga yagombaga kuyaha uwo bahuje, ariko ikibazo cyo gufatana kigakomeza kubangamira ubushakashatsi.

Byasabye kugeza mu 1914 ubwo Umubiligi Adolph Hustin yavumbuye ko amaraso aramutse ashyizwemo ikinyabutabire cya sodium citrate, byayarinda gufatana ndetse akabikwa igihe kirekire.

Ubushakashatsi bwarakomeje butera imbere ku bijyanye no guhana amaraso ariko bikorewe ku bantu, mu kugerageza kureba niba koko inyamaswa zaba igisubizo cya burundu.

Mu 2011 ni bwo ibigize amaraso y’inka (plasma) byafashijwe mu gutabara umugore wari wagize ikibazo cyo gutakaza amaraso menshi akeneye ibyamufasha kuyasakaza mu mubiri cyane ko inyamaswa zizwiho kugira igice cy’amaraso gisakaza umwuka mwiza mu mubiri (hémoglobine) gifite ubushobozi buri hejuru kurusha abantu.

Vuba aha kandi mu 2020 Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo gikora ibijyanye n’Inkingo cya ‘SAB Biotherapeutics’, Eddie Sullivan, yabwiye CNN bariho bategura urukingo bifashishije iyi plasma yo mu maraso y’inka mu guhangana na Covid-19.

Inyamaswa zikunze kuba mu mazi zihumekera mu magaragamba (gills) nk’amafi zishobora kumara amasaha atandatu zidahumeka bigaragaza ubushobozi bwa cya gice cya hémoglobine zifite.

Ibigize iki gice cyo mu nyamaswa gitwara oxygène mu mubiri wayo bikubye inshuro 40 ibigize icy’umuntu mu kwihutisha no gusakaza amaraso asukuye mu mubiri w’umuntu.

Hémoglobine imwe mu maraso y’umuntu iba ifite ibiyigize (proteins) bitwaye oxygène enye (four oxygen molecules) inshuro imwe mu gihe iy’inyamaswa nk’umuhovu wo iba itwaye molecules 156 za oxygène, bigaragaza itandukaniro nk’uko Umushakashatsi w’Umufaransa Franck Zal abishimangira.

Kugeza ubu umuhovu [umukondo w’inyana] na wo ni umwe mu nyamaswa zishobora gufasha mu itangwa ry’amaraso ndetse no gufasha mu kubungabunga insimburangingo zigiye gushyirwa mu muntu mu gihe ari kubagwa.

Impamvu ni uko amaraso y’aka gasimba nta bwoko bw’amaraso y’umuntu atakorana na bwo ndetse umubiri ushobora kuyihanganira kuko nta bituma ushobora kuyarwanya afite.

Bisobanuye ko amaraso yawo yakorana n’umubiri w’umuntu nta bindi bibazo ateje.

Mu 2016 hageragejwe niba aya maraso y’umuhovu ashobora kugira icyo yamarira umuntu mu buryo buziguye cyangwa butaziguye, bafata ibice by’umubiri byagombaga gusimbura ingingo z’umurwayi zari zangiritse babibika mu maraso yawo ibizwi nka ‘Hemo2Life’.

Nyuma byagaragaye ko gukoresha amaraso y’umuhovu byatumye umurwayi akira vuba ndetse bizamura imikorere y’izo ngingo zasimbujwe kurusha izari zabitswe mu buryo busanzwe.

Nyuma y’ayo mageragezwa ubu buryo busigaye bukoreshwa mu kurinda ko ibice by’umubiri bitandukanye birimo ibihaha, urwagashya ndetse n’umutima bigeye gukoreshwa nk’insimburangingo byakwangirika mu gihe bari kubaga umuntu.

Mu 2018 Umuganga uzobereye mu byo kubaga ukorera mu Bufaransa, Pr Lantieri yarabukoresheje nyuma avuga ko atazongera “gushyira insimburangingo mu mubiri w’umuntu adakoresheje buriya buryo bwifashisha amaraso y’umuhovu.”

Ikigo cya Hemarina cyashinzwe na Franck Zal gisanzwe gitunganya iyi mihovu igakoreshwa mu buryo buziguye mu kuvura abantu, giteganya gusaba uburenganzira mu Burayi kikagurisha ubu buryo mu bihugu bitandukanye cyane ko kugeza ubu bafite imihovu irenga toni.

Uretse imihovu ingurube na zo zabonywe n’abashakashatsi ko zishobora gufasha mu gutanga amaraso. Gusa izi nyamaswa zo ziba zifite indwara nyinshi ku buryo kugira ngo bikunde amaraso abanza gutunganywa akavanwamo izo ndwara zishobora kwangiza umubiri w’umuntu.

Kugeza ubu ikibazo cy’insimburangingo kiracyahangayikishije bijyanye n’umubare uzikeneye. OMS igaragaza ko insimburangingo ibihumbi 114 zitangwa buri mwaka, zingana na 10% by’abazikeneye.

Amaraso y’inka n’imihovu ashobora gutangira kwifashishwa mu buvuzi bw’abantu

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