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Ibigo bishinzwe ubucuruzi n’imari biri gushingwa ku bwinshi muri Afurika; u Rwanda ruzarusyaho?

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel
Kuya 14 July 2022 saa 07:33
Yasuwe :

Nubwo Afurika ari wo mugabane utanga inyungu iruta iy’ahandi ku ishoramari riturutse mu mahanga - ingana na 11% - ni wo wakira ishoramaari rito ugereranyije n’indi migabane. Ryari rigize 3% by’iryashowe ku Isi yose mu 2018, rivuye kuri 1% mu 2000.

Ni ishoramari rito cyane ugereranyije n’irikenewe kuri uyu mugabane, aho mu nzego hafi ya zose uhasanga icyuho.

Icyakora, urebye uko ibihe bisimburana ubona ko inyota yo gushora kuri uyu mugabane iri gukura buri munsi, bitewe n’icyizere utanga mu bihe biri imbere.

Mu 2050, mu gihe ahandi ku Isi abaturage bazaba bagabanuka, Abanyafurika bitezweho kuzikuba kabiri bakagera kuri miliyari 2,5, aho bazaba bagize 25% by’abatuye Isi bose, bavuye kuri 17% uyu munsi.

Uretse isoko rizarushaho kwaguka, Afurika ifite ibindi bikorwa icuruza birimo kuba yihariye 60% by’ubutaka bushobora guhingwaho ariko budakoreshwa, mu gihe 30% by’umutungo kamere wose ubarizwa kuri uyu mugabane.

Iyo wongeyeho ko impuzandengo y’imyaka y’abawutuye ari 22, ubona impamvu buri mushoramari wese ureba kure ari kwifuza kwerekeza amafaranga ye kuri uyu mugabane.

Ku rundi ruhande, biracyagoye bamwe mu bashoramari kuko ibibazo by’imiyoborere mibi, ruswa, amakimbirane, intambara n’ibindi byinshi bituma hari abatekereza kabiri mbere yo gufata icyemezo cyo gushora imari yabo muri Afurika.

Urebye nabi ibyo byose bishobora gutuma ihinduka umuyonga mu kanya nk’aho guhumbya.

Ishoramari riturutse hanze y’Umugabane wa Afurika ni bumwe mu buryo bwitezweho kugira uruhare rufatika mu gufasha uyu mugabane gutera imbere vuba, binyuze mu kuziba icyuho cy’ishoramari mu nzego nk’ibikorwaremezo, kibarirwa muri miliyari 108$ ku mwaka.

Mu kurushaho korohereza ishoramari riturutse mu mahanga, ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika biri gushyiraho uburyo bushobora gutuma rirushaho kwiyongera.

Ibi biri kunyuzwa mu buryo bwinshi, aho turi bwibande ku buzwi nka ‘International Financial Center’, cyangwa se Ikigo mpuzamahanga gishinzwe ubucuruzi n’ishoramari.

Amahuriro mpuzamahanga ya serivisi z'imari muri Afurika yitezweho kuzongera ishoramari rizaziba icyuho kiri mu nzego nk'ibikorwaremezo birimo imihanda

Ihangana ry’umugisha

Mu 2020, u Rwanda rwatangije Ikigo Mpuzamahanga cya Kigali gishinzwe Ibikorwa by’Ubucuruzi n’Imari (KIFC) nyuma y’uko itegeko rigishyiraho ryemejwe n’Inama y’Abaminisitiri mu 2017, nabwo rimaze igihe kirekire ritekerezwaho, umushinga bivugwa ko wari umaze imyaka irenga 10 uganirwaho.

Bene iki kigo ni igicumbi kiba cyarashyiriweho amategeko n’ibindi byorohereza abashoramari bo mu rwego rw’imari, barimo nka banki, ibigega mpuzamahanga, ibigo bitanga ubujyanama mu bijyanye n’ubukungu, ibigo by’ubwishingizi n’ibindi.

Kugira ngo nk’umujyi runaka ugere ku rwego rwo kwitwa igicumbi cya serivisi z’imari, ntabwo ari ikintu cyoroshye. Bitewe n’impamvu zitandukanye, ibi bishobora kugerwaho mu myaka iri hagati ya 10 na 30, ukurikije uko byagiye bigenda ahandi.

Mu bihugu bifite ubukungu buri ku rwego rukomeye, iki gihe gishobora kugabanuka, mu gihe mu bihugu bifite ubukungu bugitera imbere nk’u Rwanda, iki gihe gishobora no kuba kirekire kurushaho.

Icyakora, ingano y’ubukungu bw’igihugu ntabwo ari yo nyamukuru mu kugena amahirwe umujyi cyangwa igihugu gifite yo kuba ihuriro mpuzamahanga rya serivisi z’imari, ahubwo ibi bishobora gushingira ku zindi mpamvu zirimo amahirwe y’iterambere ari mu mujyi cyangwa igihugu runaka.

Urugero rworoshye ni nk’Ibirwa bya Maurice, igihugu gifite Ihuriro Mpuzamahanga rya Serivisi z’Imari riri mu mahuriro akomeye muri Afurika no ku Isi.

Ahagana mu 1980 ubwo Ibirwa bya Maurice byatangiraga uyu mushinga, cyari igihugu kiri mu bukene bukabije ku buryo yari mu byago byo kunanirwa kwishyura inguzanyo yafashe, aho byabaye ngombwa ko yitabaza Banki y’Isi n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari, IMF.

Ubukungu bwayo bwari bushingiye ku buhinzi aho bahingaga ibisheke ku bwinshi ku buryo byari bigize 25% by’ibyo yohereza mu mahanga.

Ubwo cyari mu bihe bikomeye by’ihungabana ry’ubukungu, IMF yemeye kukigoboka ariko kigashyiraho ingamba zikaze zirimo kugabanya imishahara y’abakozi, gutesha agaciro ifaranga ryacyo n’izindi ngamba zikakaye.

Uyu muti usharira Maurice yawunyoye iri kuvuguta undi uzatuma itazongera guca muri uru rusobe rw’ibibazo, kuva ubwo batangira gushyira imbaraga mu kwishakamo ibisubizo, baza kubona ko bashobora kuba inzira inyuzwamo ishoramari rigana mu bihugu nka Afurika y’Epfo n’u Buhinde, dore ko ubukungu bwaho bwari bugifunze ku banyamahanga.

Ni uko batangiye urugendo rwo gushinga Ikigo mpuzamahanga gishinzwe Serivisi z’Imari n’ubucuruzi, aho kigira uruhare rungana na 8% ku musaruro mbumbe w’ubukungu bw’icyo gihugu, kigatanga akazi kuri 4% by’abakozi bafite ubushobozi bwo gukora, mu gihe kigira uruhare rungana na 8% mu misoro yinjizwa mu isanduku ya Leta.

Bitewe n’uko ishoramari ryarushijeho kwiyongera muri Maurice, cyane cyane bigizwemo uruhare na banki mpuzamahanga zarushijeho kwinjira kuri iri soko, byatumye abaturage babona inguzanyo zihendutse, zikunze kuba ziri munsi ya 5%.

Nabo bazibyaje umusaruro barakora biteza imbere, bituma izindi nzego nk’ubukerarugendo n’urwego rw’inganda ziboneraho kuzamuka.

Umusaruro wabyo byose ni uko Maurice ari igihugu kiri mu bifite ubukungu buteye imbere, aho umuturage umwe yinjiza nibura ibihumbi 9.8$ ku mwaka.

Ubu buryo iki gihugu cyakoreshejwe, nubwo bwihariye bitewe n’impamvu nyinshi, busa nk’uburimo kwiganwa n’ibindi bihugu bya Afurika nabyo byifuza gufungura amahuriro mpuzamahanga ya serivisi z’imari, kugira ngo bizarre ishoramari ryinshi, bityo bitere imbere vuba.

Uretse u Rwanda ruherutse gutangira uru rugendo, ibihugu nka Kenya, Nigeria na Ghana nabyo bimaze igihe gito bitangije ibigo mpuzamahanga bya serivisi z’imari n’ubucuruzi.

Ibihugu nka Afurika y’Epfo, Maroc, Misiri n’ibindi bitandukanye, nabyo bimaze igihe muri uyu mushinga, ndetse umuntu yavuga ko bimaze gutera intambwe ifatika.

Imijyi nka Nairobi iri mu mishinga yo kubaka Ihuriro Mpuzamahanga rya Serivisi z'Imari, ihanganye n'indi nka Kigali na Accra muri Ghana

U Rwanda rufite ayahe mahirwe muri iri hangana?

Kugira ngo bene iki kigo mpuzamahanga gishoboke, bisaba ibintu bitandukanye birimo gushyiraho amategeko ashobora koroshya uburyo bwo gukorera ubucuruzi mu gihugu, imisoro n’imikoranire n’ibindi bihugu n’inararibonye mu bijyanye n’imari n’ubukungu.

Bisaba kandi kugira urwego rw’imari rukorera mu mucyo, isoko ry’imari n’imigabane rikora neza n’ibindi.

Ku ruhande rumwe, hari ibyiciro u Rwanda rwarangije kwerekanamo ubushobozi buri hejuru nko mu bijyanye no korohereza ubucuruzi no gushyiraho amategeko agenga imisoro, n’ibindi bijyanye n’imikorere y’ibigo bizazana imari mu Rwanda.

U Rwanda kandi ruri imbere mu bijyanye no gukorera mu mucyo, aho ibibazo nka ruswa n’ibindi bijyanye na yo biri ku kigero cyo hasi ugereranyije n’ibihugu ruhanganye nabyo, cyane cyane ibifite ibigo mpuzamahanga by’imari bikiri bito, nka Ghana, Kenya na Nigeria.

Ku bijyanye no gushyiraho ibyafasha abashoramari kuzana imari yabo mu Rwanda (incentives), nabwo u Rwanda ruhagaze neza yaba ari ku bijyanye n’imisoro iri hasi, cyangwa se kuba bemerewe gutunga ibigo byabo 100% badasabwe gufatanya n’Umunyarwanda.

Ibi byiyongeraho kuba badashyirwaho amabwiriza ababuza kuvana inyungu yabo yose mu Rwanda, ingingo zidakunze kuvugwaho rumwe mu bihugu byinshi.

Icyakora, nk’uko u Rwanda rwashoboye gukora ibi byose mu gihe gito n’ibindi bihugu birakataje.

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Umuyobozi ushinzwe Ishoramari muri Rwanda Finance Ltd, ikigo gishinzwe gushyira mu bikorwa umushinga wa KIFC, Ntoudi Mouyelo, yavuze ko u Rwanda rufite amahirwe akomeye muri uyu mushinga.

Yaragize ati “Icya mbere, twubahiriza amategeko mpuzamahanga kandi ibyo ni kimwe mu byo u Rwanda rushyira imbere. Ku bashoramari bakomeye n’abifuza kuzana imari yabo mu Rwanda, baba bifuza ahantu bazi ko amategeko akurikizwa, buri kintu cyose cyagenwe kikagenda neza.”

“Icya kabiri ni ukwihuza k’u Rwanda n’ibindi bihugu bya Afurika. Urebye buri kintu cyose, ukareba nka RwandAir, gutangira visa ku kibuga cy’indege, amasezerano ari gusinywa hagati y’u Rwanda n’ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika, ibi ni ibintu bidasanzwe.”

Yatanze urugero ku bihugu bimaze gusinya amazerano y’imikoranire n’u Rwanda muri iki cyiciro, birimo nka Angola, Congo Brazaville, Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Nigeria, Luxembourg, u Bushinwa, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Singapore n’ibindi byinshi.

Uyu muyobozi kandi yakomeje avuga ko indi mpamvu ashingiraho icyizere cye ari uburyo gukorera mu Rwanda byoroshye.

Yakomeje ati “Nko mu bijyanye no gutangiza ikigo cy’ubucuruzi mu Rwanda, ni inde uruhiga muri Afurika yo Munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara? Mu Rwanda ibintu bishobora gutwara ukwezi, ahandi bishobora gutwara imyaka, iyi ni imwe mu mpamvu dufite umwihariko.”

Umuyobozi ushinzwe Ishoramari muri Rwanda Finance Ltd, ikigo gishinzwe gushyira mu bikorwa umushinga wa KIFC, Ntoudi Mouyelo, yavuze ko u Rwanda rufite amahirwe akomeye muri uyu mushinga

Ishoramari rizakirwa mu Rwanda…

Imwe mu nenge ikomeye ku bigo mpuzamahanga bya serivisi z’imari, ni uko bishobora kuba indiri y’amafaranga ibigo by’ubucuruzi cyangwa n’abandi bantu ku giti cyabo babonye mu buryo butemewe, akahagera mu buryo bwo kuyahisha.

Ibyo bikaba byaterwa n’uko kuyahageza no kuyaharindira umutekano biba byoroshye, bitewe na ya mategeko arengera abashoramari aba yarashyizweho.

Ibi bishobora kwica isura y’igihugu ndetse bikanagishyira mu bibazo n’igihugu gikomokamo amafaranga yibwe cyangwa yanyerejwe, ku buryo bidacunzwe neza bishobora kugira ingaruka mbi ku gihugu gifite ihuriro mpuzamahanga rya serivisi z’imari.

Mouyelo yavuze ko ibyago nk’ibyo bidashoboka mu Rwanda kuko mu mategeko arimo gushyirwaho uyu munsi, iyi ngingo yatekerejweho cyane.

Ati “Turifuza gukorana n’ubucuruzi bwemewe [kandi] tugira uburyo bwizewe bwo guhitamo… twahisemo gukorana n’abashoramari n’ubucuruzi buri mu murongo umwe n’intego yacu yo kuba ‘Igicumbi cya Serivisi z’Imari’ cya mbere muri Afurika cyubahiriza amategeko mpuzamahanga.”

Yagarutse kuri ubwo buryo bwo kwirinda kuba indiri y’amafaranga y’amibano, avuga ko ari yo mpamvu hashyizweho Urwego rw’Ubutasi mu by’Imari (FIC).

Ati “Uburyo tubikoramo ni uko twashyizeho Urwego rw’Ubutasi mu by’Imari (FIC), twamaze gutegura imbanzirizamushinga y’itegeko ku bijyanye no kurwanya inyerezwa ry’amafaranga, twanagiye twongeramo ingingo mu buryo dukora nk’urwego rw’imari [mu Rwanda], kugira ngo twizere ko uburyo bwo kugenzura bwateganyijwe [kandi bwubahirizwa].”

KIFC: Icyizere cy’Icyerekezo cya 2050

Iterambere ry’u Rwanda rifatwa na bamwe nk’igitangaza kubera impamvu zitandukanye zirimo uburyo ryihuse, ahanini bigizwemo uruhare n’ishoramari rya Leta, ryabaye inkingi ya mwamba mu zindi nzego zose z’ubuzima bw’igihugu.

Mu 2019, iri shoramari ryanganaga na 12,3% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu ndetse riza kugera kuri 13% mu mwaka wakurikiyeho, ubwo igihugu cyarimo guhangana n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya Covid-19. Muri iki cyiciro, u Rwanda ruri mu bihugu biyoboye ibindi ku rwego rw’Isi.

Icyakora mu ntego nshya z’iterambere, zirimo izo kuba u Rwanda ari igihugu gifite ubukungu buciriritse kugera mu 2030 n’ubukungu buteye imbere mu 2050, biteganyijwe ko urwego rw’abikorera ari rwo ruzagira uruhare rufatika mu kuyobora ibikorwa by’iterambere ry’u Rwanda.

Gusa ibi ni urugendo rurerure kuko urwego rw’abikorera mu Rwanda rucyiyubaka.

Ibi bikagaragazwa n’uko ubwizigame bwarwo, ari na bwo bwakabaye isoko y’ibanze y’ishoramari riteganyijwe bukiri hasi, aho buri munsi ya 10% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu.

Ibi rero bituma uru rwego rw’abikorera rudashobora kubona amafaranga ahagije rukoresha mu ishoramari, ari na yo mpamvu ishoramari riturutse hanze ari ingenzi cyane mu gukomeza umuvuduko w’iterambere u Rwanda rwifuza.

Aha niho haziramo KIFC, kuko mu gihe izaba imaze gushinga imizi, ifite ubushobozi bwo gukurura ishoramari ryinshi kandi rihagije, bizagira ingaruka ku bashoramari b’imbere mu gihugu kuko bazarushaho kubona igishoro kandi gihendutse.

Bityo bakore ishoramari rizagira uruhare mu kuzamura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda, nk’uko byagenze kuri Maurice.

Mouyela yavuze ko KIFC izagira uruhare mu gutuma u Rwanda rugera ku ntego zarwo.

Ati “U Rwanda ni igihugu gifite intego mu 2035 na 2050. Icyo turi kubona ni amafaranga akomeje kuza mu Rwanda. Ibi bizarushaho gushyigikira iterambere ryacu n’iterambere rya Afurika. Kuri njye mbona bijyanye, kuba Ihuriro ry’Imari mu Rwanda riri gutezwa imbere kugira ngo u Rwanda ruzabe rwageze ku ntego zarwo mu 2050.”

Gusa haracyari ibibazo bikeneye kwitabwaho, birimo kongera ibikorwaremezo ndetse no kongera umubare w’abakozi bafite ubumenyi buhambaye mu bijyanye na serivisi z’imari, dore ko mu barenga ibihumbi 38 bakora muri uru rwego, 1% gusa ari bo bafite ubumenyi buri ku rwego mpuzamahanga.

U Rwanda rufite intego y’uko urwego rw’imari ruzaba rugira uruhare rungana na 5,2% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu mu 2035.

KIFC izagira uruhare rufatika mu iterambere ry'u Rwanda muri bihe biri imbere

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