00:00:00 IGIHE NETWORK KN KINYARWANDA EN ENGLISH FR FRANCAIS

U Rwanda rugiye gusagurira amahanga ku mbuto, umusaruro uborera mu mirima, amapfa: Ikiganiro na Dr Karangwa uyobora RAB

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 31 Ukuboza 2021 saa 07:43
Yasuwe :

Mu myaka 30 iri imbere, u Rwanda ntiruzaba rukiri uko ruri ubu. Byinshi bizaba byarahindutse, byarabaye byiza kurushaho nkuko icyerecyezo 2050 kibigaragaza. Ni igihugu kizaba cyihagije muri byose, kiri mu bihugu bikize ku isi, Umunyarwanda yinjiza miliyoni 12 Frw ku mwaka.

Mu kubigeraho, bisaba inzego zitandukanye zirimo n’urw’ubuhinzi. Uru rwego rutunze hejuru ya 65 % by’Abanyarwanda kuri ubu, icyo gihe ruzaba rutunze 30 % by’abazaba bahari.

Za rugori, macaku, imijyojyo n’udufuni dutera intabire, biragoye ngo bizageze u Rwanda muri icyo cyerecyezo. Imashini zihinga, izuhira, imbuto zitanga umusaruro nibyo bikenewe ubu.

IGIHE yaganiriye n’Umuyobozi w’ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe Iterambere ry’ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi (RAB), Dr Karangwa Patrick, asobanura byinshi kuri urwo rugendo, aho u Rwanda rugeze rwihaza mu biribwa, imbuto yo guhinga, ibibazo by’amapfa hamwe na hamwe mu gihugu, umusaruro wera ukaborera mu murima n’ibindi.

IGIHE: Hashize iminsi u Rwanda ruri muri gahunda yo gutubura imbuto z’Ibihingwa bitandukanye kuko byahendeshaga Leta, bigeze he?

Dr Karangwa: Bimaze kugera ahantu hashimishije. Muribuka ko mu 2018 mu Mwiherero wabaye hafashwe umwanzuro ko mu myaka itatu imbuto twatumizaga hanze kuri Nkunganire ya Leta, twaba twihagije tutakizitumiza. Ibyo twabigezeho, ubu imbuto twatumizaga hanze ntazo tugitumiza. Nko muri iki gihembwe, nta mbuto twatumije hanze ngo tubashe guhinga.

Imbuto zavaga hanze kuri gahunda ya Leta ya Nkunganire ni imbuto y’ibigori, soya n’ingano; zose ubu zirimo gutuburirwa hano mu gihugu imbere. Tumaze kubona ko zimaze kuba nyinshi ku buryo turi guteganya uko twajya twohereza hanze.

Mu minsi ishize nakiriye hano mu biro Umuyobozi Mukuru Ushinzwe ubuhinzi muri Centrafrique. Twaganiriye uburyo imbuto zituburirwa mu Rwanda zatangira guhingwa muri Centrafrique. Na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo abatubura imbuto bacu batangiye kureba uko bakoherezayo imbuto.

Mu myaka yashize wasangaga imbuto zituruka cyane cyane muri Kenya na Zambia ariko iryo soko bimeze nk’aho ryavuyeho ahubwo dutangiye kuba nk’abarihanganiyeho mu buryo bw’ubucuruzi.

IGIHE: Muvuzemo ingano, nyamara hari inganda nini zaba izenga inzoga n’izikora ibikomoka ku ifarini bikivana ingano hanze, umusaruro wazo mu gihugu ufite ikihe kibazo?

Dr Karangwa: Ku byerekeye ingano naho hari amoko meza yavuye mu bushakashatsi, hari ikibazo cyajyaga kigaragazwa cy’uko amoko yari mu gihugu kuba adakora ifu y’umugati ifite ibiyagize bike bituma umugati ubasha kubaho. Hari amoko ubona afite ibintu bikeya bituma ifarini ibasha kugira umugati mwiza, ibyo rero nabyo byashyizweho imbaraga mu bushakashatsi, amoko yaje gusohoka rwose menshi mu bushakashatsi bwa RAB.

Ikibazo cyagiye kigorana cyane mu ngano, ni ikijyanye n’ibyo gufata neza umusaruro. Ni ukuvuga ngo nubwo waba ufite ubwoko bwiza, akenshi iyo zitafashwe neza zikanyagirwa zitangira kumera. Iyo ufashe ingano zatangiye kuzamuka nubwo kaba ari gatoya, nta bwiza biba bigifite.

Byagaragaye ko hari ibyapfaga byinshi biciye mu kubika umusaruro nabi, leta naho yashyizemo imbaraga ishaka imashini zumisha umusaruro (mobile dryers).

Ikindi kibazo gikomeye ni ibyerekeye ikiguzi cyo guhinga hano mu gihugu n’ikiguzi cyo guhinga mu bihugu bimwe byateye imbere cyane ibifite ubutaka bunini n’ikoranabuhanga rikomeye.

Ingano zihinzwe mu Rwanda abahinzi usanga bifuza ko bahabwa amafaranga nibura nka 400 Frw ku kilo nyamara uruganda rukakwereka ko iyo utumije ingano nko mu bihugu nka Brésil, Ukraine, Australia, uruganda rukerekana ko zigera hano ikilo gihagaze 250 Frw. Bakavuga bati “ni gute najya kugura iza 400 Frw nsize iza 250 Frw?”

IGIHE: Kubera iki rero usanga ikiguzi kiri hejuru?

Dr Karangwa: Mu bihugu bifite ubuso bunini cyane, usanga bahinga ahantu hanini kandi bagakoresha ikoranbuhanga rigezweho bikagabanya ikiguzi. Hano umuntu aracyahingisha agasuka ke . Ntabwo buriya biri économique [bitanga umusaruro], ugiye muri politiki y’ubuhinzi bw’igihugu.

Tugerageza kubafasha kubakangurira kwibumbira hamwe mu guhuza ubutaka ariko ibyo ntabwo bikemura ikibazo burundu kuko ugomba gushyiramo ikoranabuhanga ngo uzahingishe imashini, kugira ngo uzashyiremo ibisabwa byose bisaba ko uba ukora ubuhinzi bwunguka […]

Birasaba guhindura ibyo turimo byo kugira abahinzi b’abanyamwuga bakeya, bahinga hanini kandi bahinga bikwiye kimwe no guhinga uhingira isoko.

Hari imvugo abantu bavuga ko ari nziza ariko ifite inenge, ngo ‘Twihaze mu biribwa dusagurire amasoko’. Harimo inenge, ni ukuvuga ngo isoko ni ukurisagurira. Ubundi tugomba guhingira isoko, ntabwo duhinga ngo turye dusagurire isoko.

Iyo uhinze uvuga ngo nzasagurire isoko, bisobanuye ko udahita umenya icyo isoko rishaka kuko urahinga kugira ngo ubone ibyo kurya byawe byo mu rugo. Ahandi bahingira isoko, bareba icyo rishaka akaba ari cyo bahinga, ntabwo urisagurira.

IGIHE: None se ushobora guhingira isoko ushonje?

Dr Karangwa: Nko mu Burusiya twavugaga, ntabwo bahinga ingano zo kurya ahubwo barahinga bakavanamo amafaranga bakayaguramo ibyo bashaka kurya.

Guhinga uhingira isoko, urahinga ukabona amafaranga warangiza ukayagura ibyo ukeneye […] Uba ukwiye guhinga ibihingwa bike cyane. Ntabwo dushima ko umuhinzi yahinga utuntu twose akeneye, nahinge ibihingwa kimwe, bibiri bitatu kandi ibyo uhinze ahantu mu gihembwe kimwe ntibibe ari byo usubizamo mu gihembwe gikurikiyeho.

IGIHE: Tugaruke ku kwihaza ku mbuto, kuba uyu munsi imbuto zituburirwa mu Rwanda byunguye iki igihugu?

Dr Karangwa: Icya mbere byunguye cyane ni amafaranga ajya mu Banyarwanda mu gihugu imbere. Amafaranga twashyiraga mu by’imbuto ntabwo twayakuyeho ahubwo aho kuyohereza hanze ajya mu miryango y’Abanyarwanda batubura imbuto mu gihugu imbere. N’ubundi amafaranga leta yashyiraga mu butubuzi ntiyagabanijwe kuko kugira ngo ubushobozi bw’abatubuzi imbere mu gihugu bwubakwe hari ibindi byasabye byinshi.

Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RAB, Dr Karangwa Patrick yavuze ko hamaze gukorwa byinshi mu guteza imbere ubuhinzi bw'u Rwanda ndetse ngo hari icyizere cyiza kuri ejo hazaza

Ikindi igihugu cyungutse, uko tugira abantu bafite ubushobozi bwo gukora imbuto nziza, niko tubona ko dufite amahirwe yo gutangira kujya ku isoko mpuzamahanga. Ikindi ni uko abantu bahabwa akazi bararushaho kwiyongera muri iryo shoramari.

IGIHE: Hari ukubona imbuto nziza yatuburiwe mu gihugu, ese zirakoreshwa n’abaturage bose?

Dr Karangwa: Guhinga imbuto nziza mu gihugu ntabwo Abanyarwanda bose ndetse n’ahandi mu bihugu bidukikije muri Afurika, ahenshi ntabwo abahinzi baragera ahantu bakoresha imbuto nziza z’indobanure ijana ku ijana.

Imibare igaragaza ko nk’Abanyarwanda bakoresha imbuto nziza imibare ni 17.2 % , ugasanga igice kinini ntabwo baratangira gukoresha imbuto nziza.

Ariko muri abo, 15.9% by’abahinzi bato (small scale farmers) nibo bakoresha imbuto nziza, mu gihe 78.8% by’abahinzi banini (large scale farmers) aribo bakoresha imbuto nziza.

IGIHE: Hari aho twagiye twumva muha abaturage [abatubuzi] imbuto zikanga kwera, ese byo ntibiri mu bica intege abahinzi?

Dr Karangwa: Ibibazo byabayeho wasangaga atari uko imbuto ari mbi, kuko nta kuntu wambwira ngo mu gihugu hose ahantu hatageze kuri 1% imbuto ntiyakoze neza ahandi 99% yitwaye neza. Ntabwo iyi 1% yahinduka ikibazo cy’uko imbuto ari mbi. Ubwo haba hari ikindi kibazo kitari imbuto ubwayo.

Ujya gukurikirana ugasanga rero ni ikibazo cy’ubumenyi buke kandi nabwo ugasanga ahenshi byakozwe neza ahubwo aho hake cyane habayeho kutubahiriza amabwiriza.

Mu bushakashatsi, gutubura ibigori byitwa Hybrid habamo ibyitwa ibigabo n’ibyitwa ibigore. Hari imirongo utera y’ibigabo n’imirongo uteraho ibigore.

Nk’aho habaye ikibazo, hari aho twageze tugasanga umuntu yaragiye ahinga ibigore gusa biragenda bigeze igihe cyo kubangurirana, bishaka ibigabo birabibura, ubwo nta kubangurirana kubaho kuko ibigabo byabuze.

Abaturage rero barakugendeye babonye ikibazo, ibigabo babikuraho batera ibigore gusa bati ‘ibi ni byo bigira ibigori’, hanyuma birategereza biraheba, Wajya kureba ugasanga ikigori nta kintu kirimo, ugasanga ni igitiritiri cyonyine. Ni ibibazo rero by’imyumvire tugomba gukomeza gukemura.

Umurima w'ibigori byahinzwe mu bushakashatsi bukorwa na RAB mu rwego rwo gutubura imbuto nziza iberanye n'ubutaka bw'u Rwanda kandi bidafite indwara

IGIHE: Duherutse kubona ibice byinshi by’igihugu, aho umusaruro wera abaguzi bakabura isoko, ibi nta ngaruka ku buhinzi?

Dr Karangwa: Ni byo buriya abahinzi nubwo bashyira imbaraga nyinshi mu gutuma uwo musaruro uzamuka ukaboneka, ariko n’iyo umusaruro ubonetse ukabura isoko nabyo biratureba nubwo dufite inzego dukorana nka Minisiteri y’Ubucuruzi. Iyo umuhinzi abuze isoko agacika intege , akenshi intera yari agezeho ayivaho agatangira agakora ibintu bidafashije bidateza imbere igihugu.

Nka buriya gushyiraho ibiciro, nko mu minsi ishize hari ibihingwa twagiye dufatanya na MINICOM hagasohoka amatangazo y’ibiciro.

Umuceri birakorwa buri gihembwe, buriya habaho kwemeza igiciro cy’ikilo ku muceri. Ntabwo ari ibintu bicara mu biro ngo basohore itangazo gutyo […] habaho kubarana tukibaza tuti “ubundi umuhinzi yashoyemo iki? Ese amafumbire, imbuto, gutunganya ubutaka byari bimeze bite?”

Nk’ubu mu birayi hamaze iminsi hari ikibazo, ugasanga umuhinzi barimo barashaka kumuha amafaranga 100 ku kilo cy’ibirayi, i Kigali mukakigura 300 Frw. Umuhinzi wabihinze ahawe 100 Frw, ugiye kubijyana i Kigali wabara ukibaza niba hari uruganda yabicishijemo? Icyo akoze ni amafaranga yo kubikura hariya abijyana i Kigali, yabigeza ku isoko ry’ i Kigali bakabigura 300 Frw ku kilo, agakuba gatatu.

Ibyo rero biraca intege ari wa muhinzi uri hariya ndetse ba baguzi, abakorera umushahara ugasanga byarushijeho kubagora, ugasanga hasigayemo abantu hagati y’abagura n’abahinzi barimo barabona inyungu nini y’umurengera. Ibyo ntabwo dushobora kubirebera, dukorana na MINICOM kugira ngo habeho kuvuga ngo inyungu iraza kuba iyi.

Habaho kwemeza ibiciro badakwiye kujya munsi ariko hakanabaho gukurikirana uko bikorwa kuko hari n’igihe bishyirwaho wajya kubona ukabona barabirengaho. Icyo gihe igikurikiraho ni ibihano.

IGIHE: Hashize iminsi hari uduce mu Rwanda twibasiwe n’amapfa, byatewe n’iki?

Dr Karangwa: Nibyo hari ibice by’igihugu muri kino gihembwe cy’ihinga byagize ikibazo cy’imvura nkeya kubera imihindagurikire y’ibihe. Mu mirenge imwe n’imwe y’Iburasirazuba no mu bice bimwe na bimwe by’amayaga, za Bugarama muri Rusizi.

Nka Kirehe na Kayonza, Bugesera niho habonetse ikibazo kurushaho na Ngoma, ariko nka Gatsibo usanga ari umurenge umwe, Nyagatare usanga ari imirenge mikeya.

Ni iki turimo dukora kugira ngo duhangane n’ibyo bibazo? Icya mbere ni gahunda zo kuhira ahagira ibibazo byo kubura imvura, iyo ugiye kureba usanga ibikorwa byinshi byo kuhira byiganje hariya mu Burasirazuba, imishinga minini ikomeye yo kuhira ni biriya bice.

Dushingiye no ku makuru y’iteganyagihe ubwo twateguraga iki gihembwe cy’ihinga, twafashe amafaranga yose yo kuhira ku buso buto, tuyohereza muri turiya turere tw’Iburasirazuba.

Icya kabiri, amafaranga twarayongereye. Leta yongereye amafaranga agenerwa ibikorwa byo kuhira muri kino kibazo. Hari harashyizweho miliyari imwe, hongerwaho indi miliyari 1,3 Frw kugira ngo afashe guhangana n’ibi bibazo, ariko n’imishinga yo kuhira ikomeje kwiyongera.

Ubuso bwuhirwa mu gihugu ubu bugeze muri hegitari ibihumbi 67, intego dufite ni uko muri 2024 tuzaba tugeze kuri hegitari 102 400 zuhirwa.

NISR igaragaza ko hejuru ya 55% bahinga ubuso buri munsi ya 0.3ha, mu gihe abafite 3ha kuzamura bangana na 1.6%.

Umwe mu bashakashatsi ba RAB muri laboratoire itubura imyumbati
Iyi myumbati iri muri laboratoire ubu imaze gukura, itegereje kujya guterwa mu mirima
RAB ifite laboratoire zirimo izikorerwamo ubushakashatsi ku ndwara z'ibigori
Icyicaro gikuru cya RAB giherereye i Rubona mu karere ka Huye

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza

Special pages
. . . . . .