Injira ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda ririho ibicuruzwa bya miliyari 3.8$

Yanditswe na Nkurunziza Ferdinand
Kuya 25 Gashyantare 2020 saa 09:43
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Birashoboka ko ujya wumva isoko ry’imari n’imigabane, ukibaza byinshi ku barirema yaba abaguzi cyangwa abacuruzi ndetse n’ibyo barijyanaho ngo bicuruzwe, amatsiko yawe ntashirire aho ukanibaza n’uko ubucuruzi bwo kuri iri soko bukorwa.

Mu buryo butomoye, isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ni ihuriro ry’abagura n’abagurisha imigabane mu bigo by’ubucuruzi bitandukanye ndetse n’impapuro mpeshamwenda za leta na bimwe mu bigo by’ubucuruzi.

Iri soko ryashyiriweho gufasha ba rwiyemezamirimo n’igihugu kugera ku mafaranga y’igihe kirekire avuye mu bantu benshi kandi ahendutse kurusha uburyo busanzwe buzwi. Ni uburyo kandi bwo gufasha abaturage bifitiye amafaranga yabo bashaka gushyira ahantu hizewe, mu buryo bwizewe, hagamijwe kuyabyaza inyungu.

Isoko ry’imari n’imigabane rifite akamaro kanini mu gukusanya ubwizigame bwaba ubw’abantu ku giti cyabo cyangwa amasosiyete, ibi bikaba byatuma amafaranga agurizwa abafite imishinga y’igihe kirekire atangwa.

Mu Rwanda, iri soko rigaragara nk’iritaramenyekana mu buryo bukwiye muri bamwe mu baturage, kuko hashize imyaka umunani gusa ritangiye kuremera mu Rwanda, nubwo mu bindi bihugu byakataje mu iterambere iri soko ryashinze imizi rigafata rikagera aho riba inkingi mwikorezi y’ubukungu bwabyo.

IGIHE yasuye aharemera isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda, iganira n’abarikoraho [bazwi ku izina ry’abahuza] ndetse n’abakurikiranira hafi imikorere yaryo umunsi ku wundi.

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo cy’Imari n’Imigabane mu Rwanda (Rwanda Stock Exchange (RSE), Rwabukumba Pierre Célestin, asobanura ko Isoko ry’Imari n’Imigabane ari isoko rusange rihurirwaho n’abantu bakeneye amafaranga yo gukoresha mu gihe kirekire ari bo ba rwiyemezamirimo, bakarihurimo n’abaturage bafite amafaranga yabo bizigamiye, bakabaha ayo mafaranga bakayakoresha mu bucuruzi bwabo.

Ibyo bikorwa bibera kuri iryo soko, bikora hifashishijwe abahuza ku Isoko ry’Imari n’Imigabane, kuko nibo baba bazi abashoramari bakeneye amafaranga, n’abaturage bashaka gushora amafaranga yabo mu kugura imigabane cyangwa impapuro mvunjwafaranga.

Rwabukumba avuga ko aho iri soko ritandukaniye n’andi masoko; ryo rihuza imari n’imigabane. Ni ukuvuga ko uguze imigabane aba agiye gufatanya n’abandi bafite ibicuruzwa byabo gukora ubucuruzi; mu gihe andi masoko yo ugura ahabwa ibyo yaguze, nawe akishyura amafaranga bikarangirira aho.

Ishusho y’isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda

Rwabukumba avuga ko nubwo iri soko rimaze imyaka umunani gusa mu Rwanda, rimaze kumenyerwa kandi abantu bagenda baryitabira umunsi ku wundi.

Ati “Kugeza uyu munsi ibigo biri ku isoko byazanye imigabane yabyo kugira ngo abaturage bayigure, bimaze kuba umunani, bine muri byo bikomoka mu Rwanda”.

Avuga ko agaciro rusange k’ibicuruzwa biri kuri iri soko ari miliyari 3.8 z’amadolari ya Amerika ndetse abaturage bamaze kugana iri soko bagera ku bihumbi 20 hatabariwemo abihuriza mu matsinda bakajya kugura imigabane. Ibigo bikora akazi k’ubuhuza n’izindi serivisi zijyanye n’iri soko bigera ku 10.

Ibikorwa bimaze gukorerwa ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda byose bifite agaciro gahwanye na 40% by’ubukungu bw’igihugu, iri soko rikaba ryaranafashije guhanga imirimo mishya no gutanga imisoro.

Ryafashije kandi ibigo biririho kongera ibikorwa byabyo byifashishije amafaranga byahawe n’abaguze imigabane yabyo ndetse bifasha n’abashoramari kwizigamira igihe kirekire.

Inyungu n’igihombo ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane

Inyungu ya mbere ikomeye iba kuri iri soko ry’imari n’imigabane ni ukwizigamira.

Rwabukumba ati “Iyo umuntu afite amafaranga mu mufuka aramurya, ariko iri soko rituma umuntu azigama na make yari afite. Hari kandi n’inyungu ziturutse mu bikorwa byashowemo imari n’ikigo umuntu aba yaraguzemo imigabane”.

Kugura imigabane cyangwa impapuro mvunjwafaranga bihesha nyirabyo kubitangaho ingwate mu mabanki akaba yakwaka inguzanyo bitamugoye. Iyi migabane cyangwa impapuro mvunjwafaranga kandi bishobora gutangwaho impano, umurage ndetse bikaba byakwifashishwa umuntu agura ibindi bicuruzwa.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, iyo umuntu ashoye imari, aba yiyemeje ko ashobora no guhomba. Nk’iyo waguze imigabane mu kigo runaka, mu gihe runaka ibikorwa byacyo ntibibyare inyungu nk’uko byari byitezwe, ubwo mugabana inyungu nto yabonetse.

Rwabukumba avuga ko ‘Igihe umuntu yaguze imigabane mu kigo runaka, ntagomba kwitandukanya nacyo kuko aba yaguze ibikorwa byacyo’.

Inyungu y’iri soko kandi inareberwa mu bigo byarigiyeho kuko igishoro cyabyo cyiyongereye cyane. Kugeza ubu ibigo byo mu Rwanda byabashije gukura amafaranga agera kuri miliyari 152 Frw kuri iri soko.

Inyungu kandi y’ibyo bigo yanareberwa no mu ishusho ya bimwe mu bikorwa by’ubucuruzi bishya byatangijwe na bimwe muri ibyo bigo ndetse no kuba Banki ya Kigali yarageze ku isoko rya Nairobi mu rwego rwo kwagura ibikorwa byayo.

Uko kugura no kugurisha bikorwa ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane

Ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane haba abahuza hagati y’abagurisha n’abagura imigabane , ushaka imigabane rero yegera umuhuza (Broker) akamubwira umubare w’imigabane ashaka n’agaciro agenera buri mugabane.

Ugurisha imigabane nawe yegera umuhuza akamubwira umubare w’imigabane agurisha ndetse n’agaciro ka buri mugabane. Nyuma y’ibyo rero abahuza bahurira ku isoko ry’Imari n’imigabane (Rwanda Stock Exchange) bagaciririkanya ibiciro.

Ibyo abahuza bumvikanyeho bikusanywa n’Ubuyobozi bw’Isoko ry’Imari n’imigabane (Rwanda Stock Exchange) ari naryo rikurikirana imirimo y’iyimurwa ry’imigabane iva ku wayigurishije ijya ku wa yiguze.

Urugero niba umugabane uri ku mafaranga 200 ufata ayo mafaranga ukayakuba n’imigabane 100 wabashije kugura ukaba ufitemo ibihumbi 20.000 by’umugabane.

Mu 2018, isoko ry’imari n’imigabane ry’u Rwanda ryatangije ubukangurambaga bwo gushishikariza abashoramari kugana iri soko, aho ubu hari n’abatangiye gukora inyandiko ngenderwaho zo kurigana.

Amafaranga yanyuze mu Isoko ry’Imari n’Imigabane mu mwaka wa 2019, asaga miliyari 200 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda; bikaba ari ubwa mbere iri soko ryari rigeze ku rugero nk’uru.

Rwabukumba avuga ko nubwo umwaka ushize nta kigo gishya bungutse biteguye ko uyu wa 2020, hari ibizinjira ku isoko kuko hari ibyamaze gutanga ubusabe bwabyo.

Akomeza avuga ko kandi uyu munsi amafaranga ari kuri iri soko, nta kigo cyo mu Rwanda cyahashaka amafaranga ngo kiyabure ndetse n’ibigo byo hanze y’igihugu bishobora kuyahasanga.

Mu 2008, Isoko ry’Imari n’Imigabane, RSE (Rwanda Stock Exchange), ryatangiye kugenzurwa n’Ikigo gishinzwe Isoko ry’Imari n’Imigabane (Capital Market Authority, CMA), ritangira gukora ku mugaragaro mu 2011 nk’uburyo bwo guteza imbere ishoramari.

Buri wese mu mikoro afite yabasha kuzigama no gushora imari kuri iri soko ry’imari n’imigabane kuko hari ibicuruzwa bigurwa bihereye ku 7 000 Frw kandi uko iminsi ishira ubona urwunguko mu buryo butandukanye.

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo cy’Imari n’Imigabane mu Rwanda, Rwabukumba Pierre Célestin avuga ko iri soko rifatiye runini ubukungu bw'igihugu

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