Uko Habyarimana yakoresheje amafaranga ya leta n’inkunga mu kugura intwaro zakoze Jenoside

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 12 Mata 2019 saa 06:33
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Imibare ya Minisiteri y’Imari n’Igenamigambi, igaragaza ko mu gihe cya mbere gato ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, hari amafaranga menshi ya leta yakoreshejwe mu kugura intwaro zakoreshejwe mu kwica abatutsi, arimo n’ayo u Rwanda rwahabwaga nk’inkunga.

Ibi bigaragara mu bushakashatsi ku mateka ya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu zahoze ari minisiteri ebyiri z’u Rwanda; Minisiteri y’igenamigambi na Minisiteri y’Imari.

Ubu bushakashatsi bugaragaza ko igitangaje ari uko amafaranga amwe yakoreshejwe mu kugura izi ntwaro byakozwe binyuze mu nkunga yahawe u Rwanda guhera mu 1991 kugeza mu 1994.

Uwari Minisitiri w’Imari, Emmanuel Ndindabahizi na Minisitiri Dr Agustin Ngirabatware wari ushinzwe igenamigambi, nibo baza ku isonga mu kunyereza amafaranga yaguze intwaro bakoresheje umutungo wa leta. Aba bombi bakatiwe n’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda.

Hagaragaramo ko konti za leta zakoreshejwe mu kubahiriza ubusabe bw’Ikigega mpuzamahanga cy’imari na Banki y’Isi kandi ibi bigo bitabizi, nk’uko byabonetse mu ibaruwa yo ku wa 25 Mutarama 1991, Minisitiri w’Imari yandikiye Perezida Habyarimana.

Yagize ati “Tuributsa ko ingengo y’imari yateguwe na Minisiteri y’Ingabo z’Igihugu yatanzwe n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari na Banki y’Isi muri Gashyantare 1991, amafaranga angana na miliyoni 9 381 Frw, miliyoni 2 887 y’imishahara na miliyoni 6498 yo kugura ibicuruzwa na serivisi (mu bikorwa byo gutumiza ibicuruzwa byinjira mu gihugu n’ubucuruzi bw’imbere mu gihugu.)”

Ibi bigaragaza ukuntu umuryango w’abaterankunga wakoranye bya hafi na leta y’u Rwanda mu gutera inkunga Jenoside binyuze mu kunyereza amafaranga. Mu kiganiro cy’abaterankunga i Paris muri Werurwe 1991, Banki y’Isi yiyemeje gutanga ibihumbi 120.3 by’amadolari ku bihumbi 139.2 by’amadolari yari ateganyijwe gutangwa muri uwo mwaka.

Banki y’Isi n’abandi baterankunga kandi bashyigikiye ko ayo mafaranga akoreshwa byihuse.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwari rubujijwe kugura intwaro, Minisiteri y’imari igaragaza ko amafaranga yakoreshejwe rwayanyujije muri za ambasade mu Bufaransa, Misiri, Zaire na Kenya.

Gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze hagati ya 1991 kugeza mu 1994 byatewe inkunga mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amasezerano y’abaterankunga.

Amakuru ya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko ubutegetsi bwakoze Jenoside bwatumije ibicuruzwa ku mafaranga y’amadolari angana na miliyoni 83, 056, 115 kandi ibyo bikorwa byo gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze byari bigizwe n’intwaro, amasasu, ibikoresho bya gisirikare, imyenda, za gerenade n’ibindi.

Ibyo byose byatumizwaga hanze ngo byabaga byikorewe n’indege za gisirikare hadakurikijwe ibisabwa mu gutumiza ibicuruzwa hanze cyangwa kugenzura niba byarakurikije ibisabwa na leta.

Iyi raporo igaragaza ko nk’uko zimwe mu ntwaro zaguzwe hakozwe imishyikirano, “ibitaranyuze mu buryo bw’imfashanyo za gisirikare byakorwaga hagati ya leta n’ibigo by’abacuruza intwaro bihariye.”

Abakozi baragabanyijwe, amafaranga yabo akomeza kubarwa

Mu manyanga yakozwe kandi, mu 1992 abakozi ba leta baragabanyijwe, ariko “amafaranga ku mishahara yabo yakomeje kugaragara ku ngengo y’imari ya leta.”

Ibi byakozwe na Minisitiri w’Imari ku mabwiriza ya Perezida Habyarimana hagamijwe kuzigama nibura miliyari 14,5 Frw yagenewe gutera inkunga imitwe yitwaje intwaro irimo Interahamwe muri Kigali, Ruhengeri, Gisenyi na Byumba.

Mu gushakisha aya mafaranga, umwe mu bari abakozi ba Minisiteri y’imari yavuze ko aba bakozi bagabanyijwe hagati ya 1992-1994.

Yakomeje ati “Ntibyari gufatira imishahara gusa ahubwo abakozi bamwe bahagaritswe mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko cyane cyane abakozi b’abatutsi n’abakozi bamwe b’abahutu batari bashyigikiye umwuka wa politiki wari mu gihugu.”

Habyarimana yategetse ko abakozi ba Leta bagabanywa kugira ngo haboneke amafaranga yo gushyigikira interahamwe

Nibura mu 1991, 51% by’umusaruro wa leta wakoreshejwe mu kwishyura ibikorwa bya gisirikare. Muri uwo mwaka amafaranga yishyuwe mu bya gisirikare agera kuri miliyoni 37.6 y’amadolari avuye kuri miliyoni 25.1 z’amadolari mu mwaka wa 1990.

Bijyanye n’uko inkunga zari zifite uruhare runini mu bikorwa hafi ya byose bya leta, inzego nyinshi zahise zangirika zaba ubucuruzi, uburezi, ubuvuzi n’ibindi, icyuho mu bucuruzi kiva ku 132% kigera kuri 274%.

Mur icyo gihe, igipimo cy’amafaranga y’ibikoresho na serivisi za gisirikare muri rusanage byavuye kuri 28% bigera kuri 60% na 71% mu 1991.

Intwaro zaturutse he?

Nubwo leta yakoze jenoside yari yarakomatanyirijwe ku kugura intwaro, yatumije ibikoresho bitandukanye bya gisirikare ibinyujije mu nkunga zatanzwe n’amahanga.

Leta yaguze imbunda zohereza ibisasu bya missile bya milimetero 83 byakorewe mu Bufaransa no mu Bubiligi n’imbunda zitandukanye.

Ibihugu byatanze cyane imbunda hagati ya 1990-1994 ni u Bufaransa, u Bubiligi, Afurika y’Epfo, Misiri n’u Bushinwa, aho leta yakoze imishyikiriano myinshi n’abaterankunga, ya nkunga bakayiyobya bakayishyira mu gutegura Jenoside.

Michel Chossydovsky na Pierre Galand bakoze kuri ubu bushakashatsi bavuga ko “amafaranga y’abaterankunga yatumye ubutegetsi bubona ibikoresho bya gisirikare mu gutegura no kubonera imitwe y’abasivili yitwara gisirikare ibikoresho.”

“Uretse ibyo kugura intwaro, uku gutumiza harimo ibyo kurya byo mudukopo, imyenda, amavuta, inzoga zo kunywa n’ibindi bikenewe n’ingabo z’igihugu, imitwe y’abasivili n’imiryango yabo.”

Hari aho bigaragara ko Misiri yatanze inkunga ya miliyoni esheshatu z’amadolari, mu gihe u Bushinwa bwateye inkunga Interahamwe, butanga inguzanyo itagira inyungu ya miliyoni 1.5 z’amadolari.

Akagambane k’abaterankunga

Ibigo mpuzamahanga by’imari n’ibihugu by’iburengerazuba bw’Isi byateye inkunga mu kugura intwaro zahawe abahoze ari ingabo z’igihugu n’imitwe yitwaraga gisirikare.

Ubufasha mu by’amafaranga bwakozwe muri Kamena 1991 n’Ikigo mpuzamahanga cy’Iterambere (IDA) n’Ikigega nyafurika cy’Iterambere (ADF), ibigo by’iterambere by’u Burayi n’abandi baterankunga barimo Australie, u Busuwisi, u Budage, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bubiligi na Canada.

Aya mafaranga yatanzwe rwihishwa hitwajwe gutera inkunga ibikorwa by’ubukungu ku baturage. Abaterankunga batanze amafaranga bazi neza ko agenewe ibikorwa bya gisirikare mu gukumira ibitero bya FPR, nyamara yiswe inkunga yo gukemura ibibazo bijyanye n’uburyo bw’imyishyuranire.

Binagaragazwa ko igenzura ryakorwaga kuri izo gahunda muri Kamena 1991 no muri Ukwakira 1993, raporo zabo ntizakurikije amabwiriza ya Banki y’Isi. Nta bugenzuzi bwihariye mu 1993 no mu 1994 kuko bari bazi ko amafaranga yabo arimo gukoreshwa hitwajwe gushyigikira iterambere ry’imibereho n’ubukungu bw’igihugu.

Binagaragazwa ko Minisiteri y’Imari yagize uruhare mu gufata imyenda idakurikije amategeko mu Kigega Mopuzamahanga cy’Imari na Banki y’Isi.

Intwaro zagurwaga zanyuzwaga ku kibuga cy’indege cya Goma, zikinjizwa mu Rwanda zinyuze ku Gisenyi. Izi ntwaro kandi zatanzwe mbere ya Jenoside, mu gihe yakorwaga na nyuma yayo.

Uwari Minisitiri w’Imari, Emmanuel Ndindabahizi (iburyo) ari ku isonga mu banyereje amafaranga y'igihugu mu gucura umugambi wa Jenoside. Ubu yakatiwe n’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda
Minisitiri Dr Agustin Ngirabatware (wambaye umukara) yari Minisitiri ushinzwe igenamigambi akaba umwe mu bagize uruhare mu kwemeza ko amafaranga y'igihugu agurwa intwaro zifashishijwe muri Jenoside

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