Ubwiyongere bw’abaturage muri Afurika: Umugisha cyangwa ibyago?

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 15 Mutarama 2020 saa 11:03
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Mu mpera z’iki kinyejana, umugabane wa Afurika niwo uzaba uyoboye Isi mu kugira abaturage benshi nkuko raporo zitandukanye z’ubushakashatsi zibigaragaza.

Isesengura ryakozwe umwaka ushize n’Ikigo Pew Research Center ryagaragaje ko mu mpera z’ikinyejana, mu bihugu icumi bizaba bituwe cyane ku Isi, bitanu bizaba ari byo ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Bimwe mu bihugu bifatwa nk’ibiri mu icumi bya mbere bituwe cyane ku Isi birimo Brésil, Bangladesh, u Burusiya na Mexique bizasimburwa n’ibihugu nka Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania na Misiri. Haziyongeraho ibihugu nka Nigeria gisanzwe mu icumi bya mbere.

Ibihugu nk’u Bushinwa, u Buhinde, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika , Pakistan na Indonesia biza mu myanya ya mbere ubu, bizaba bisoza urutonde rw’icumi bya mbere.

Biteganyijwe ko umubare w’abatuye Afurika uzava kuri miliyari 1.3 ukaba miliyoni 4.3 mu myaka 80 iri imbere. Ibyo bizaba mu gihe ku yindi migabane abaturage bazaba bari kugabanyuka cyane.

Ibihugu nka Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo ubwiyongere bw’abaturage mu myaka 80 iri imbere buzagera kuri 304%, aho icyo gihugu kizaba gituwe na miliyoni 362, Ethiopia baziyongera ku kigero cya 156 % bagere kuri miliyoni 294, Tanzania baziyongera ku kigero cya 378% bagere kuri miliyoni 286 mu gihe Misiri abaturage bayo bazaba ari miliyoni 225, ni ukuvuga ubwiyongere bwa 120 %.

Mu gihe muri Afurika abaturage bazaba biyongera, ibindi bihugu 90 byo ku Isi abaturage bazaba bagabanyuka birimo ibihugu 32 byo mu Burayi na 25 byo muri Amerika y’Amajyepfo.

Raporo iheruka ya Loni ku bwiyongere bw’abaturage igaragaza ko mu gihe ibindi bihugu bizaba bifite abantu benshi bakuze, Afurika yo umubare w’urubyiruko uzaba wiyongera kubera kubyara cyane.

Kuri ubu muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara, umugore umwe abarirwa abana 4.7 ari nabo benshi ku Isi hose. Mu 2100, isesengura rya Pew rigaragaza ko kimwe cya kabiri cy’abana bazaba bavuka ku Isi hose, bazaba ari abo muri Afurika.

Kuri ubu 60 % by’abantu batuye mu bihugu byo muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara ni urubyiruko. Biteganyijwe ko abazaba batuye Isi bava kuri miliyari 7.7 zihari uyu munsi, bakaba miliyari 9.7 mu 2050 na miliyari 10.9 mu 2100.

Umuyobozi ushinzwe ubukungu n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage muri Loni, Liu Zhenmin, yavuze ko imbogamizi ihari ku mugabane wa Afurika, ari uko ubwiyongere bukabije muri Afurika buri mu bihugu bikennye.

Ati “Ibihugu byinshi biri kwihuta mu bwiyongere bw’abaturage ni ibikennye, aho abaturage benshi bazana izindi mbogamizi zibangamira gahunda yo kurandura ubukene, kurwanya inzara n’imirire mibi, gahunda zo guteza imbere ubuzima n’ibindi.”

Ni iki kiri gutera ubwiyongere bw’abatuye Afurika

Bimwe mu bitera ubwiyongere bukabije bw’abaturage muri Afurika ni ukubyara abana benshi biturutse ku myumvire yo kumva ko gutunga umuryango munini ari byo byiza, gukoresha uburyo bwo kuboneza urubyaro bikiri ku rwego rwo hasi, no gutangira kubyara abantu bakiri bato cyane.

Kuri ubu umugore wo muri Afurika abarirwa kubyara abana 4.7 mu gihe mu bindi bice by’Isi umugore abarirwa abana 2.2 cyangwa munsi.

Ibihugu nka Nigeria byitezweho kugira ubwiyongere bukabije bw'abaturage mu myaka 80 iri imbere

Impamvu nyamukuru ivugwaho gutuma abagore bo muri Afurika babyara cyane, ni uko usanga nibura batangira kubyara ku mpuzandengo y’imyaka 22 mu gihe ahandi ku Isi bari ku mpuzandengo y’imyaka 26.

Kuba umugore yatangira kubyara akiri muto cyane, akenshi nta bushobozi bwo kwihitiramo uburyo bwo kuboneza urubyaro aba afite. Hari nubwo nta makuru ahagije ku buzima bw’imyororokere aba afite cyangwa ngo abe yaragize amahirwe yo kwiga ngo bimuhe umwanya wo kubona akazi gatuma adahugira mubyo kubyara.

Inzobere zigaragaza ko ibihugu bya Afurika biramujtse bishaka kugabanya ubwiyongere bw’abaturage, icya mbere ari ukuvanaho ibituma abana babyara bakiri bato nko kubashyira mu mashuri no kubashakira imirimo, no kuboneza urubyaro nubwo atari cyo cyaza mbere.

Umwaku cyangwa amahirwe kuri Afurika

Kuba Afurika ifite ubwiyongere bw’abaturage by’umwihariko 60 % ari urubyiruko ni amahirwe adasanzwe mu gihe ibindi bihugu abaturage babyo bari kugabanyuka.

Ibyo bivuze ko abakozi benshi ku mugabane wa Afurika ariho bazaturuka mu myaka mike iri imbere ariko ibyo birasaba za Guverinoma gukora igenamigambi rihamye, hakabaho serivisi z’ubuvuzi zihamye zituma abana bavutse badapfa bakiri bato, uburezi bugabwa imbaraga ku buryo nta mwana ubaho atiga kandi ubukungu bugatrzwa imbere ku buryo abarangije kwiga babona ibyo bakora.

Hafi kimwe cya gatatu cy’abana bageze igihe cyo kujya kwiga ntibajyayo muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara mu gihe 4 % aribo barangiza Kaminuza. Ako karere kandi ni kamwe mu twugarijwe n’inzara, aho Loni igaragaza ko umwe mu baturage bane ba Afurika arya nabi.

Ibyo bisaba Guverinoma kongera imbaraga mu kubaka ibikorwa remezo, kuva mu buhinzi bw’amaramuko bakajya mu buhinzi buhingira isoko no kubaka imijyi ibonekamo ibikenewe byose by’ibanze nk’amazi n’umuriro.

Muri Gicurasi umwaka ushize ikinyamakuru Bloomberg cyatangaje ko ubwiyongere bw’abaturage muri Afurika buzayibera umugisha igihe mu myaka mike iri imbere ubwo bwiyongere bwazagabanyuka, noneho rwa rubyiruko ruhari rukabona umwanya uhagije wo gukora.

Ibyo bizaruha umwanya wo gukora cyane kuko iyo ukora byinshi, abo ushinzwe kwitaho ari bake bizamura ubukungu. Ikindi kandi ni uko bizaha abagore n’abakobwa umwanya wo gukora cyane kuko batazaba bagiheranwa no kubyara no kwita ku bana.

Banki Nyafurika Itsura Amajyambere (BAD) ivuga ko kugira no Afurika ibashe guhaza urubyiruko rushya rujya ku isoko ry’umurimo, bisaba kujya hahangwa miliyoni icumi z’imirimo buri mwaka. Ibyo bisaba Leta gutangiza imirimo mishya mu ngeri zitabyazwaga umusaruro cyane, nk’ikoranabuhanga, serivisi n’ibindi.

Mu gihe wenda Afurika yaba itabashije guha akazi abaturage bayo ariko bafite ubumenyi bukenewe ku isoko ry’umurimo n’ubuzima buzira umuze, ni andi mahirwe yo guhatana ku ruhando mpuzamahanga kuko bashobora kujya gushaka akazi ahandi, amafaranga babonye akoherezwa iwabo.

Ibyo bizatuma abanyafurika bagaragara mu nzego nyinshi hirya no hino ku isi bibe byaha uwo umugabane uruvugiro mu ruhando rw’ibindi bihugu, mu buvumbuzi, ubushakashatsi, guhanga udushya n’ibindi.

Mu gihe Afurika yakomeza kuririmba ubwiyongere bw’abaturage ntacyo ikora ngo abo baturage babeho neza, bizaba umwaku ukomeye kuri yo kuko urubyiruko rwabuze akazi, rushonje ni rubi kurusha igisasu kirimbuzi. Nirwo usanga rwabaye amabandi, nirwo rujya mu mitwe y’inyeshyamba, iterabwoba, nirwo rujya mu biyobyabwenge n’ibindi bibi.

Umutekano w’ibihugu bya Afurika mu myaka iri imbere, uzashingira ku buryo biri kwita ku guha amahirwe abaturage babyo haba mu burezi, ubuvuzi n’ubukungu.


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