Ingaruka za Covid-19: Amadovize yiyongereye mu gihugu, zahabu izana umwihariko mu bucuruzi

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 2 Ugushyingo 2020 saa 12:37
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Raporo ya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda y’umwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2019-20 yagaragaje ko icyorezo cya Coronavirus cyagize ingaruka zikomeye ku mibereho n’ubukungu bw’abanyarwanda, nubwo bigaragara ko inzego zose zitahungabanye ku rwego rumwe.

Ni raporo yatangajwe mu gihe Isi ihanganye n’ibihe by’ubukungu bidasanzwe byatewe n’icyorezo cya COVID-19, ku buryo leta ikomeje gukoresha imbaraga zidasanzwe mu kuzahura ibikorwa, ari nabyo bituma abantu benshi babasha gusubira mu mirimo.

Imibare igaragaza ko mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari warangiye muri Kamena 2019, urwego rwahungabanyijwe cyane na COVID-19 ari urwa serivisi, kuko rwazamutseho 1.6% mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2018/2019 rwazamutseho 8.4%.

Umusaruro mbumbe warahungabanye

BNR yatangaje ko ubwo icyorezo cya COVID-19 cyageraga mu Rwanda, hafashwe ingamba zinyuranye mu guhangana n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya COVID-19.

Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, John Rwangombwa, yavuze ko mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2019-20, umuvuduko mu izamuka ry’umusaruro mbumbe w’Igihugu waragabanutse ugera ku kigero cya 2.3 ku ijana, uvuye kuri 8.8 ku ijana mu mwaka wabanje.

Yakomeje ati “Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda kandi bwagizweho ingaruka n’ihungabana ry’ubukungu bw’Isi biteganyijwe ko buzagabanukaho 4.9 ku ijana mu mwaka wa 2020, ugereranyije n’izamuka rya 2.9 ku ijana ryagezweho mu mwaka wa 2019; iryo gabanuka rikaba rirusha ubukana iryo mu myaka ya 2008-2009, igihe ubukungu bw’Isi wahungabanaga.”

Ni mu gihe nk’urwego rw’ubuhinzi rwazamutseho 2.1% mu gihe mu mwaka wabanje byari 4.4%, ahanini kubera n’imihandagurikire y’ikirere. Urwego rw’inganda narwo rwazamutseho 2.6% ruvuye kuri 14.7%, bigizwemo uruhare n’isozwa ry’imishinga minini y’ubwubatsi.

Mu ngamba zafashwe mu guhangana n’ikwirakwira rya COVID-19, harimo kwishyurana hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga.

BNR yatangaje ko byatumye igipimo cy’ubwishyu buto hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga kizamuka kigera kuri 54 ku ijana by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugumu mpera za Kamena 2020, kivuye kuri 34.6 ku ijana mu mpera za Kamena 2019.

Amadovize yabaye menshi mu Rwanda

BNR yanatangaje ko mu mpera ka Kamena 2020, amadovize y’Igihugu abitse muri Banki Nkuru yiyongereye agera kuri miliyoni 1.652,38 z’amadolari y’Amerika avuye kuri miliyoni 1.249,48 muri Kamena 2019; ashobora gutumiza ibintu hanze y’igihugu mu gihe cy’amezi 6 nta yandi yinjiye.

Ni mu gihe muri raporo y’umwaka wa 2018/19, BNR yatangaje ko ubwizigame bw’Igihugu mu madovize bushobora gufasha igihugu gutumiza ibicuruzwa mu mahanga mu gihe cy’amezi 4.3 nta yandi madovize yinjiye, aho byarenze gato igipimo fatizo cy’amezi 4 nk’uko bisabwa n’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF).

Muri rusange igipimo cy’amafaranga akoreshwa imbere mu gihugu cyazamutseho 18.5% kigera kuri tiriliyoni 2.63 mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2019-2020 ugereranyije n’izamuka rya 14.4% ryabaye mu mwaka wa 2018-19.

BNR yakomeje iti “Iri zamuka ryakomotse ahanini ku bwiyongere bw’amadovize bwite y’amabanki y’ubucuruzi yazamutseho 41.3%, mu gihe umutungo w’ayo mabanki imbere mu gihugu wazamutseho gusa 2.3%. Mu bigize umutungo w’imbere mu gihugu w’amabanki y’ubucuruzi, inguzanyo ku bikorera zazamutseho 14.2%, inguzanyo ku bigo bya Leta bikora ubucuruzi zizamukaho 13.1%, mu gihe inguzanyo ku nzego bwite za leta zagabanutseho 7.2%.”

“Izamuka ry’amadovize bwite y’amabanki y’ubucuruzi ryatewe n’izamuka ry’inkunga z’amahanga (zigizwe n’imyenda n’imfashanyo) kugira ngo Leta ibashe guhangana n’icyorezo cya COVID-19.”

Umugabane munini w’amafaranga akoreshwa imbere mu Gihugu wari ugizwe n’amafaranga abikijwe mu mabanki y’ubucuruzi, akaba yariyongereyeho 18.9% mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2019-20 avuye kuri 14.7% mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2018-19. Ku rundi ruhande, inoti n’ibiceri mu baturage byiyongereyeho 14.1%, bigira uruhare rwa 1.3% mu kwiyongera kw’amafaranga akoreshwa mu Gihugu.

Ihungabana ry’ubucuruzi

Imibare ya BNR igaragaza ko ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza mu mahanga byagabanutseho 15.2% mu gihe agaciro kabyo kiyongereyeho 15.1% kagera ku madolari y’Amerika 1294.85, ahanini bitewe n’umusaruro wavuye muri zahabu wazamutseho 754.6%.

Agaciro k’ibindi bicuruzwa bitari zahabu byoherejwe mu mahanga karagabanutse. Ibicuruzwa bisanzwe byagabanutseho 17.3%, ibindi bicuruzwa bigabanukaho 56.4%, naho ibiva mu mahanga bigacuruzwa mu bihugu duturanye bigabanukaho 3.0%, bitewe n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya COVID-19 cyazahaje ubukungu bw’isi n’ubw’imbere mu gihugu.

Ku rundi ruhande, agaciro k’ibitumizwa mu mahanga kazamutseho 19.7% kagera ku madolari miliyoni 2884.34. Iri zamuka rigaragara mu byiciro byose by’ibitumizwa mu mahanga.

Agaciro k’ibyo u Rwanda rwohereje mu mahanga kanganaga na 44.9% mu 2019-20, mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2018/19 kari 46.7%.

BNR ivuga ko icyuho hagati y’ibyo u Rwanda rwohereza mu mahanga n’ibyo rutumizayo cyiyongereyeho 23.7% mu 2019/20 kigera kuri miliyoni $1,589.52.

Kwaka inguzanyo byaragabanyutse

BNR yatangaje ko inguzanyo nshya zatanzwe n’amabanki zagabanutseho 0.4% maze zingana na miriyari 1,109.7 mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2019-20.

Iri gabanuka ryaturutse ku nguzanyo nshya zahawe inzego z’imirimo zisanzwe zigira uruhare rukomeye mu mizamukire y’ubukungu bw’Igihugu, zamanutse bitewe n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya COVID-19.

Izo nzego ni nk’ubwikorezi bw’ibintu n’abantu, kubika ibintu n’itumanaho, amazi n’ingufu ndetse n’ibyerekeye inganda.

Icyakora, iri gabanuka ry’inguzanyo nshya mu nzego z’imirimo zavuzwe haruguru ryakomye mu nkokora n’izamuka ry’inguzanyo nshya zahawe urwego rwa serivisi zihabwa abaturage, resitora n’amahoteli, inguzanyo z’abantu ku giti cyabo n’iz’ubucuruzi.

Ku birebana n’uburyo inguzanyo nshya zatanzwe mu nzego z’ubukungu, ubucuruzi bwihariye 30%, ibikorwa rusange n’ubwubatsi 26%, naho inguzanyo zihabwa abantu mu rwego rwo kwikenura ziharira 12.7%.

Ibiciro ku masoko byarazamutse

BNR yatangaje ko igipimo rusange cy’ihindagurika ry’ibiciro ku isoko cyazamutseho 6.3% mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2019-20, kivuye kuri 0.8% mu mwaka wa 2018- 19.

Ibi bikaba byaratewe ahanini n’izamuka ry’ibiciro by’ibiribwa bishobora kwangirika vuba, byiyongereyeho 16.7% nyuma yo kumanukaho 3.4% munsi ya zero mu mwaka wabanje, n’igipimo rusange cy’ihindagurika ry’ibiciro hatarimo ibiciro by’ibiribwa byangirika n’iby’ibikomoka ku ngufu, cyiyongereyeho 4.2% kivuye kuri 1.5% mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2018-19.

Biteganywa ko nubwo igipimo cy’ihindagurika ry’ibiciro ku isoko cyakomeje kuba hejuru, mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2019-20, iteganyamibare ry’igihe cya hafi ryerekanako mu mwaka wa 2020-21, ihindagurika ry’ibiciro ku isoko rizagabanuka ryegere igipimo fatizo cya BNR cya 5%.

Mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2019-20, ibiciro by’ibiribwa byariyongereye, bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere yatumye umusaruro w’ibihingwa uba muke mu gihembwe cy’ihinga A 2019-20.

Mu byateye izamuka ry’ibiciro ku isoko harimo n’ingamba zari zimaze igihe, aho imodoka rusange zatwaraga abagenzi 50%, bigatuma ikiguzi ku muntu umwe kuizamuka, kugira ngo ibigo bikora ubwikorezi bidahomba.

Agaciro k’ifaranga karahungabanye

Mu mwaka w’ingengo y’imari wa 2019-20, agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda kagabanutseho 4.3% mu mpera za Kamena 2020 ugereranyije n’idolari ry’Amerika, mu gihe kari kagabanutseho 4.5% mu mpera za Kamena 2019. Ibi bikaba byaratewe ahanini n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya COVID-19.

Ifaranga ry’u Rwanda kandi ryatakaje 1.3% by’agaciro karyo ugereranyije n’ifaranga ry’Abongereza (Pound Sterling) na 3.2% ugereranyije n’ifaranga ry’Ibihugu bigize Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’i Burayi (Euro).

Hakozwe ibishoboka mu kuzahura ubukungu

BNR igaragaza ko yafashe ingamba zitandukanye zirimo, gukomeza korohereza ishoramari, igabanya inyungu fatizo yayo iva kuri 5 ku ijana igera kuri 4.5 ku ijana muri Mata 2020, igabanya igipimo cy’ubwizigame butegetswe ku mafaranga abitswa muri banki z’ubucuruzi kiva kuri 5 ku ijana kigera kuri 4 ku ijana.

Hashyizweho kandi ikigega cy’ingoboka cya miliyari 50 cyo kuguriza amabanki mu gihe gito ku nyungu fatizo; yoroshya uburyo busanzweho bwo kugurura impapuro mpeshwamwenda, mu gihe uzifite abuze umuguzi ku isoko ry’imari kandi akeneye amafaranga.

Banki kandi zemerewe kongera igihe inguzanyo zitishyuye zigomba kumara zikibarwa nk’umutungo wazo, cyongerwaho iminsi 365 ku gihe gisanzwe zamaraga, kuko mu bihe bisanzwe banki zisabwa gukura mu bitabo by’ibaruramari inguzanyo zimaze iminsi 365 mu cyiciro cy’igihombo zitishyurwa.

Ishyirwa mu bikorwa by’izi ngamba za BNR byunganiwe n’ingamba nyinshi nyinshi za Guverinoma, harimo ishyirwaho ry’Ikigega kigamije kuzahura ubukungu (ERF), kigoboka inzego z’ubukungu zazahajwe n’ingaruka z’icyorezo cya COVID-19 kugira ngo zibashe gusubukura ibikorwa byazo.

Umusaruro wavuye muri zahabu wazamutseho 754.6%

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