Guhererekanya amafaranga mu ikoranabuhanga: U Rwanda rugeze he?

Yanditswe na Rabbi Malo Umucunguzi
Kuya 27 Ugushyingo 2019 saa 10:38
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Mu gihe u Rwanda rukomeje gutera imbere mu nzego zose, urugendo rwo kwimakaza ikoranabuhanga nk’umusingi w’ibikorwa byose narwo rurakomeje. Ubu umuturage asigaye abona icyangombwa gitangwa n’ubuyobozi adasabwe kujya gutonda umurongo nk’uko byahoze, cyangwa akishyura serivisi runaka bitamusabye kwitwaza umuba w’inoti.

Magingo aya, hari uburyo bwinshi bwo kwishyurana no guhererekanya amafaranga nko gukoresha amakarita, kwishyura ukoresheje akamashini (Point of Sales, POS), konti ya telefoni cyangwa amafaranga ari kuri konti yo muri banki wifashishije telefoni, internet n’ubundi.

Uretse banki, hari ibindi bigo bifasha muri izo serivisi birimo Airtel Rwanda, Mobicash Rwanda Ltd, MTN Rwanda, RSwitch Ltd, Visa Rwanda Ltd, Ikofi (Serivisi ya Banki ya Kigali) n’ibindi.

Ibi byose byasimbuye uburyo hambere wahaga umuntu amafaranga uti ’uzayampere naka’ cyangwa ukamupfunyikira mu ibahasha, rimwe na rimwe ubutumwa bwawe ntibuzashyike.

Uretse kuba bigabanya uburyo amafaranga atakara hagati y’abantu, ni igisubizo ku bukungu bw’igihugu kuko nka Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda iba ibona aho amafaranga aherereye, ndetse byaramira hagati ya miliyari n’igice na miliyari ebyiri z’amafaranga u Rwanda rutanga buri mwaka rukoresha amafaranga mashya mu mahanga.

Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, John Rwangombwa, yabwiye IGIHE ko ukurikije uko hagenda hakorwa ubukangurambaga, abantu bagenda bumva inyungu zo guhererekanya amafaranga mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga.

Yagize ati “Duhereye mu 2011, twasaga n’aho dutangiye gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu kwishyurana, twari kuri 0.3% by’umutungo w’igihugu, uyu munsi tugeze kuri 34.6% by’umutungo w’igihugu mu kwishyurana dukoresheje ikoranabuhanga. Intego yacu ni uko mu 2024 byibura twaba twageze kuri 80%.”

“Harimo rero akazi kenshi ko kwigisha, harimo no gukwirakwiza iryo koranabuhanga abantu bakoresha mu kwishyurana.”

Raporo ya BNR y’umwaka wa 2018/2019 igaragaza ko kwishyurana mu ikoranabuhanga, muri Kamena 2019 byageze kuri 34.63% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu bivuye kuri 30% muri Kamena 2018.

Urebye nko ku mashini za POS zikoreshwa mu kwishyurana, zageze kuri 41.4 ku baturage 100,000 muri Kamena 2019 zivuye kuri 30 zabarwaga muri Kamena 2018.

Hari intambwe imaze guterwa

Raporo ya BNR y’umwaka wa 2018/2019 igaragaza igereranya hagati ya Kamena 2018 na Kamena 2019, igaragaza ko imibare y’uburyo amafaranga ahererekanywa mu ikoranabuhanga ikomeje kuzamuka, kuko nk’umubare wa za POS wazamutse ku gipimo cya 39%, ziva ku 2198 zigera ku 3046.

Hanatangijwe uburyo bushya bufasha mu kwishyurana buzwi nka Virtual POSs, Near Field Communication (NFC) na Mobile POS, ku buryo byatumye bene izi mashini muri rusange ziyongera kuri 32 ku ijana ziva ku 12,959 zabarwaga muri Kamena 2018 zigera ku 17,048 muri Kamena 2019.

Umubare w’inshuro POS zakoreshejwe wiyongereye ku gipimo cya 40 ku ijana ugera kuri miliyoni 2.2, amafaranga yazinyujijwemo azamukaho 18 ku ijana agera kuri miliyari 100 Frw. Umubare wa za ATM wo wazamutse ku rwego rwo hasi, ziyongera kuri 2% ziva kuri 382 zigera kuri 390.

Inshuro zakoreshejwe zazamutse ku gipimo cya 2 ku ijana gusa zigera kuri miliyoni 9.7, bitewe ahanini “n’ubukangurambaga BNR na Guverinoma bakomeje mu guteza imbere ubukungu butubakiye ku guhererekanya amafaranga mu ntoki ahubwo hagakoresha ikoranabuhanga. Umubare w’amafaranga yabikujwe kuri ATM wiyongereyeho 4% agera kuri miliyari 551 Frw.”

Mu mwaka ushize kandi amafaranga yahererekanyijwe hakoreshejwe telefoni yiyongereyeho 32 ku ijana, ava kuri miliyari 1,563 agera kuri miliyari 2,058 Frw. Naho abakoresha mobile banking bazamutseho 52 ku ijana bagera ku 1,92145, mu gihe abakoresha internet banking biyongereyeho 13 ku ijana bakagera ku 79,079 kugeza muri Kamena 2019.

Agaciro k’amafaranga yoherejwe binyuze muri mobile banking yiyongereyeho 46 ku ijana ava kuri miliyari 43 Frw zabarwaga muri Kamena 2018 agera kuri miliyari 63 muri Kamena 2019.

Naho kuri internet banking, inshuro yakoreshejwe zazamutse ku 133 ku ijana ziva ku 468,122 zigera kuri 1,089,376, mu gihe agaciro k’amafaranga yagiye hagati aho yazamutseho 13 ku ijana, akava kuri miliyari 1,798 akagera kuri miliyari 2,032 hagati ya Kamena 2018 na Kamena 2019.

Haracyari n’imbogamizi

Guverineri Rwangombwa avuga ko kwimakaza ikoranabuhanga mu kwishyurana ari inzira ndende, ariko hari icyizere gishingiye ahanini kuba Abanyarwanda benshi ari urubyiruko, kandi birworohera kumva ibijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga.

Guhererekanya amafaranga hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga harimo inyungo nyinshi nko kuba iyo amafaranga yibwe hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga byoroshye ko yahagarikwa akiri mu nzira atarabikuzwa, mu gihe ari ayatwawe arunze hamwe bigoye ko yagarurwa.

Bifasha kandi umucuruzi gukurikirana ubucuruzi bwe, cyane cyane nko kureba uburyo yagiye yakira amafaranga, ndetse akabasha gukoresha amafaranga ye nko mu kwishyura imisoro, kugura amashanyarazi, ifatabuguzi rya televiziyo n’ibindi yicaye mu biro, ari mu modoka cyangwa mu buriri aryamye, nta kindi bisabye.

Mu mbogamizi kuri uru rugendo harimo nko kuba uburyo buhari uyu munsi budashobora gukorana hagati yabwo cyane cyane nk’ikoranabuhanga rya banki zimwe kuri telefoni, hamwe na konti bafite muri izo banki.

Hazamo no kuba ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bumaze igihe bwubakiye ku guhererekanya amafaranga mu ntoki, ku buryo bisaba akazi gakomeye ko guhindura imyumvire, cyane ko bene iyo mikorere ihombya ibihugu 1% by’umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu, nyamara ngo abacuruzi benshi ntibumva uko icyo gihombo giteye.

Izindi mbogamizi zirimo no kuba ahantu hose hatari amashanyarazi ku buryo bakoresha za POS, cyangwa hatari imiyoboro ihagije y’itumanaho, ibintu bishobora gutuma abaturage batiyumva neza muri ubu buryo bushya bwo kwishyurana.

Impungenge kandi zigendana n’umubare munini w’amafaranga acibwa abantu bakoresha ikoranabuhanga mu kwishyurana, agatuma abantu bamwe badakunda kubwifashisha.

Ibyo kandi bigaterwa n’ubukungu igihugu gifite, kuko ubusanzwe bibarwa ko iyo umuntu yakiriye amafaranga bitari mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga, akenshi usanga bigoye kuba umuntu yayafata akayabitsa muri bwa buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga.

Rwangombwa avuga ko urebye nko mu 2017 haje uburyo bushya abantu bakoresha bishyurana, nk’aho ikigo cy’itumanaho cya MTN Rwanda cyatangije uburyo bufasha mu kwishyura umucuruzi umuntu akoresheje amafaranga afite kuri Mobile Money, akifashisha nimero umucuruzi yahawe, nta mafaranga arengejeho.

Yakomeje ati “Dufite icyizere cy’uko iyo ntego twihaye ya 80% izagerwaho binyuze mu kwigisha no kuba harimo kuza ikoranabuhanga rishyashya ribasha kugera kuri benshi mu gihe gitoya kandi rihendutse cyane.”

“Ni mu nzira ebyiri tubona amafaranga yakwa abantu bakoresha ikoranabuhanga azagabanuka. Bumwe ni uko rikoreshwa n’abantu benshi. Uko abantu bagenda barikangukira, babona uko ryorohereza abantu kwishyurana, bizagabanya igiciro.”

“Ubundi buryo,ni ukwishyura ibicuruzwa ukoresheje telefoni. Ubungubu umucuruzi acibwa 0.5% gusa ku mafaranga yishyuwe n’umuguzi, mu gihe ukoresha POS acibwa 2.5 cyangwa 3%. Bityo rero, uko ikoranabuhanga rigenda rirushaho kwaguka, ryoroshya ubuzima,bigatuma abarikoresha barushaho kwiyongera; n’ibigo by’imari bizagenda bigabanya ibiciro.

Ingano y'amafaranga ahererekanywa urebeye ku musaruro mbumbe w'igihugu
Umubare w'abakoresha ATM ntukizamuka nk'uw'abakoresha POS
Umubare w'abakoresha uburyo bw'ikoranabuhanga mu kwishyurana ukomeje kwiyongera
Guverineri Rwangombwa ahamya ko u Rwanda ruri mu nzira nziza ziganisha ku kubaka ubukungu budashingiye ku guhererekanya amafaranga mu ntoki

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