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Afurika yaba iri kuba ingaruzwamuheto y’u Bushinwa? Ikiganiro na Dr Donald Kaberuka

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 23 June 2022 saa 07:23
Yasuwe :

Amezi atatu ntarashira, mu binyamakuru bitandukanye mpuzamahanga hasohotse inkuru zivuga ko Ikibuga cy’Indege cya Entebbe muri Uganda kigiye kwigarurirwa n’u Bushinwa nyuma y’inguzanyo cyatanze Uganda ikananirwa kwishyura.

Ni amakuru yamaganiwe kure na Guverinoma ya Uganda ndetse n’iy’u Bushinwa ariko abakurikiranira hafi iby’ubukungu, si ubwa mbere babona inkuru nk’izo z’uko Afurika icunze nabi, yakwisanga yahindutse umutungo w’u Bushinwa, igihugu kiri hafi kwigaranzura vuba Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu bijyanye n’ubukungu.

Ni nde wasobanura ibibazo nk’ibyo bireba ahazaza h’ubukungu bw’umugabane utuwe n’abasaga miliyari kurusha Dr Donald Kaberuka wamaze imyaka icumi ari Perezida wa Banki Nyafurika Itsura Amajyambere (BAD)?

Uyu mugabo w’imyaka 70, yahaye ikiganiro cyihariye IGIHE, agaruka ku bibazo bitandukanye byugarije Isi kuri ubu birimo intambara ya Ukraine n’u Burusiya n’isomo ikwiriye gusigira Afurika mu bukungu, amadeni ya Afurika n’ibikomeje gukoma mu nkokora isoko rusange rya Afurika.

Niba uri umwe mu babeshywe ko abagabo bize imibare n’ubukungu bagorana cyane, Dr Kaberuka ntumubariremo. Akimara gutanga ikiganiro ku gicamunsi cyo kuri uyu wa Kabiri mu nama ya People’s Forum, imwe mu zishamikiye kuri CHOGM, yaberaga muri M Hotel, benshi mu bari bitabiriye bifuzaga kuvugana na we ariko nta n’umwe nabonye asubiza inyuma.

Tugaruke mu cyumba cy’inama ya M Hotel aho ikiganiro na IGIHE cyabereye, mu gihe intambara ya Ukraine n’u Burusiya yari imaze iminsi 118 n’amasaha ihagaritse ubuzima hirya no hino ku Isi.

Ibihugu byinshi bya Afurika bivana muri Ukraine n’u Burusiya ibikomoka ku ngano, ifumbire, amavuta y’ibihwagari n’ibindi.

Nko mu 2020, Afurika yavanye mu Burusiya ibikomoka ku buhinzi bifite agaciro ka miliyari 4$ mu gihe muri Ukraine byanganaga na miliyari 2,9$.

Ubu byinshi intambara yarabihagaritse, ibicuruzwa byinshi byarahenze ahandi birabura kandi nta cyizere cy’uko bizasubirana vuba.

Dr Kaberuka ntahakana izi mbogamizi, gusa asanga ari isomo ryiza kuri Afurika isanzwe ifite ubutaka bwera ingano.

Ati “Icyangombwa tugomba kumenya, ibintu bikomeye bizahoraho [...] Nk’ubu ibihugu 14 muri Afurika bihinga ingano, bigasarura toni miliyoni nka 21, tukagura hanze nka toni miliyoni 52 kandi urebye ku musaruro w’abahinga ingano muri Afurika, tuba dufite ubushobozi bwo gukuba kabiri umusaruro.”

Dr Kaberuka avuga ko ibibazo bizahoraho ariyo mpamvu Afurika ikwiriye kwiga uko izajya yirwanaho ibintu byakomeye

Ubuhinzi bw’ingano muri Afurika bufite ikibazo cy’ishoramari rike, ikoranabuhanga ridahagije, imihindagurikire y’ibihe n’ibindi.

Dr Kaberuka avuga ko ibyo bibazo ari byo bikwiriye gushakirwa umuti, aho guhora Afurika irambirije ku biva mu mahanga.

Ati “Ibibazo nk’ibi ntacyo wabikoraho ariko kongera umusaruro w’ingano birashoboka. Ntabwo wabikora mu mwaka umwe ariko mu myaka ibiri, itatu tugomba kuba twabigezeho.”

Abishingira ku bushobozi bimwe mu bihugu bya Afurika n’u Rwanda rurimo, byishatsemo ubwo Covid-19 yacaga ibintu.

Ati “Aho kugira ngo dukomeze duhanze amaso Ukraine n’abaduha ingano, reka muri Afurika duhinge ingano hanyuma twongere umusaruro kuko isoko rirahari.”

Afurika mu maboko y’u Bushinwa….

Mu mwaka wa 2020, Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara yari ifitiye abanyamahanga amadeni angana na miliyari 702,4$, avuye kuri miliyari 380,9$ mu 2012.

Ubwo Covid-19 yakazaga umurego, amadeni yarushijeho kwiyongera ndetse Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari (IMF) umwaka ushize cyavuze ko ibihugu 20 bya Afurika amadeni amaze kubibera umutwaro ku buryo bishobora kutazabasha kuyishyura.

Dr Kaberuka ntaca ku ruhande iki kibazo, na we yemeza ko hari ibihugu biremerewe cyane n’umwenda, gusa akagaragaza ko ahanini biterwa n’imiyoborere mibi y’ibyo bihugu.

Ati “Hari ibihugu 12 bifite ibibazo by’imyenda, ariko ni ukubera ibibazo by’imiyoborere noneho ugasanga amafaranga bakoresheje kwishyura umwenda, arenze ayo bashyira mu burezi cyangwa mu buzima. Ibyo rero bigomba gukemurwa, ariko ibindi bihugu byinshi ibyo by’imyenda bibyifatamo neza rwose.”

Kaberuka usanzwe ari Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo SouthBridge gitanga ubujyanama kuri za guverinoma no ku bikorera muri Afurika, yabwiye IGIHE ko ikibazo atari imyenda Afurika ifata, ahubwo ari uburyo ihendwa.

Ati “ Hari ubwo tujya mu isoko n’ibihugu bifite imiyoborere myiza, bifite inota rya B+, ugasanga tugomba gutanga inyungu ya 5% cyangwa 6 % ariko ibindi bihugu by’i Burayi na byo bifite amanota nk’ayo bigatanga 2 %.”

Kubera iki?, “Abo batanga amafaranga baravuga ngo Afurika ni ahantu hari ingorane (risks) , ngo birashoboka ko batazatwishyura, bagashyiraho ako karusho ka ’risks’, niho ikibazo kiri”.

Guhendwa no gufata inguzanyo utazabasha kwishyura biratandukanye. Ubu nta gihugu cya Afurika kitarimo ibikorwa remezo bigezweho byubatswe n’u Bushinwa cyangwa se sosiyete zo muri icyo gihugu. Hera ku nyubako z’ibigo bikomeye bya za Leta, imihanda, ibiraro, inganda n’ibindi, izo zose ni inguzanyo.

Ibihugu n’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta muri Amerika n’u Burayi bivuga ko byinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika bishobora kwisanga byaremerewe n’amadeni y’u Bushinwa bitazabasha kwishyura, u Bushinwa bukigarurira bimwe mu bikorwaremezo byabyo.

Mu ijwi ribyibushye nk’uko bisanzwe, Kaberuka yabisetse cyane, avuga ko ibyo gufatirana ubukungu bwa Afurika bidashoboka.

Ati “Ikibazo cy’Abashinwa rwose mujye mukivugishaho ukuri, mu myenda yose iri muri Afurika, imyenda y’Abashinwa ni 20 % kandi nayo ntabwo iri mu bihugu byinshi, iri mu bihugu nka bitanu, bitandatu birindwi.”

“Ntabwo mvuga ngo abantu bafate imyenda batarebye neza amabwiriza yayo, ibyo bagomba kubyiga ariko hariho ibihugu bimwe na bimwe iyo bishaka guhangana n’u Bushinwa, bikoresha ikibazo cy’imyenda.”

Ibihugu nka Sri Lanka, Kaberuka yemera ko byatangiye kwisanga mu bibazo by’ubukungu kubera impamvu zirimo n’amadeni y’u Bushinwa, gusa si yo sura abonamo Afurika.

Ati “Hari ibibazo koko byagize ikibazo nka Sri Lanka n’ahandi ariko kuvuga ngo Abashinwa bazaza bafate amashuri yacu, ibiraro n’iki babijyane, ibyo si byo.”

Ibintu bitatu isoko rusange rya Afurika ribura…..

Imyaka ibaye ine i Kigali hasinyiwe amasezerano yo gutangiza isoko rusange rya Afurika, aho ibicuruzwa byakorewe mu gihugu kimwe bigomba kwinjira mu kindi nta misoro, abantu bakagendererana nta nkomyi.

Ubwiza bwabyo ntawe utabwumva kuko ibiciro bizagabanuka kandi umwanya ibicuruzwa bimara ngo bigere ku baguzi ukagabanuka.

Yego Covid-19 yasubije inyuma byinshi ariko intambwe iryo soko rigenderaho kuri ubu ntabwo itanga icyizere cy’uko ibintu bizajya mu buryo vuba.

Kaberuka urambye mu by’ubukungu we ntarakurayo amaso, ibintu bitatu gusa nibyo bigomba gushyirwa ku murongo.

Ati “Icya mbere ni ikibazo cyo kubona za visa abantu bageze mu bihugu, byatuma Abanyafurika babasha guhahirana. Icya kabiri indege zacu kugira ngo zibashe guhahirana, ubu haracyariho imbogamizi nyinshi cyane. Icya gatatu, mu gihe tugiye gucuruzanya hagati y’ibihugu byacu, aho gukoresha amadolari dukoreshe amafaranga yacu.”

“Niba Umunyarwanda ashaka kugura ibigori muri Zambia, aho gukoresha amadolari kuki tutamwishyura mu Manyarwanda, na we yakire Kwacha? Ubwo buryo burahari bwaratangiye, amabanki yacu na Banki Nkuru z’ibihugu ziri kubikoraho kugira ngo ibihugu byacu bibashe guhahirana bikoresheje amafaranga yacu. Ibyo nibyo bizaha imbaraga isoko rusange.”

U Rwanda rw’ubu rumutera ishema

Mbere yo kwinjira muri BAD mu 2005, Kaberuka uvuka mu Karere ka Gicumbi, yabaye Minisitiri w’Imari n’Igenamigambi w’u Rwanda mu gihe cy’imyaka umunani.

U Rwanda aruzi rugitunzwe n’inkunga z’amahanga ijana ku ijana nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, aruzi nta hoteli iri ku rwego mpuzamahanga rufite, abashoramari b’abanyamahanga bahabona nk’igihugu cy’intambara n’ibindi.

Mu mahanga aho yitabazwa hose nk’impuguke mu bukungu, Dr Kaberuka avuga ko aterwa ishema n’aho igihugu cye kigeze mu iterambere.

Ati “Nawe urabyibonera. U Rwanda rubwira Abanyafurika ruti, ibibazo bibaho ariko birashoboka kubikemura kandi ukabikemura mu buryo wowe ubona ubifitemo inyungu. Iyo ubikoze gutyo ubasha guhangana n’ibibazo byose bizabasha kuza.”

“Abantu bose bazi aho u Rwanda rwari ruri muri za 1997, iyo babonye aho rugeze biha icyizere ibindi bihugu byo muri Afurika ko bishoboka. Aho kugira ngo Abanyafurika bahore bavuga ngo ibibazo byabaye byinshi, urabyangira ukavuga uti ’yego birahari ariko birashoboka kubikemura.’”

Dr Kaberuka asanga Afurika yifitemo ubushobozi bwo guhinga ingano ikenera aho guhora itegereje iziva mu mahanga

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