Umwaka wa 2020 wabaye uw’intsinzi ku Rwanda mu maso y’abarugomeye

Yanditswe na Nshuti Joseph
Kuya 22 Ukuboza 2020 saa 08:29
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Umwaka wa 2020 wari utegerezanyijwe amatsiko menshi hirya no hino ku Isi ariko ku Rwanda byari akarusho. Abanyarwanda bifuzaga kubonesha amaso u Rwanda rushya bari bamaze imyaka irenga 20 bubaka ahanini binyuze muri gahunda ya “Vision 2020” yatangijwe na Perezida Paul Kagame mu 2000.

Mu gihe ariko Abanyarwanda, ari abari mu gihugu cyangwa hanze yacyo, bakomeje gukora iyo bwabaga ngo bubake igihugu cyiza kandi gitekanye, hari abakomeje gucura imigambi mibisha yo kurwanya iri terambere binyuze mu kurwanya ubuyobozi buriho no gusenya ibyagezweho.

Muri abo harimo abahekuye u Rwanda muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, abahakana bakanapfobya Jenoside ndetse n’abandi bacengewe na politiki y’inzangano n’amoko.

Nubwo aba bakomeje kuburirwa kenshi na Perezida Kagame, iteka bagiye bavunira ibiti mu matwi bakanga kumva. Urugero rwa hafi ni urwo mu Ugushyingo 2019 ubwo yakiraga indahiro z’abayobozi bashya muri Guverinoma no mu Ngabo z’u Rwanda.

Icyo gihe yagize ati “Hano ndashaka gusobanura ko tugiye kuzamura ikiguzi cyose byasaba, ku bantu bose bashaka guhungabanya umutekano wacu. [...] Ndashaka kuburira abantu bamwe muri twe, bihisha inyuma y’ibintu bitandukanye, politiki, demokarasi, ubwisanzure, ibyo ari byo byose, ko dushaka kandi ni inshingano zacu guharanira ko habaho demokarasi, amahoro, ubwisanzure mu gihugu cyacu. [...] Ku bantu rero bihisha inyuma y’ibidafite agaciro, ndetse bagashyigikirwa n’abantu bo hanze, bakaryoherwa… muraza kutubona.”

Iri jambo Perezida Kagame yavugiye mu Ngoro y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko bidatinze ryarasohoye. Umwaka wa 2020 wapfubije imigambi ya benshi mu bagomeye u Rwanda, aho bamwe batawe muri yombi ubu bakaba bari imbere y’ubutabera ngo bahabwe ibihano bikwiranye n’ibyo bakoze.

Iby’ingenzi byaranze umwaka wa 2020 washaririye abatavuga rumwe n’u Rwanda.

-  Ifatwa rya Herman Nsengimana

Ku wa 17 Mutarama 2020, nibwo Urwego rw’Ubugenzacyaha (RIB) rweretse itanganzamakuru Herman Nsengimana wari warasimbuye Nsabimana Callixte ‘Sankara’ ku mwanya w’Umuvugizi w’Umutwe witwaje intwaro ukorera mu mashyamba ya Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (RDC), FLN (Force de Libération Nationale).

Nsengimana wari warihaye ipeti rya kapiteni ni umwe mu barwanyi 291 ba FLN bashyikirijwe u Rwanda mu Ukuboza 2019 n’ingabo za RDC, FARDC, nyuma yo kubafata mpiri binyuze mu bitero byo gutsinsura imitwe yitwaje intwaro ikorera ku butaka bw’iki gihugu byatangiye nyuma y’igihe gito Perezida Félix Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo afashe ubutegetsi.

Uyu ni we wigambye igitero cya FLN cyagabwe hafi y’Ishyamba rya Nyungwe mu murenge wa Bweyeye mu Karere ka Rusizi mu mpera za 2019 kikaza kuburizwamo n’inzego z’umutekano z’u Rwanda.

Amagambo Nsengimana Herman yavugaga mbere yo gufatwa

Uko ingabo za FARDC zafashe mpiri Herman Nsengimana wari Umuvugizi wa FLN

Nsengimana wigambye ibitero byo mu Bweyeye yeretswe itangazamakuru

Herman Nsengimana ubwo yerekwaga itangazamakuru nyuma y'iminsi mike agejejwe mu Rwanda na Leta ya RDC

-  Iherezo ku myaka 26 yo kwihisha kwa Kabuga

Burya ngo iminsi iba myinshi igahimwa n’umwe gusa. Imyaka 26 Kabuga Félicien yihisha ubutabera yashyizweho akadomo mu rukerera rwo ku wa 16 Gicurasi 2020 ubwo yafatirwaga mu nzu yabanagamo n’imfura ye, Donatien Nshimyumuremyi, mu Bufaransa mu nkengero z’Umurwa Mukuru, Paris.

Kabuga afatwa nk’umwe mu baterankunga bakomeye ba Jenoside. Mu mpera za 1993, abinyujije muri sosiyete ye, Kabuga yinjije toni 25 z’imihoro azikuye mu Bushinwa. Muri Werurwe 1994, iyi mihoro yayongeyeho indi 50 000 yose yakoreshejwe mu kwica Abatutsi hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Uyu musaza w’imyaka 87 kandi ni umwe mu bagize uruhare rukomeye mu gushinga RTLM (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines) aho yari afitemo imigabane 100 yari yaraguze 500 000 Frw ndetse yanabayeho perezida wacyo. Iki gitangazamakuru cyabaye intwaro ikomeye ya leta yakoze Jenoside, aho cyifashishijwe mu gucengeza politiki y’amacakubiri mu baturage no gukangurira Abahutu kwica Abatutsi.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Kabuga n’abandi bafatanyije kuyitegura no kuyishyira mu bikorwa bahungiye mu mahanga. Ubwo hahise hatangira ibikorwa byo kubashakisha ngo bashyikirizwe ubutabera.

Muri ibyo bikorwa harimo ‘Opération NAKI (Nairobi-Kigali)’ yakorewe i Nairobi muri Kenya muri Nyakanga 1997 igasiga Jean Kambanda wabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe mu gihe cya Jenoside, Pauline Nyiramasuhuko wari Minisitiri w’Umuryango, Ngeze Hassan wari umunyamakuru wa Kangura na Sylvain Nsabimana wabaye Perefe wa Butare bose bafashwe. Icyo gihe Kabuga wari ku ruhembe rw’abashakishwa yanyuze mu rihumye inzego z’umutekano ntiyafatwa.

Mu 2002, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zashyizeho igihembo cya miliyoni eshanu z’amadolari ku muntu uzatanga amakuru y’aho Kabuga aherereye gusa ntacyo byatanze.

Ibikorwa byo kumushakisha byarakomeje. Nyuma y’uko byahwihwiswaga ko yaba ari mu Budage, mu 2007 Polisi y’i Frankfurt yakomanze ku nzu yacyekaga ko yaba arimo ntiyamusangamo, ahubwo ikingurirwa n’umukwe we Augustin Ngirabatware wari Minisitiri w’Igenamigambi, na we washakishwaga n’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda i Arusha muri Tanzania (ICTR) kubera uruhare rwe muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi (mu 2014 yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka 30).

Mu 2015, ICTR yasoje imirimo yayo. Mu myaka 21, uru rukiko rwamaze, rwakoreye abantu 93 inyandiko z’ibirego harimo 61 bahamijwe ibyaha bya Jenoside barakatirwa n’abandi 14 bagizwe abere. Uyu musaruro benshi barawugaye bavuga ko ari muke ugereranyije n’amafaranga angana na miliyari 2.3 z’amadolari rwashowemo ndetse n’igihe rwamaze. Mu bindi uru rukiko rugayirwa harimo no kunanirwa gufata Kabuga.

Bitewe nuko uru rukiko hari ibyo rwasize bitarangiye, inshingano zarwo zahise zihabwa Urwego rwasigariyeho Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha, IRMCT. Mu 2016, uru rwego rwahawe umubiligi Dr Serge Brammertz nk’Umushinjacyaha warwo mukuru.

Brammertz ni intyoza mu gufata abantu bamaze imyaka bihisha ubutabera. Mu 2008 ubwo yari akuriye Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho icyahoze ari Yugoslavia, yataye muri yombi Radovan Karadzic, umunyapolitiki wo muri Bosnia wari umaze imyaka ashakishwa cyane kubera ibyaha bya jenoside n’ibindi byibasiye inyokomuntu byose yakoze mu ntambara yo muri Bosnia yabaye hagati ya 1992 na 1995 igahitana ubuzima bw’abarenga 100,000 naho abandi barenga miliyoni bagakurwa mu byabo.

Mu 2011, yarongeye afata undi munyapolitiki wo muri Bosnia, Ratko Mladic, wari umaze imyaka 16 yihisha.

Mu 2019, Brammertz yashyizeho uburyo bushya bwakoreshwa mu gufata Kabuga bitewe nuko ubwari busanzwe ntacyo bwatanze kuko mu myaka icumi yari ishize nta muntu n’umwe ukekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside wari warigeze afatwa.

Kuva icyo gihe hahise hatangira gukusanywa amakuru yaho Kabuga yaba aherereye, igikorwa cyabaye ku bufatanye bw’inzego zitandukanye zirimo Interpol, Ubushinjacyaha bw’u Rwanda na Polisi yo mu Bwongereza.

Uko iminsi yahitaga niko iri perereza ryakazaga umurego kugeza ubwo kera kabaye Kabuga yafatwaga agashyikirizwa ubutabera. Ubu Kabuga afungiwe mu Buholandi ndetse ku wa 11 Ugushyingo 2020 akaba yaritabye urukiko rw’i La Haye ku nshuro ye ya mbere.

Kabuga yagaragaye bwa mbere mu rukiko rw'i La Haye mu Buholandi

-  Paul Rusesabagina mu iroza

Guhera mu 2004, izina Paul Rusesabagina rwatangiye kuba ikimenyabose hirya no hino ku Isi. Ibi byatewe na filime yamukinweho yitwa “Hotel Rwanda” igaragaza uruhare rwe mu kurokora Abatutsi muri Jenoside.

Iyi filime yayobowe ndetse inakinwamo n’ibyamamare byo muri Hollywood birimo Terry George na Don Cheadle wakinnye ari we witwa Paul Rusesabagina.

Mbere ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, Rusesabagina wari Inzobere mu bijyanye n’Imicungire y’Amahoteli, yayoboraga Hôtel des Diplomates aho yaje kuva ajya kuba Umuyobozi muri Hôtel des Mille Collines nyuma y’uko Sosiyete y’Ababiligi yitwa ‘Sabena’ yayiyoboraga yafunze imiryango mu Rwanda bitewe n’imvururu zari mu gihugu.

Iyi filime igaragaza ko Rusesabagina yarokoye Abatutsi bagera ku 1268 yahishe muri Hôtel des Mille Collines, akabagaburira ndetse hari nubwo yatangaga amafaranga ye cyangwa aya hoteli kugira ngo baticwa.

Ibi byatumye Rusesabagina atangira kwitwa intwari, bimufungurira amayira amugeza ku kwakira ibihembo bitandukanye birimo n’icyo yahawe mu 2005 n’uwari Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, George W. Bush, cyitwa “Presidential Medal of Freedom.”

Nubwo iyi filime yamamaye cyane ndetse ikaba yifashishwa mu kugaragaza amahano yagwiririye u Rwanda, Leta ntiyahwemye kugaragaza ko ibiyikinwamo atari ukuri kuko ngo Rusesabagina atigeze arokora Abatutsi, ahubwo ko ari serivisi yabahaga kuko nyuma yaho yaje kubishyuza abatari bafite amafaranga bemeranya ko bazayamuha amahoro atashye.

Ibi bishimangirwa na Senateri Dr. Odette Nyiramirimo warokokeye muri iyo hoteli ndetse akaba yari n’inshuti ya Rusesabagina, cyane ko yakoranaga n’umugore we Mukangamije Thacienne muri CHUK.

Mu kiganiro yigeze kugirana na IGIHE, Nyiramirimo yahamije ko Rusesabagina atigeze arokora Abatutsi ahubwo ko we yakoraga ubucuruzi.

Yagize ati “Abafite amafaranga barishyuraga, abatayafite bagasinya, natwe niko twabigenje ntayo twari dufite, ahubwo nasanze nari mfite n’agasheki mu mufuka, nagasinyeho k’amadolari $400, bayankuyeho hariya muri BCR nyuma ya Jenoside.”

Uku kwamamara gushingiye ku kinyoma niko Rusesabagina yuririyeho maze atangira kujya mu bikorwa birwanya Leta y’u Rwanda bikanapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi birimo nko gushinga ishyaka PDR Ihumure (Party for Democracy in Rwanda- Ihumure) rirwanya Leta.

Rusesabagina yaje kunga ubumwe nabo bahuje umugambi bibumbiye mu mashyaka atandukanye arimo RRM (Rwandese Revolutionary Movement) na CNRD Ubwiyunge maze bashinga Ihuriro ry’Amashyaka ryitwa MRCD (Mouvement Rwandais pour le Changement Démocratique) akaba ari na we wari uriyoboye.

Iri huriro ryaje gushinga Umutwe w’Ingabo witwa FLN ari nawo wigambye ibitero by’iterabwoba byagabwe ku butaka bw’u Rwanda, birimo icyo ku wa 19 Kamena 2018 cyagabwe muri Nyaruguru mu Murenge wa Nyabimata kigahitana abantu batatu. Hari kandi n’icyagabwe muri Nyamagabe mu Ukuboza 2018 kigahitana ubuzima bw’abaturage batandatu, abandi 19 barakomereka.

Ibi byatumye Rusesabagina ashyirirwaho impapuro zimuta muri yombi, ibintu byaje kugerwaho ku wa 29 Kamena 2020 ubwo yageraga ku Kibuga cy’Indege Mpuzamahanga cya Kigali agahita afatwa mu gihe we yibwiraga ko asesekaye i Burundi aho yari agiye guhura n’umuvugabutumwa waho.

Rusesabagina yemereye urukiko ko yagize uruhare mu ishingwa rya FLN
Rusesabagina Paul akekwaho ibyaha 13 birimo n’iby'iterabwoba

Paul Rusesabagina yatawe muri yombi, anerekwa itangazamakuru

-  Itabwa muri yombi rya Charles Ntahontuye Ndereyehe

Charles Ntahontuye Ndereyehe wari uzwi nka Karoli ni umwe mu bacurabwenge bakomeye ba Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi by’umwihariko muri ISAR Rubona yari ayoboye.

Ndereyehe afatanyije n’abahezanguni bari ku isonga mu mugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi, mu 1992 yashinze anayobora agatsiko k’abagizi ba nabi kiswe “Cercles des Républicains Progressistes” kari kagamije gukangurira abanyeshuri gutegura Jenoside muri Kaminuza i Butare n’i Nyakinama.

Muri uwo mwaka Ndereyehe wari umurwanashyaka mu Ishyaka ryari irya Perezida Habyarimana, MRND, yarivuyemo ajya gushinga irindi ryitwa CDR (Coalition pour la Défense de la République) naryo ryagize uruhare rukomeye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Mu 1993 ubwo yagirwaga Umuyobozi Mukuru wa ISAR Rubona, Ndereyehe, yashyize imbaraga cyane mu bikorwa byari bigamije kurimbura imiryango y’Abatutsi bakoreraga icyo kigo n’abandi bari bagituriye.

Muri ibyo bikorwa harimo gushinga komite y’abicanyi i Rubona no mu yandi mashami y’ikigo arindwi yari hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Ndereyehe kandi yirukanye animurira ahandi abakozi b’iki kigo batavugaga rumwe asigaza gusa abo bari bahuje umugambi wo kwanga Abatutsi no kubarimbura. Bamwe muri aba bakozi basigaye nibo bashinze banayobora interahamwe muri ISAR.

Nyuma y’ishingwa ry’Umutwe w’Interahamwe muri ISAR, Ndereyehe, yatangiye gutegura amahugurwa yawo ku mikoreshereze y’imbunda. Ayo mahugurwa yaberaga mu ishuri ry’aba Ofisiye bato ryari i Butare ryitwaga “Ecole des sous-officiers (ESSO).”

Ku wa 26 Mata 1994, nibwo i Rubona habaye ubwicanyi bukomeye maze Abatutsi barenga 300 barimo abagore, abagabo, abana n’impinja bose baricwa.

Jenoside ikimara guhagarikwa n’ingabo za RPA, Ndereyehe yahise ahungira mu cyahoze ari Zaïre (ubu ni RDC) aho yakomereje ibikorwa by’amacakubiri birimo guhakana no gupfobya Jenoside yasize akoze mu Rwanda.

Akiri muri Zaïre, Ndereyehe yagize uruhare mu ishingwa ry’Umutwe wa Politiki n’Igisirikare witwa RDR wari wubakiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ndetse wari ufite gahunda yo kugaruka mu Rwanda gukomeza kwica Abatutsi.

Ndereyehe yaje kwerekeza mu Buholandi ari naho yaje gufatirwa ku wa 8 Nzeri 2020 nyuma y’amasaha make yambuwe ubwenegihugu bw’icyo gihugu. Umunsi wakurikiye uw’ifatwa rye, umwunganira mu mategeko yerekanye ko bari bajuririye umwanzuro wo kumwambura ubwenegihugu, hanzurwa ko arekurwa mu gihe hategerejwe umwanzuro w’urukiko kuri ubwo bujurire.

Ibi ariko Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG), Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, yatangaje ko ari inzira zisanzwe mu rwego rw’amategeko ndetse ko bigishoboka ko yakoherezwa mu Rwanda kugira ngo aburanishwe ku byaha bye muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Charles Ntahontuye Ndereyehe ari mu bacurabwenge bakomeye ba Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

-  Mugenzi Joseph ntakidegembya mu Buholandi

Ku wa 27 Ukwakira 2020 itsinda ridasanzwe rya Polisi y’u Buholandi ryataye muri yombi Umunyarwanda w’imyaka 71, Mugenzi Joseph, nyuma y’imyaka 20 yidegembya muri icyo gihugu.

Ifatwa rya Mugenzi ni indi ntsinzi ku Rwanda kubera uruhare yagize muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ndetse mu 2013 leta y’u Rwanda yari yamushyiriyeho impapuro zimuta muri yombi.

Muri Mata 1994, Mugenzi yari umuhezanguni mu Ishyaka rya MRND ndetse akaba yaranitabiriye inama zategurirwagamo ibitero byo kwica Abatutsi aho yanakoraga urutonde rw’abagomba kwicwa.

Mu 2000 nibwo yahungiye mu Buholandi aho yakomereje ibikorwa byo gupfobya no guhanakana Jenoside. Ni umwe kandi mu bashinze Ishyaka rya FDU-Inkingi ryubakiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ndetse akaba yari na perezida waryo.

Mugenzi yatawe muri yombi nyuma y’iminsi mike umuhungu we, Mugenzi René, akatiwe igifungo cy’amezi 27 n’inkiko zo mu Bwongereza kubera kwiba amaturo ya Cathédrale ya Mutagatifu Batisita angana na miliyoni 270 Frw.

Mugenzi René amaze imyaka atuye mu Bwongereza aho akorera ibikorwa byo kurwanya no guharabika Leta y’u Rwanda yiyita impirimbanyi y’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Muri rusange umwaka wa 2020 ntiwabaye mwiza kubera icyorezo cya Coronavirus gusa ku butabera bw’u Rwanda waranzwe n’intsinzi zikomeye kubera itabwa muri yombi rya benshi bari bamaze imyaka bashakishwa.

Izi ntsinzi ziyongera ku butumwa bwinshi buhabwa abakomeje kurwanya Leta y’u Rwanda, bubaburira kureka ibyo bikorwa ahubwo bakaza bagafatanya n’abandi kubaka urwabibarutse. Ni ubutumwa bwibutsa kandi abakomeje ibyo bikorwa ko bitinde cyangwa bitebuke igihe kizagera bagashyikirizwa ubutabera.

Joseph Mugenzi ni umwe mu bo uyu mwaka usize bafashwe nyuma y'imyaka irenga 20 yidegembya mu mahanga

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