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Umuzi w’ibibazo mu myandikire y’amateka y’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na Murashi Isaïe
Kuya 27 Nyakanga 2020 saa 07:09
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Amateka y’u Rwanda yamizwe n’Iyigamokomahimbano ryanditswe n’abakoloni ndetse hari ibibazo byatewe no guhindura inyito nyayo y’amateka y’umwimerere.

Muri iyi nyandiko ndagaruka ku buryo abakoloni banditse iyigamokomahimbano aho kwandika amateka no kumenyekanisha ibibazo birimo (Conséquences de la fausse Ethnographie).

Igamije kumvikanisha akamaro k’amateka y’Isi n’ay’u Rwanda by’Umwihariko, kumenyekanisha amateka mu ruhando rw’ubundi bumenyi no kugaragaza uko amateka yandikwa.

-  Intango y’inyandiko

Hashize imyaka irenga kimwe cya kane cy’ikinyejana u Rwanda rusohotse muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Jenoside yabaye abakoloni bamaze imyaka 110 bigaruriye Afurika ku ngufu n’urugomo (1884-1994).

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabaye kandi abakoloni bamaze imyaka ijana binjiye mu Rwanda (1894-1994), muri ubwo buryo bw’urugomo, batugira ingaruzwamuheto.

Abakoloni baje muri Afurika bagenzwa no kwigarurira umutungo. Kuko umutungo kamere Afurika ikungahayeho, i Burayi ni nkene. Kuva kera kose umugabane w’u Burayi wari ukennye cyane. Kandi uwo mugabane ukagira ibyago, byo kurangwamo imbeho nyinshi cyane, irenze urugero.

Iyo amezi y’imbeho atambutse, haba ubushyuhe burenze urugero. Izuba ariko ribarutira imbeho. Izuba naryo hari abo rigwa nabi, ariko imbeho yo irindwa mubi. Muri make ubuzima bw’i Burayi butandukanye n’ubw’ino. Nubwo hari ab’iwacu birukirayo, ni uko akenshi baba batazi inkomoko ya buriya bushyuhe bota. Abenshi ntibazi ko iriya mbeho yamaze abantu kera, nabo ishobora kuzabamarira abuzukuru.

Imbeho y’iwabo ntiwayigereranya n’iyo mu Rwankeri cyangwa muri Mutura. Kandi nyamara naho utahamenyereye ukagenda utagira ikoti, wahura n’akaga. Wahura n’akaga ko gukomanganya amenyo no kuba warwara, ariko ntiwageza aho gupfa. Naho imbeho y’i Burayi irica bagahamba.

Bavuga ngo Coronavirus irica. Ntaho ihuriye n’imbeho. Kuko ubu hari imiti yo kugabanya ibyuririzi. Naho mbere imbeho yabafatanyaga n’ubukene, bakirirwa umurimo ari ugushyingura. Ku buryo hari amagambo mu ndimi z’iwabo n’ubu akiriho yumvikanisha uko bapfaga.

Nko mu gifaransa hari ijambo rivuga ngo “Mourir comme des mouches=gupfa ku bwinshi nk’isazi, nta kirengera.” Kuko burya nta sazi irenza amasaha myakumyabiri n’ane ikiriho. Uko zivuka ari nyinshi ni nako zipfa ari nyinshi.

Baje rero kwiga ubwenge bwo kureka gucana no kwenyegeza. Aka wa mugani w’Ikinyarwanda ngo “Ibyago byigisha ubwenge”.

Ubwo bwenge bwatumye babaho nk’indushyi, bituma bavumbura amashanyarazi aborohereza kota aho bari hose. Ubwo bwenge bwatumye bota kandi banakora, aho bari hose. Bota bari mu nzu, bota bari mu biro, bota bari mu binyabiziga bagenda, bava cyangwa bava ku kazi. Aho bari hose baba bota, uretse mu mezi imbeho iba yagabanutse cyangwa yashize.

Ariko ibyo byabayeho vuba aha mu kinyejana cya 19 nyuma y’ivuka rya Yezu. Mbere yo kuvumbura amashanyarazi, bagiye bavumbura ibintu byinshi buhoro buhoro kuva mu kinyejana cya 15.

Dore ko biriya bihugu tubona ari ibihangange kuturusha, byatangiye kubaho vuba aha, ugereranyije natwe mu Rwanda. Urugero nk’u Bubiligi bwatangiye kuba igihugu mu mwaka wa 1830, nyuma y’imyaka 739 u Rwanda ruriho kuko rwatangiye kubaho nk’igihugu kuva mu 1091.

Kuvumbura babitewe n’ibyago ariko kandi ibyo byago twavuze haruguru, byari biherekejwe n’amahirwe yo kuba, ku nkengero y’Inyanja ya Méditerranée. Iyi nyanja nk’uko tubizi, iri hagati y’u Burayi, Afurika na Aziya. Mu bihe by’Intangiriro y’Amateka y’Isi (Antiquité), Abagereki n’Abaromani binjiye mu bice bya Afurika na Aziya bibegereye.

Nk’uko tumaze kubivuga haruguru, mu Burayi ibi bihugu tuzi bikomeye icyo gihe ntibyariho. Habanje u Bugiriki bwaje gusimburwa na Roma. Ibi bihugu bibiri uko byasimburanye byabayeho kubera intambara n’ubucuruzi, muri Afurika ya hafi no muri Aziya, ya hafi n’iya kure.

Ubwo bucuruzi n’izo ntambara byabahaye umurage ukomeye wakomeje uko ibihe byagiye bisimburana. Ni ukuvuga hagati y’ibihe by’intangiriro, n’ikinyejana cya 19, ubwo u Burayi bwaje kwigarurira Afurika. Aha bivuze ko urugendo ruganisha kwigarurira Afurika rwubakiye kuri iyo ntangiriro (Antiquité); ku Kinyejana cya 15 ndetse no ku Kinyejana cya 19.

Muri ibyo byiciro by’ibihe, uko ari bitatu niho u Burayi bwubakiye ubushobozi, bwo kwigarurira imigabane yose y’Isi. Byatumye bava mu bukene, barwanya ya mbeho, bubaka ubukire, baba ibihangange.

Bakoresheje uburyo bune bw’ibanze ari nabwo bifashishije mu gukomeza gukagandagira indi migabane y’Isi. Ubwo butunzi bune batagiraga, bavanye mu bucuruzi no mu ntambara, ni ubu bukurikira:

  • Ubumenyi buhahano bwubakiye ku Bushishozi-Filozofiya n’ubuhanga mu bintu karemano;
  • Idini ry’Abayuda bahinduye idini rya Kirisitu;
  • Wino yo kwandika (encre) n’impapuro;
  • Ubumara bukora amasasu y’imbunda (poudre à canon)

Ubutunzi bubiri bwa mbere, Abanyaburayi babuvanye ku birabura bo muri Misiri na Ethiopia. Bibiliya itubwira ko Abayuda babaye abacakara mu Misiri, kandi ko Mussa (Mose) yarongoye umugore ukomoka muri Ethiopia. Bibliya itubwira kandi muri Samueli I, Umutwe wa 16, 12 ko Dawidi ‘yari umusore w’inzobe ufite uburanga kandi w’igikundiro.’

Bivuze ko Abayuda kimwe n’Abanyamisiri bari abirabura. Bivuze ko Yezu na nyina Mariya, na se Yosefu bari abirabura. Twize kuva kera ko Abanyamisiri, Abayuda ko ari abazungu; ko Yezu na nyina, na se ari abazungu. Nyamara si byo. Bivuze ko Bibliya (Biblios mu Kigereki bivuze Igitabo) yubakiye ku bihimbano by’Abanyaburayi. Ikindi batatwigishije ni uko ibiri muri Bibliya byose Abagiriki babikuye mu Misiri.

Ikindi tuzi ni uko abahanga bose ba kera mu Bugiriki bize mu Misiri, mu Mujyi wa Aleksandiriya. Ba Socrate, Platon, Aristotle, Archimède, Hippocrate n’abandi, bize mu Misiri. Bigiye ku birabura Ubushishozi-Filozofiya, Ubuhanga mu bintu karemano (Sciences naturelles), Imibare, Ubugenge n’Ubuganga.

Abagiriki basenye Misiri y’abirabura, aba Roma nabo basenya Yeruzalemu y’abirabura. Barabatsemba, abacitse ku icumu barashwiragizwa, bakwira imishwaro. Amateka yabo yarasibanganijwe.

Umwanditsi w’Amateka Cheikh-Anta Diop wo muri Sénégal, ni we wavumbuye ko bari abirabura. Yasobanuye ko abirabura ari bo bambere bazanye mu Isi ubuhanga n’ubumenyi bw’ibanze Isi yubakiyeho.

Ubutunzi bwa gatatu n’ubwa kane ni ukuvuga Wino n’impapuro. Hamwe n’Ubumara bukora amasasu, Abanyaburayi babukuye ku Bashinwa. Kuva mu kinyejana cya XV, bateye imbere mu kwandika no kurwana. Byaborohereje kumenya Amerika n’ibice bya Afurika biri ku nkombe z’inyanja ngari za Atlantique n’iy’Abahinde.

Muri Amerika bahabonye ubutaka bukize cyane, kandi bwo kwimukiramo. Byatumye batsemba abo bahasanze ba kavukire. Byatumye kandi biyubaka bikomeye bakoreshesheje bwa bucuruzi n’intambara. Naho basibanganije amateka yaho barahatura, bahagira ahabo.

Mu kuzamura ubutunzi bwabo aho hose kandi, bacuruje abirabura bavanaga muri Afurika. Babacuruzaga nk’amatungo, bakabatwara bunyago, bakoresheje imbunda. Bifashishaga hamwe na hamwe abarabu kabuhariwe mu gufata no gutunda abirabura. Abo Barabu ariko bayogoje hose muri aka gace, uretse hano iwacu mu Rwanda.

Izo ntambara n’ubucuruzi, byatumye iwabo ha kera n’aha vuba hakomera cyane, bateza imbere bwa buryo bune, bavanye mu Birabura no mu Bashinwa.

Ubwo buryo bune bwiyongereyeho kusibanganya amateka y’abo basanze iwabo. Byatumye biyitirira Ubushishozi, Ubuhanga n’Idini ry’Abayuda. Bateje imbere ubushobozi bwo gukoresha imbaraga zituma abandi twese tubapfukamira, kandi twikiriza byose n’ibitari ukuri.

Uko niko baje iwacu baradupfukamisha bahindagura byose, bakurura bishyira. Baratubeshya turemera. Banditse amateka y’iwacu igicuri, bayahindura iyigamokomahimbano. Kugira ngo ubujiji bwacu bukomeze kubafasha kurwanya ubukene gakondo bw’iwabo, na ya mbeho yabarimburaga ntizagaruke ukundi.

Natwe twasanze ari mahwi tubyemera uko byanditse, kubera kubatinya no kutamenyera kwandika iby’iwacu, ahubwo tukaba intyoza gusa. Nyamara byose ni ibinyoma, kandi byadushyize mu kaga.

Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko ni ibitekerezo bwite by’umwanditsi, Murashi Isaïe

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