Icuruzwa ry’Abantu: Isura nshya y’ubucakara

Yanditswe na Mupenzi Georges
Kuya 14 Nzeri 2018 saa 01:04
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Mu Ugushyingo 2017 ni bwo hasakaye amashusho ya CNN yerekana Abanyafurika barimo gucuruzwa nk’abacakara muri Libya, yumvikanamo amajwi y’abantu baciririkanya mu cyamunara, umwe agenda azamura igiciro bityo bityo, uhize abandi akegukana abacakara be.

Nubwo bamwe na bamwe bari bazi ko ibyo bintu bikorwa rwihishwa, abenshi babaye nk’abakubiswe n’inkuba batiyumvisha ko mu kinyejana cya 21, umuntu yagurwa $400.

Ayo mahano yakoze benshi ku mutima, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ihita itangaza ko yemeye gufasha mu gusubiza iwabo no kwakira bamwe mu bimukira baheze muri Libya, nubwo kugeza ubu nta barakirwa.

Imiterere y’Ikibazo

Mu kinyejana cya 19 nibwo ubucakara bwaciwe, ariko mu by’ukuri ntibwigeze bucika burundu, ahubwo bugenda buhindura isura.

Raporo z’umuryango w’Abibumbye zerekana ko buri mwaka hacuruzwa abantu bari hagati ya 600,000 na 800,000 boherezwa hanze y’ibihugu byabo, wabariramo n’ abacuruzwa imbere mu gihugu bagakabakaba hagati ya 2,000,000 na 4,000,000.

Icyaha cy’icuruzwa ry’abantu kiza ku mwanya wa gatatu mu byinjiriza amafaranga abagikora, nyuma y’icuruzwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge n’icuruzwa ry’intwaro ritemewe n’amategeko.

Kubera ko ari ubucuruzi bukorwa mu ibanga rikomeye, kubukoraho iperereza ntibyoroshye na gato ndetse no ku ruhande rw’Ubushinjacyaha, kubona ibimenyetso simusiga ni ingorabahizi.

Mu Nkiko zo mu Rwanda bene izimanza ntizikunze kubaho, ukaba wakwibaza niba ubwo bucuruzi budakorwa.

Ubwiyongere bw’iki cyaha buterwa akenshi nuko giha ba nyirikugikora amafaranga menshi, ubucuruzi bugakorwa akenshi nta gishoro gikanganye: akenshi gikorwa mu bushukanyi, kubeshya, kwizeza ugikorerwa ibitangaza, mbega bisaba kuba afite akarimi keza.

Ubwo bucuruzi akenshi bukorerwa hanze y’imipaka y’ibihugu, bugakoranwa ubuhanga buhanitse akenshi hivanzemo abanyabubasha, ugasanga na nyiri kugikorerwa abifitemo uruhare.

Umwihariko w’icyaha cy’icuruzwa ry’abantu

Mu byaha bisanzwe habamo impande ebyiri: UREGA cyangwa uwakorewe icyaha, UREGWA cyangwa ukekwaho icyaha. Akenshi UREGA kubera ko ariwe ubabaye, akusanya ibimenyetso simusiga n’abatangabuhamya badashidikanywaho, yaburana neza agatsinda.

Impande zombi ziba zihanganye ku mugaragaro ndetse uwaca urwaho undi akaba yamuhitana.

Mu cyaha cy’icuruzwa ry’abantu, impande zombi ziba ziziranye cyangwa harabayeho umuhuza, ziba zivugana, zandikirana, ndetse rimwe na rimwe zifitanye amasano yo mu miryango.

Nyiri gukorerwa icyaha aba abifitemo uruhare runini kubera akenshi ibitangaza aba yizezwa, ubugome bw’icyaha bukagaragara amazi yararenze inkombe. Ni nka bimwe bajya bavuga mu rwenya ngo “kaze mboga zizanye.”

Akenshi icyaha kigaragara ari uko umutangabuhamya uzi by’umwihariko uwakorewe icyo cyaha arenzwe n’ubugome ndengakamere bwakorewe inshuti ye cyangwa Ubugenzacyaha bw’igihugu runaka bukaba bwagikoraho iperereza aho bukimenyeye.

Kubera uruhare runini nyiri gukorerwa icyaha aba yarakigizemo, aba ashobora kuregwa ubufatanya cyaha, yabona bizamugora akinumira.

Kimwe n’ubucuruzi bw’ibiyobyabwenge n’intwaro, mu babukora hashobora kuba hihishemo abanyabubasha ku buryo bashobora guhitana uwo ariwe wese witwa ko abangamiye inyungu zabo.

Ubwoko bw’ibicuruzwa ry’abantu

Ubucuruzi bw’abantu buri kwinshi ariko ubw’ingenzi harimo ubushingiye ku gitsina; aho umuntu acuruzwa nk’indaya. Akenshi bukorerwa abagore cyangwa abakobwa hagamijwe indonke y’amafaranga menshi abukomokaho. Nibwo bwiganje ku isi.

Hari kandi ubucuruzi bushingiye ku mirimo y’agahato na serivisi: ababukorerwa bashorwa mu kazi k’uburetwa na serivisi ubundi zihenda, bakabikora nk’abacakara badahembwa, uburenganzira bwabo bw’ibanze bugahonyorwa na ba shebuja.

Hari ubucakara cyangwa ibindi bisa nabwo, aho akenshi usanga ari ubucuruzi bushingiye ku kugira ababukorerwa abacakara bagakora badahembwa, gushyingirwa ku ngufu, guhatirwa kurerwa n’uwo udashaka nyuma akazagukoresha icyo ashaka kuko ntaho wamurega.

Harimo n’ubucuruzi bushingiye ku bice by’umubiri bigikora neza nk’impyiko, umutima… bigakoranwa ubugome bukabije. Ibyo bice by’umuribiri bigurwa n’abitwa inzobere z’abaganga mu gusimbura iby’abarwayi bafite ibyangiritse.

Birumvikana ko buha indonke y’ikirenga ba nyiri kubukora.

Hari n’ubundi bwoko bw’icuruzwa ry’abantu bushingiye ku kujyana abana bato mu gisirikare bagakakoreshwa imirimo y’ingufu ku gahoto: kwikorera, guteka, gutumwa, ihohoterwa rishingiye ku gitsina, gutwara za bombe, mine n’ibindi.

Ubundi ni ubwo gushaka abagore cyangwa inshuti kuri internet, uguye mu bushukanyi akazagirirwa nabi akabura epfo na ruguru, aka wa mugani ngo “urwishigishiye ararusoma”.

Ishusho y’icyo cyaha mu mategeko mpuzamahanga

Mu rwego mpuzamahanga, icyaha cyo gucuruza abantu gifatwa nk‘icyaha cyibasira INYOKOMUNTU, kigahanishwa igihano cya nyuma gikomeye bitewe na buri gihugu: urupfu, gufungwa burundu, ariko wakigereranya n’ibindi byaha biteye nkacyo nka jenoside, iterabwoba… ugasanga nta rukiko mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho icuruza ry’abantu.

Cyangwa wareba mu bahamwe nacyo ari umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa agatsiko, ugasanga nta ngero wakwifashisha mu guhana by‘intangarugero icyo cyaha cy’indengakamere.

Mu binyamakuru binyuranye, ujya kumva ukumva ngo naka yarezwe icyaha cyo gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge, iterabwoba, icuruza ry’intwaro, gukora genoside cyangwa ibikorwa by’intambara, ariko ntidukunze kumva abahamwa n’icyaha cyo gucuruza abantu.

Nko kuri biriya byabaye ku mugaragaro muri Libya nta muntu cyangwa agatsiko runaka bavugwa kuba ba Nyirabayazana ngo inzego zibishinzwe zibikoreho iperereza ryimbitse, abafatwa bafatwe bahanwe by’intangarugero.

Ku ruhande rw’amategeko y’u Rwanda…

Iyo unyujije amaso mu masezerano mpuzamahanga yagiye asinywa mu kurwanya icyaha cy’icuruzwa ry’abantu, usanga haragiye haba ubwitabire bushimishije ku bihugu byinshi.

Umuntu atiriwe ajya mu ducogocogo dushobora kurambira umusomyi utazobereye mu by’amategeko mpuzamahanga, yatanga urugero ku masezerano afatwa nk’intangarugero mu kurwanya iki cyaha yabereye i Palerme muri Sicile mu 2000, aho ibihugu 173 byose byayasinye, ibindi bikayemeza nta cyifashe ku ngingo runaka.

Umuntu akibaza by’umwihariko impamvu ibihugu bimwe na bimwe biseta ibirenge mu kugikumira no mu kugihana by’intangarugero.

By’umwihariko mu Gitabo cy’amategeko ahana, Itegeko Ngenga no 01/2012/OL ryo ku wa 02/05/2012 rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana, guhera ku ngingo ya 250 kugera ku ngingo ya 272, basobanura mu buryo budashidikanywaho icyo ICURUZWA RY’ABANTU ari cyo, ibyaha birigize n’ibihano biteganywa n’amategeko.

Ni ukuvuga ko ari icyaha gihanwa nk’ibindi byose, na Nyakubahwa Perezida wa Repubulika PAUL KAGAME akunze kubigarukaho yamagana ibyo bikorwa by’urukozasoni, avuga ko bidakwiriye kuba mu Rwanda.

Aha tukaba dushima by’umwihariko uruhare GUVERINOMA y’u Rwanda yafashe iya mbere mu kwamagana ririya curuzwa ry’abantu ryagaragaye muri Libya, ikiyemeza gutanga umusanzu uwo ari wo wose mu kubasubiza mu bihugu byabo byaba ngombwa bakaza mu Rwanda.

Mu manza zicibwa mu Rwanda ndetse no ku rubuga rwa Minijust nta manza nyinshi ntangarugero z’icuruzwa ry’abantu dusangaho, ariko wenda ni ukubera igihe cyatubanye gito uwaba azifiteho amakuru yimbitse yazayatugezaho, twe twibanze cyane mu gusesengura ibijyanye n’amategeko mpuzamahanga.

Hakagombye no kubaho ubushakashatsi bwihariye kuri iki kibazo kugira ngo tumenye imiterere yacyo mu Rwanda no mu bindi bihugu ari ibidukikije ari n’ibihugu mpuzamahanga.

Ingorane mu mikurikiranire y’icuruzwa ry’abantu

Ingorane mu gukurikirana iki cyaha biterwa n’impamvu nyinshi ariko iz’ingenzi zirimo imibanire y’ukorerwa icyaha n’ugikora.

Kiriya cyaha gikorwa mu byiciro byinshi: hari ugushakisha amakuru ku bashaka guhindura imibereho, kuva mu cyaro ujya mu mujyi, guhindura imibereho, akazi keza mu mujyi, mu bihugu by’ibituranyi cyangwa amahanga ya kure.

Ugikora akoresha amayeri menshi yizeza ugikorerwa ibitangaza ku buryo nta wundi uzakimenya keretse inshuti magara, cyangwa ikosa ryatuma haba gukekwa kw’ibintu bikemangwa.

Hazamo kubegeranya akabacumbikira, akabashakira ibyangombwa ari nako abarya amafaranga; kubatwara mu mijyi cyangwa mu bindi bihugu; kubashyikiriza abandi nabo bazabacuruza cyangwa bakabakoresha nk’uburaya, uburetwa, gufatwa ku ngufu, iyicarubozo n’ibindi.

Uyu mubano akenshi uba udakemangwa kugeza aho ibintu bibereye bibi, nta makuru awutangwaho na nyirubwite.

Gushakisha ibimenyetso n’abatangabuhamya bizitirwa n’iryo bura ry’amakuru afatika.

Mu ngorane harimo no kuba ari icyaha icyaha ndengamipaka. Iyo bavuze icyaha ndengamipaka ubwabyo birivugira kuko bijyana n’ubushobozi mu mpande zose: Abantu, ubushake, amafaranga.

Ntibyoroshye kujya gukora iperereza ry’aho icyaha cyakorewe mu nzira zififitse. Urugero, kujya gukora iperereza nko muri Uganda udafite uburyo n’imikoranire myiza y’inzego z’ubutabera bw’igihugu icyaha cyabereyemo ntabwo byoroshye kandi icyaha gishobora kuba cyaratangiriye mu Rwanda ariko kigakorerwa muri Uganda.

Ikindi ni uko amategeko y’ibihugu anyuranye. Hari ikintu gishobora kwitwa icyaha mu gihugu runaka mu kindi wenda ari naho cyakorewe kidafatwa nk’icyaha.

Indi mbogamizi ni ubuhanga n’ubuzobere icyaha gikoranwa. Icuruzwa ry’abantu kimwe n’ibiyobyabwenge, intwaro… bikorwa n’udutsiko tubifitemo ubunararibonye buhagije.

Burimo ikoranabuhanga, ubushukanyi budasanzwe, amafaranga menshi ashobora gutangwa nka ruswa, ubugambanyi iyo bibaye ngombwa, kuba wagirirwa nabi utunze agatoki ubifitemo uruhare, gukorwa mu ibanga rikomeye n’ibindi.

Hakiyongeraho n’ubushake buke n’ubushobozi buke mu iperereza.

Akenshi hari ubwo icyaha kimenyekana ari uko habonetse umurambo w’uwakorewe amarorerwa hakabura ibimenyetso n’amakuru mu iperereza. Ufite amakuru y’impamo ntatinyuke kuyajyana mu butabera ngo bitamubera umuzigo wo kubazwa amakuru akenshi adafitiye gihamya n’ibimenyetso, akaruca akarumira.

Icyakorwa mu kurwanya icyaha cy’icuruzwa ry’abantu

Iby’ibanze byarakozwe, habuze ubufatanye butaziguye mu nzego zinyuranye no kumva ibintu kimwe.

Mu rwego rw’amategeko mpuzamahanga, uretse ariya masezerano mpuzamahanga y’icyitegererezo bita ay’i Palermo ahuza ibihugu 173 agenderwaho mu kurwanya bidasubirwaho icyaha cy ‘icuruzwa ry’abantu n‘bigishamikiyeho, hari n’andi menshi yagiye yemezwa ariko kuyashyira mu bikorwa bikaba ingorabahizi.

Aha niho hazamo ibindi bibazo by’inzitane tutarondora mu bijyanye n’igikunze kwitwa Umuryango Mpuzamahanga, akenshi usanga ijambo ryawo riba iry’ibihugu by’ibihangange, ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere bikarifata nk’igitutu cya politiki ya mpatsibihugu, ntibirigire ibyaryo.

Icyo gihe ibyemezo bifashwe ntibishyirwa mu bikorwa, bikaba nka bimwe byo “gukama ikimasa”.

Mu rwego rw’amategeko, ibihugu byose byasinye amasezerano mpuzamahanga yamagana akanahana icyaha cy’icuruzwa ry’abantu bikwiye gushyiraho amategeko ahana icyo cyaha hakurikijwe indangagaciro gishyira imbere kuko ari uburenganzira ntavogerwa ariko kigahanwa by’intangarugero.

Kubera ko ari icyaha ndengamipaka, ibihugu bihana imbibi cyangwa bihuriye mu Miryango Mpuzamahanga cyangwa y’uturere (ICGLR,CEPGL, EAC n’indi…) bikwiye guhuza amategeko y’ibihugu bigize iyo miryango hakagaragara ubufatanye budasubirwaho mu kurwanya ibyaha binyuranye birimo n’icyo.

Akenshi mu nyandiko birakorwa ariko kubishyira mu bikorwa bikaba ingorabahizi. Ingero ni uruhuri.

Inzego zibishinzwe kandi zikwiye kujya zitegura amahugurwa ahoraho y’abakora mu bijyanye n’ubutabera: abashinzwe iperereza, ubugenzacyaha, ubushinjacyaha; cyangwa abashinzwe umutekano nk’abashinzwe abinjira n’abasohoka, polisi, inzego z’ibanze n’izindi.

Mu rwego rw’ubukangurambaga, abanyamakuru babifitemo uruhare rukomeye kuko haba mu itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga, iryo mu karere, mu bihugu, kiriya cyaha gikwiye kumenyekanishwa haba mu bijyanye no kugikumira no kukirwanya kuko akenshi usanga kidafitweho amakuru n’ubusesenguzi bihagije.

Muri make nk’uko inzego zose z’ubuyobozi zikangurira abaturage kumenya icyabahungabanya cyangwa kikababuza umudendezo, zigomba gukora ibishoboka ngo urubyiruko rwitabire ibikorwa by’amajyambere, gahunda za politiki y’igihugu aho guhora zibwira ko amizero azaturuka hanze y’imipaka kandi bizwi neza ko “Ak’imuhana kaza imvura ihise”.

Iyi nyandiko ni iya MUPENZI GEORGES urimo kubyandikaho igitabo yise mu cyongereza “CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW” mu rwego rwo kubona impamyabushobozi y’icyiciro cyambere mu ishami ry’ AMATEGEKO muri Kaminuza Yigenga ya Kigali ULK.

Mupenzi Georges wakoze iyi nyandiko ku icuruzwa ry'abantu

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