Impamvu ukwiye kwitondera kugurizanya n’inshuti n’abavandimwe

Yanditswe na Aimable Nkuranga
Kuya 4 Nzeri 2020 saa 09:13
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Mu myaka myinshi n’ibisekuruza byinshi, amateka agenda agaragaza ko imitungo n’amafaranga byagiye biba intandaro y’amakimbirane no gutandukana kw’abantu bari babanye neza. N’ubwo amafaranga ari igikoresho cyiza cyifashishwa mu gukemura ibibazo bitandukanye, ariko amateka agaragaza ko ashobora gusenya imibanire y’inshuti magara n’abavandimwe.

Hagati y’umwaka wa 1599 n’uwa 1601, umwanditsi w’umuhanga w’umwongereza witwa William Shakespeare yanditse ikinamico yamamaye cyane iranakundwa yitwa Hamlet. Muri iyo kinamico humvikanamo interuro ngo “Uramenye ntuzagurize inshuti amafaranga, kuko bene ayo mafaranga arazimira akazimirana n’inshuti” yavugwaga n’umujyanama w’umwami.

Muri iyi nyandiko mbazaniye uyu munsi, turibanda cyane kuri iyi nsanganyamatsiko yo kuguriza inshuti n’abavandimwe ndetse nkubwire ko ukwiye kubyitondera cyane. Impamvu ari ngombwa kwirinda kuguriza aba bantu ba bugufi kuri wowe ni uko umubano wawe nabo ari ingenzi mu buzima bwawe. Kubatakaza uba uhombye ikintu kinini, noneho byakongeraho ko inguzanyo ubahaye yangiza umubano ikanatwara amafaranga, ukaba uhombye kabiri.

Igihe kimwe narimo kuganiriza abantu kuri iyi ngingo, umwe muri bo ahita ambwira ati “Ubwo se ntagurije inshuti n’umuvandimwe, naguriza nde?” Niba nawe wibaza nk’ibi, komeza usome urabonamo ibyagufasha.
Nkiri muri iki kiganiro n’aba bantu navuze, umwe yahise aduha urugero, ati “Njyewe muri 2010 umwe mu nshuti zanjye magara yansabye ko namuguriza ibihumbi magana atandatu (600 000Frw), ambwira ko azayansubiza mu cyumweru kimwe. Yananyerekaga umushinga afite ugiye kumwishyura menshi, agahita anyishyura utwanjye. Nari nyafite kuri konti, ariko ntabwo yari ayanjye. Nyirayo ntiyari buyansabe vuba, kuko ntiyari no hafi. Byatumye mpita mwemerera, ndibwira nti reka mfashe umuvandimwe akemure ikibazo cyihutirwa kandi koko narabibonaga ko agifite. Narayamuhaye, akemura utubazo twe, numva biranejeje ko ngize umumaro.”

“Hari ukuntu wumva unezerewe mu mutima iyo ugize neza ukabona bigize umumaro. Icyumweru cyarashize ntiyanyishyura, ukwezi kurashira, abiri arashira, biragenda biratinda. Natinyaga no kumwishyuza ngashyiramo ubupfura bwinshi. Ubwo nawe ntiyongeye kumvugisha. Mbonye bitinze cyane, ntangira guhangayika, ndamuhamagara yanga kunyitaba. Nakomeje kujya ngerageza kumuhamagara, hashize igihe aza kunyitaba ambwira ibindi bibazo byajemo byatumye atanyishyura, ndetse ambwira ko abona atanayafite ngo ayampere rimwe. Yambwiye ko azajya ayampa buhoro buhoro uko abonye uburyo kugeza ayarangije. Byambanye ibibazo kuko ntaho nari mfite handi ho kuyakura ngo nyasubize nyirayo. Amezi yabaye menshi cyane, ndigaya kuko nari nanatanze atari ayanjye, ariko biza kurangira ayampaye mu bice bice, aho yishyuraga nk’ibihumbi mirongo itatu, ubundi makumyabiri, bityo bityo kugeza ayarangije. N’ubwo yari inshuti magara, umubano ntiwongeye kumera neza nka mbere.”

Hirya no hino wumvana abantu inkuru zijya kumera nk’iyi mvuze hejuru hano. Kandi nawe urimo gusoma ibi, ushobora kuba hari umuntu mutakibasha kuvugana neza biturutse ku mafaranga mwagurizanyije. Ntagutindiye reka nkubwire impamvu icumi abahanga mu by’amafaranga baheraho bavuga ko atari byiza kuguriza inshuti n’abavandimwe:

Nta gihe ntarengwa cyo kwishyura

Inguzanyo nk’izi zo hagati y’inshuti n’abavandimwe usanga nta masezerano yanditse, nta kintu na kimwe gisinywe hagati y’abagurizanyije. Nta nyungu zitangwaho nta n’igihe ntarengwa cyo kwishyura. Uwatanze inguzanyo ahora atinya kwishyuza uwo yagurije, ndetse n’uwagujije ugasanga nta gihe ntarengwa afite mu mutwe cyo kuba yishyuye ayo yagujije. Ibi bishobora guhangayikisha uwatanze amafaranga, kuko akenshi aba ari amafaranga nawe afitiye izindi gahunda.

Kwishyura usanga bitihutirwa

Kubera ko bene izi nguzanyo ziba zakozwe mu cyizere hagati y’abagurizanye, nta bihano by’ubukererwe zigira, bityo ugasanga uwagurijwe akenshi atihutira kwishyura. Usanga ibibazo byinshi by’amafaranga abantu bahorana bidatuma bigomwa ngo bishyure ababagurije. Hari abatekereza ko bazishyura igihe bazaba babashije gusagura amafaranga, ntibamenye ko bikeneye kugira ukwitwararika, ukigomwa kugira ngo ugumane ubunyangamugayo. Iyo umuntu atibwirije, ntihanaboneke ikindi kimusunika, birangira rya deni ry’inshuti cyangwa umuvandimwe rikerewe cyane.

Kwishyuza umuntu wawe wa bugufi biragora

Uwatanze bene iri deni usanga yirinda kwishyuza cyane inshuti cyangwa umuvandimwe we, ngo atavaho agaragara nk’umushyize ku nkeke. N’iyo muri hamwe, usanga abantu birinda kuvuga ku bintu byakumvikanamo amafaranga, bigatuma n’ibindi biganiro bitagenda neza, bityo n’umubano ugahungabana.

Uwatanze inguzanyo, iyo abonye inshuti cyangwa umuvandimwe we atarimo kumwishyura, atangira kujya yibaza ku mpinduka abona mu mibereho ye. Urugero: uzasanga hari uwibaza ati kuki kanaka yahinduye igisenge cy’inzu ye, agashyiraho amabati ahenze kandi ataranyishyura udufaranga twanjye?

Iyo muhuriye mu bintu runaka, bitera ibibazo

Inshuti magara, cyangwa umuvandimwe wa hafi ni umuntu muzajya muhurira mu bintu bitandukanye. Iyo muhuye hakirimo iki kibazo cy’ideni, usanga abantu batisanzuye mu biganiro nk’uko bari basanzwe. Usanga buri wese yirinda kuvuga ikintu gifitanye isano n’amafaranga cyangwa inguzanyo ngo bitazamura ibibazo.

Uwagurijwe aba umugaragu w’uwamugurije

Iyo ideni nk’iringiri rikiri hagati y’abavandimwe n’inshuti, uwagurijwe usanga yirinda cyane guhakana icyo asabwe n’uwamugurije. Hari umuntu uherutse kumbwira ko inshuti yamugurije amafaranga, atinda kuyabona ngo ayishyure, rimwe uwamugurije amusaba kumutwara mu modoka ye (bimwe bita rifuti – lift) bakajyana ahantu kure. N’ubwo uwagurijwe yumvaga yahakana, ariko yarashinyirije atwara uwo muntu, amugeza ahantu kure yashakaga kujya, kubera ko yazirikanaga amafaranga ye ataramwishyura. Bibiliya nayo ivuga ibi bintu mu Imigani 22:7.

Hari igihe bihinduka akamenyero

Iyo bigenze bitya, usanga uwagurijwe agarutse akongera agasaba ko bamuguriza andi mafaranga, agashaka ibisobanuro by’impamvu atishyuye aya mbere, ndetse agatanga n’icyizere cyo kuzayazanira rimwe. Hari n’igihe usanga uwagurijwe abwiye abandi, bityo wowe wamugurije ukisanga ugiye kuba banki iguriza inshuti zawe n’abavandimwe.

Kuguriza inshuti n’abavandimwe sibwo bufasha buba bukenewe buri gihe

Ibibazo byose ntabwo bikemuzwa inguzanyo. Hari igihe uwo urimo kukuguza aba akeneye ubundi bufasha butari amafaranga. Urugero niba akubwira ko agerageza gukoresha ayo yinjiza ntibivemo, agakenera utwo tudeni, ukeneye kumwigisha kubaho mu bushobozi bwe. Uramutse umwigishije kugendera ku ngengo y’imari nibwo waba umufashije by’ukuri. Kumuguriza amafaranga kandi ubona ko ikibazo afite ari icyo kumenya gucunga neza ayo abona, uba umugumishije mu kibazo aho kumufasha kugisohokamo mu buryo burambye.

Izi nguzanyo ntizigira inyungu, kandi zimara igihe kirekire

Iyo ugurije abavandimwe n’inshuti utakarizamo amafaranga kubera ko nta nyungu bazaguha. Gutakaza amafaranga ni ukubera ko iyo nta nyungu ubonye ku mafaranga yawe, n’ubwo wayasubizwa yose nyuma y’igihe buriya ntabwo aba anganya agaciro n’ayo watanze. Ibihumbi ijana by’umwaka ushize ntabwo bingana n’ibihumbi ijana by’uyu munsi. Ibi babyita agaciro k’amafaranga mu gihe.

Ayo mafaranga n’ubwo wayatanze ukayaguriza abantu ariko urayakeneye

Ubundi biragora kubona umuntu wawe wa bugufi arwana n’ikibazo washoboraga kumufasha. Abenshi ntibashobora kwifata ngo barebere inshuti cyangwa umuvandimwe mu bibazo kandi bafite amafaranga. Niho haturuka kwigomwa ukaguriza uwo muntu ngo umukure mu kibazo, ariko iyo atinze kugusubiza ayo wamugurije, byangiza nawe icyo wari wayateganyirije. Igihe uyakeneye ukayabura kuko witangiye undi muntu, ntabwo bikugwa neza.

Amafaranga n’umubano hari igihe bigendera hamwe

Nk’uko twabibonye muri ya nyandiko ya William Shakespeare wabayeho mu Bwongereza cyera mu kinyejana cya 16, akenshi iyo ugurije inshuti amafaranga, ubura inshuti ukabura n’amafaranga. Hari n’ubwo inshuti zigambanirana kugira ngo hatazabaho kwishyura, cyane cyane ko iyo inshuti zigurizanya cyangwa abavandimwe usanga nta muhamya wundi urimo. Hari igihe abantu baburiramo ubuzima, biturutse ku ideni umuntu yatanze ngo atabare mugenzi we. N’iyo bitageze ku rwego rwo kwicana, ariko usanga hari inshuti zahindutse abanzi, cyangwa abavandimwe batakivugana biturutse ku kugurizanya amafaranga.

N’ubwo izi mpamvu zose dutanze zishobora gutuma umuntu azinukwa kuguriza inshuti n’abavandimwe, ariko hari igihe usanga bibaye ngombwa. Mu gihe rero ubonye ko umuvandimwe wawe cyangwa inshuti magara afite ikibazo kimukomereye, dore icyo wakora kugirango wirinde ibyo twavuze hejuru kandi unamufashe:

Aho bishoboka hose, wamuha ubufasha butishyuzwa: Urugero, niba umuntu akugujije ibihumbi ijana, ugasanga bitakoroheye kubimuha byose, kandi ukumva nubimuguriza ntiyishyure bizakubabaza, uzamubwire ko umubonera ibihumbi makumyabiri y’imfashanyo atari inguzanyo. Ayo azamufasha gushaka ahandi yavana andi akongeranya agakemura ikibazo. Nawe uzasigara utuje, kuko wamufashije ntiwamugurije.

Numuha inguzanyo ubikore nk’izindi nguzanyo zose: Niba usanze nta bundi buryo butari ukumuguriza, uzirinde amasezerano yo mu magambo, ahubwo umusabe ko mwandikiranwa. Amafaranga uzayanyuze kuri konti ye aho kuyamuha mu ntoki. Iyo kwishyura bitangiye kugorana, hari igihe mwiyambaza izindi nshuti ngo zibafashe kubakiranura, ndetse iyo binaniranye bishobora kugera mu nkiko. Bijya bibaho n’ubwo biba byatangiriye mu bucuti, mu kivandimwe no mu kwizerana. Iyo bigeze kuri uru rwego, ibi bimenyetso wabitse birafasha.

Wibutse mu kinyabupfura umuntu ugufitiye amafaranga: Nubwo kwishyuza bigora, ariko iyo uteguye neza ubutumwa bwibutsa kandi ukabwandika mu kinyabupfura no kubaha uwo wagurije, bivanaho igihunga nawe agatinyuka kukubwira neza uko bihagaze. Iyo mubiganiraho mweruye, bituma mutikandagira igihe muhuriye mu zindi gahunda zo mu muryango cyangwa ahandi.

Mu gusoza reka nkubwire ko ubundi hariho ibigo by’imari byemererwa n’amategeko gutanga inguzanyo, kuko byo usanga bifite uburyo butandukanye bwo kwishyuza igihe bibaye ngombwa. Uretse no kwishyuza kandi bene ibi bigo biba bifite n’uburyo byirinda ibihombo bituruka ku nguzanyo. Mu gihe inshuti zawe n’abavandimwe batangiye kukuguza, uzabashishikarize gukorana nabyo, bizatuma umubano wawe nabo utazamo agatotsi cyangwa ngo urangire biturutse ku cyo watekerezaga nk’ubufasha ubahaye. Niba kandi ari wowe ushaka inguzanyo, uzibuke ko ibyiza ari ukujya mu bigo byabigenewe (amabanki n’ibigo by’imari iciriritse) kuruta kujya mu nshuti n’abavandimwe.

Aimable Nkuranga, ni Umuyobozi w’Ishyirahamwe ry’Ibigo by’Imari iciriritse mu Rwanda (AMIR)


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