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Inyungu zo gukemura amakimbirane hakoreshejwe ubuhuza aho kumaranira mu nkiko

Yanditswe na Prof Sam Rugege
Kuya 22 Gashyantare 2021 saa 12:28
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Muri gahunda nyinshi u Rwanda rwatekereje zo kubaka ubumwe n’imibanire myiza by’Abanyarwanda no guteza imbere ubukungu bw’igihugu, harimo n’icyerekezo cyo gukemura ibibazo mu bwumvikane, binyuze mu biganiro.

Bumwe mu buryo bwatangijwe kandi buri gutanga umusaruro ni ubuhuza. Ubuhuza ni igikorwa cyo guhuza abantu bafitanye ikibazo bagahuzwa n’undi muntu bahisemo udafite aho ahuriye n’ikibazo kugira ngo abafashe kuganira no kumvikana ku mwanzuro warangiza ikibazo bafitanye.

Ubu buryo bwaratangijwe mu nkiko zo mu Rwanda mu 2018 mu miburanishirize y’imanza z’ imbonezamubano, iz’ubucuruzi, iz’umurimo n’izubutegetsi.

Mu gice giherutse, twavuze ku nyungu zo gukemura amakimbirane hakoreshejwe ubuhuza, aho kwitabaza inkiko mu buryo busanzwe. Tugiye gukomeza kuri izo nyungu.

Kuba abagana inkiko akenshi baba badafite ubumenyi buhambaye mu mategeko ajyanye n’ikiburanwa

Mu mategeko agenga imiburanishirize y’imanza n’agenga imiterere y’inkiko n’ububasha bwazo, habamo impamvu nyinshi zishobora gutuma uwakabaye agira uburenganzira runaka mu masezerano cyangwa mu mibanire ye n’abandi, abuvutswa cyangwa ntabuhabwe mu gihe gikwiye abaye ahisemo kugana inkiko.

Zimwe muri izo mpamvu nizo zikunze kugaragazwa mu manza n’impuguke mu mategeko mu buryo bw’ingoboka n’inzitizi, nk’iz’iburabubasha bw’urukiko, izo kutakira ikirego, iz’ingwate y’amagarama cyangwa ingwate itangwa n’abanyamahanga, kandi ibyo umuntu usanzwe ntiyapfa kubimenya kandi bishobora kugira ingaruka kubyo asaba inkiko. Mu buhuza bene izo mpamvu ntizigarukwaho, ahubwo hashakishwa icyatuma abafitanye impaka bazikuramo ubwabo kandi ku nyungu zabo bose.

Kuba urubanza rushobora gucibwa ariko kururangiza bikananirana cyangwa bikadindizwa

Nk’uko byavuzwe haruguru, mu manza iteka haba utsinda n’utsindwa, ariko ibyo ukwabyo ntibiba bihagije kuko uwatsinze aba agomba no guhabwa ibyo yatsindiye. Mu gihe hatabayeho kurangiza urubanza ku neza y’uwatsinzwe, uwatsinze ashobora kunanizwa kubera ko uwo yatsinze abona agiye gukeneshwa n’urubanza rwamutsinze, urugero bikaba byamutera kurigisa imitungo ye igomba kuvamo ibyo yatsindiwe cyangwa kongera kubyutsa izindi manza z’urudaca.

Mu buhuza bene ibi bibazo ntibyaba kuko, kugira ngo abafitanye impaka babashe kuzirangiza habamo kumvikana ku byo buri wese akwiye kubona cyangwa bibaye ngombwa hakabaho kwigomwa (concession). Mu manza umuntu yatsindira byinshi akabibura byose; ariko mu buhuza umuntu yabasha kubona bike, ibisigaye akazabyungukira mu gukomeza umubano mwiza n’uwo bari bafitanye impaka.

Ingaruka ku mubano w’ abafitanye ikibazo

Uko imanza zitinda mu nkiko ni nako umubano cyangwa imikoranire hagati y’ababuranyi bigenda byangirika; yaba mu bucuruzi (business relations), mu kazi (employment), cyangwa mu buzima busanzwe (social relationship). Mu miburanire yabo, buri muburanyi aba azi ko ari we ufite ukuri akizera ko urukiko ruri bwemeze uko kuri maze akabona ibyo ashaka. Iyo birangiye umwe agatsinda undi agatsindwa, uwatsinze aba azi ko urukiko rwamurenganuye naho uwatsinzwe akabona ko yarenganyijwe, ko wenda habayemo ruswa.

Umubano rero ntushobora gusubira nk’uko wari umeze mbere y’urubanza, ndetse akenshi umubano cyangwa imikoranire birangirira aho, hakaba hanavuka urwango no gutakaza icyizere mu nkiko. Abahanga bavuga ko inzira yo kuburana (litigation) ifite ikiguzi (cost) mu mafaranga, umwanya n’ingufu (financial, time, energy) ariko hakabaho n’ikiguzi cy’ingaruka mu rwego rw’amarangamutima (emotional cost) kandi ko iki kiguzi aricyo gishobora kuba kiremereye kuruta ibindi (emotional cost might be the highest price of all). Muri izo ngaruka harimo uburakari, guhungabana, kubura umutuzo, kudasinzira bihagije, no guhora uhangayitse.

Byagaragaye ko iyo ibibazo by'abaturage bikemuwe mu bwumvikane, bigira umusaruro kurusha kubikemurira mu nkiko

Ubwisanzure mu gusobanura uko nyir’ikibazo acyumva, harimo no kugaragaza amarangamutima bimutera, ntibikunze kubaho mu rukiko. Ababuranyi mu manza nyinshi ntibakunze kugaragaza impamvu zose zateye ikibazo, cyangwa umuzi w’ikibazo; icyakwitwa impamvu y’impamvu. Nko mu manza z’umuryango hagati y’umugore n’umugabo, hari ibitavugwa mu rukiko kuko abenshi mu bashakanye baba badashaka kumena amabanga y’urugo ku ka rubanda; bibatera isoni. Abacamanza nabo akenshi baba bihutira kurangiza iburanisha ry’urubanza bakajya mu rundi kuko baba bafite nyinshi.

Umucamanza ntafata umwanya wo gushakisha umuzi w’ikibazo cyangwa impamvu y’impamvu, ahubwo areba impamvu zivugwa mu itegeko. Rimwe na rimwe, abacamanza ntibihanganira umuburanyi ufata umwanya wo gusobanura akababaro aterwa n’ibyamubayeho. Kutabona umwanya uhagije wo gusobanura no kugaragaza akababaro ke, bishobora kumutera uburakari ntashake kuzagira icyo avugana cyangwa akorana n’uwo bahanganye.

Ku rundi ruhande, iyo abantu bemeye kugerageza ubwumvikane bagira amahirwe n’umwanya wo kuganira bisanzuye, buri ruhande rukumva uko urundi rwumva imvo n’imvano y’ikibazo, inyungu zibangamiwe, n’uburyo ikibazo cyakemuka, babifashijwemo n’umuntu udafite aho abogamiye, ari we umuhuza. Ibi bifasha ababuranyi guhindura imyumvire ku bijyanye n’uko ikibazo cyatangiye n’impamvu, bigatuma bagera ku bwumvikane. Gukomeza imibanire myiza birashoboka nyuma yo kurangiza ikibazo mu bwumvikane.

Nk’urugero ku babanaga nk’umugore n’umugabo bagatandukana, iyo habaye ubuhuza n’ibiganiro bibageza ku bwumvikane ku bibazo bikomeye nk’uburyo bagabana imitungo cyangwa uko bakomeza kurera abana, bituma batandukana neza, bikabafasha gukira ibikomere byatewe n’amakimbirane, ntibagire ipfumwe bahuye cyangwa bavugana ku mibereho n’uburere by’abana babo.

Ku byerekeye imanza zirimo ibigo n’amasosiyete y’ubucuruzi nk’amabanki, ibigo by’ubwishingizi n’abakiriya babyo, cyangwa ibitaro n’abarwayi, abakozi n’abakoresha mu manza z’umurimo, n’ibindi, hashobora kubaho gutsinda cyangwa gutsindwa mu rubanza ariko bikarangira ibyo bigo bitakaje izina cyangwa icyizere kuri rubanda, bikekwaho kurenganya abantu, gutanga ruswa n’ibindi. Ku rundi ruhande amasosiyete atishimye nayo ashobora gukeka ko abacamanza babogomye, cyangwa bariye ruswa. Akenshi iyi myumvire y’ababuranyi, iterwa no kudasobanukirwa amategeko no kuba nta ruhare bagira mu cyemezo gifatwa n’umucamanza.

Nyamara no ku byerekeye amasosiyete n’ibigo, ibibazo byinshi bishobora gukemurwa mu bwumvikane habaye ibiganiro babifashijwemo n’umuhuza, kandi ntibigire ingaruka mbi ku mubano, ku izina rya sosiyete n’icyizere rubanda ruyifitiye ntigihungabane. Ubuhuza ahubwo butanga amahirwe yo kuzahura umubano hagati y’abahanganye baramaze igihe kirekire bakorana neza. Ari amasosiyete abiri ari mu mpaka, ashobora gukomeza gukorana mu mikoranire yatangiriyemo. N’iyo bidashobotse gukomeza umubano cyangwa imikoranire nk’uko byari bimeze mbere, habaho gutandukana neza hatabaye guharabikana.

Ibanga (Confidentiality)

Ubuhuza bubera mu ibanga hagati y’umuhuza n’abafitanye ikibazo. Ibivugiwe mu buhuza biba ibanga, ntibishobora gutangazwa n’umwe mu bafitanye ikibazo keretse undi abyemeye, umuhuza nawe nta burenganzira afite bwo gutangaza ibyavugiwe mu nama n’umwe cyangwa bombi keretse abiherewe uburenganzira na nyir’ubwite. Ni ukuvuga ko abafitanye ikibazo bafite ubwisanzure busesuye kuvuga akabari ku mutima no kubwizanya ukuri nta kwishisha. Biroroshye kugaragaza amarangamutima ahantu hiherereye, hari abantu bake ugereranije n’ahari benshi. Ibi bitandukanye n’ibebera mu rubanza mu rukiko, aho ushatse wese afite uburenganzira bwo kwinjira mu iburanisha agakurikira imiburanishirize keretse iyo umucamanza yategetse ko iburanisha ribera mu muhezo.

Kutagira uruhare mu miburanishirize y’urubanza k’umuburanyi ugereranije n’uruhare mu migendekere y’ubuhuza (flexibility and control of process)

Mu rubanza, ababuranyi nta ruhare rugaragara bagira mu migendekere y’iburanisha. Bategereza guhamagarwa bagatanga imiburanire yabo, cyangwa iyo bafite avoka akabavugira, bakabazwa ibibazo, bagategereza umwanzuro w’urukiko. Umucamanza afata icyemezo kigomba gukurikizwa, ntabaza ababuranyi niba bemera umwanzuro we cyangwa niba bawishimiye. Nk’uko byavuzwe hejuru, nta bwisanzure buhagije umuburanyi agira mu rubanza.

Umuburanyi agomba gukurikiza amabwiriza agenga imiburanishirize y’imanza ntashobora kuvuga ko atishimiye uburyo urubanza ruri mu kuburanishwa ngo abe yahagarika iburanisha, keretse mu gihe asanga umucamnza agaragaza kubogama cyangwa indi myitwarire idakwiye akamwihana kandi ibyo biragoye kubigaragaza.

Ku rundi ruhande, ujya mu buhuza aza ari uko abyemeye, afite ubushake nibura bwo kugerageza ubwumvikane. Ntahatirwa kubugumamo. Ashobora kwisubiraho abonye ko ntacyo biribumugezeho, cyangwa akaba abihagaritse akongera kubitekerezaho, akazagaruka.

Uruhare rw’umuhuza ni uguhuza abafitanye ikibazo, akabafasha kuganira no gushakisha inzira yabageza ku bwumvikane. Ntabafatira ibyemezo nk’uko umucamanza cyangwa umukemurampaka abikora. Binatandukanye n’ubwunzi kuko Abunzi n’ubwo bagerageza kumvikanisha abafitanye ikibazo, iyo kumvikana binaniranye bafata icyemezo, umwanzuro wabo ukaba washyirwa mu bikorwa ku ngufu za Leta. Mu buhuza abafitanye ikibazo ibiganiro babigira ibyabo, umwanzuro ukaba uwabo. Umuhuza ntakwiriye no kubagira inama mu rwego rw’amategeko cyangwa rwa tekiniki, keretse ari inama yabafasha kugera ku bwumvikane babimusabye. Agomba kutagira uruhande abogamiraho cyangwa ngo agaragare nk’ubogamye. Akazi ke n’ugutangiza ibiganiro, akabiyobora agamije ubwumvikane.

Mu gice giheruka tuzarebera hamwe icyitezwe mu nzira y’ubuhuza nk’uburyo bwo gukemura amakimbirane mu Rwanda

Inkuru bijyanye:Inyungu zo kugana inzira y’Ubuhuza mu Rwanda ugereranyije no kujya mu nkiko

Prof Sam Rugege ni Umuyobozi w’Akanama Ngishwanama k’Abahuza


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