Uko u Bufaransa bwimakaje umuco wo gutanga ubwenegihugu ku barimo n’abakoze Jenoside

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 23 Kanama 2020 saa 02:57
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Umubano w’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa wakunze kuzamo agatotsi ahanini kubera uruhare rw’iki gihugu cy’i Burayi muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, yahitanye ubuzima bw’inzirakarengane zirenga miliyoni mu mezi atatu.

U Bufaransa ntibwakunze guha agaciro ibirego by’u Rwanda rutahwemye kugaragaza uko bwafashije leta yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa Jenoside, ndetse n’abayobozi babwo babigizemo uruhare.

Iki gihugu kandi gishinjwa kwimakaza umuco wo kudahana kuko hari abagize uruhare muri Jenoside bakidegembya ku butaka bw’u Bufaransa aho kugezwa mu butabera ngo baburanishwe.

Magingo aya Ubushinjacyaha bw’u Rwanda bumaze gutanga impapuro 1144 zisaba guta muri yombi abakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside mu bihugu 33 byo hirya no hino ku Isi, aho umubare munini uri muri Afurika.

Mu bihugu bitari ibya Afurika bifite umubare munini w’abakekwaho ibyaha bya Jenoside harimo u Bufaransa n’u Bubiligi naho muri Afurika harimo RDC na Uganda aho abakekwaho Jenoside bari bafite ubushobozi bwo kuba bahunga n’amaguru.

U Bubiligi bwaburanishije abantu icyenda muri 23 bamaze kuburanishwa n’ibihugu mu gihe bufite abagera kuri 40 bashakishwa. U Bufaransa bwo hariyo 47 ariko bumaze kuburanisha batatu.

Benshi muri aba bantu bari mu Bufaransa, bitwikiriye kuba ari impunzi, zidashaka gutaha mu Rwanda kuko ngo zitizeye ko umutekano w’ubuzima bwazo. Zimwe zanahamijwe ibyaha bya Jenoside n’inkiko zo mu Rwanda zirimo na Gacaca.

Mu minsi ishize ikinyamakuru Mediapart cyo mu Bufaransa, cyemeje ko cyabashije kugera kuri Colonel Aloys Ntiwiragabo uri mu basirikare bakuru bashinjwa uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, akaba no mu batangije Umutwe w’Iterabwoba wa FDLR.

Uyu mugabo amaze igihe ashakishwa n’inkiko mpuzamahanga, amakuru amwe yavugaga ko yaba yihishe mu gihugu kimwe cya Afurika cyangwa akaba yarapfuye. Kugira ngo kimugereho habanje kugenzurwa ibyagiye bivugwa kuri uwo mugabo, amakuru y’ibanze aza kugusha ku mugore we witwa Catherine Nikuze wageze mu Bufaransa ku wa 3 Werurwe 1998, aza guhabwa ubuhungiro ku wa 22 Nzeri 1999.

Amasezerano ya Genève agenga ibijyanye na sitati y’ubuhunzi, agena ko abantu badashobora gusubira mu bihugu byabo kubera gutinya ko bashobora kugirirwa nabi, bashobora kwaka ubuhunzi mu bihugu bibacumbikiye. Iyo ngingo ya mbere y’ayo masezerano inashyiraho irengayobora ku bantu bashinjwa uruhare mu byaha bibangamiye amahoro, iby’intambara n’ibyibasiye inyokomuntu.

Gusa inshuro nyinshi u Bufaransa bwagiye burenga ku biteganywa n’amategeko, bugatuma bene aba bantu bakekwaho ibyaha baguma ku butaka bwabwo igihe kirekire ntibunaterwe impungenge n’uko kubaha kwabo.

Urugero rutangwa aha ni umuganga w’Umunyarwanda witwa Sosthène Munyemana. Yakatiwe igifungo cya burundu n’inkiko zo mu Rwanda ku bw’uruhare rwe muri Jenoside. Mu 1996, Urwego rushinzwe iperereza ry’imbere mu Bufaransa rwanze ko hatangazwa amakuru ajyanye n’uyu mugabo inshuro zirenga eshatu.

Uru rwego rusobanura ikibazo cy’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda ruvuga ko Abahutu bahunze ukwihimura bashoboraga kugirirwa n’Abatutsi batishimiraga ibikorwa by’u Bufaransa ku bw’inyungu za Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Ni imvugo yimakajwe n’abari muri politiki y’u Bufaransa mu myaka ya 1990.

Ikindi gikomeje kuba amayobera ni uburyo uru rwego rusobanura Jenoside. Ntabwo ruyivuga nk’ubwicanyi bwakorewe Abatutsi hagamijwe kubatsemba, ahubwo imvugo zarwo zikunze kugaragara nk’izigamije gutera icyuhagiro Abahutu bagize uruhare muri Jenoside.

Kuva mu 1994 Munyemana agikandagiza ikirenge mu Bufaransa, Urukiko rushinzwe gutanga Uburenganzira bw’Ubuhunzi, rwari rwaranze kugira umwanzuro rumufataho kugera mu 2008 ubwo rwamwamburaga impapuro ze z’inzira mu gihe u Rwanda rwagaragaje kenshi ko akekwaho ibyaha. Icyo gihe hatangajwe ko inkiko zigiye kugenzura ibyo ashinjwa ku cyaha cya Jenoside, ariko imyaka ikomeje kwirenga nta mwanzuro utafatwa.

Uru rwego rw’ubutasi rusobanura kandi ko hari abandi Banyarwanda batse ubuhungiro nyuma yo kugaragaza ko batifuza kugaruka mu Rwanda. Urugero ni nka Claude Sibomana usobanurwa nk’umuntu w’umunyabwenge utizeye ubuzima bwe mu gihe yaba agarutse mu Rwanda.

Hashize kandi imyaka itandatu Maniragaba Thaddée, umwe mu bantu bakoranaga n’Interahamwe akorwaho iperereza. Ni kimwe na Stanislas Mbonampeka wahoze ari Minisitiri w’Ubutabera wa Guverinoma yashyize mu bikorwa umugambi wa Jenoside kimwe na Faustin Semasaka wari Perefe wa Kabaya. Martin Ukobizaba wigeze kuba Umujyanama muri Ambasade y’u Rwanda mu Bufaransa na we atuye mu Bufaransa.

Michel Raimbaud wigeze kuba Umuyobozi w’Ibiro bishinzwe kurengera impunzi n’abantu batagira ubwenegihugu, Ofpra, hagati ya 2000 na 2003, yatangaje ko umuyobozi w’uru rwego aba ashobora kuganira n’izindi nzego zirimo n’iz’ubuyobozi bakemeranya ku kibazo cy’impunzi runaka. Gusa nubwo ibyo biganiro byabaho, ngo uru rwego nirwo rufite inshingano zo gufata umwanzuro ku muntu runaka.

Nyinshi mu nyandiko zarabikwaga bigatuma abantu bamara igihe kinini mu Bufaransa ku buryo niba hari ibyo bakurikiranyweho batabibazwa.

Yavuze ko wasangaga hari igitutu gituruka mu nzego z’ubuyobozi kigamije ko abo bantu batimwa ubuhungiro kandi bwanatangwa bikaba biri mu mpamvu za politiki.

Uko gutinda guha cyangwa kwima abantu ubwenegihugu bituma ababusaba muri icyo gihe baba bategereje, bahabwa n’ubundi byinshi mu biteganywa n’amategeko. Harimo ko baba bafite icyangombwa kibemerera kuguma mu gihugu n’ibindi nkenerwa nko kwishyurirwa serivisi z’ubuzima, icumbi n’amafaranga yo kubatunga. Iyo badahawe ubuhunzi mu gihe cy’amezi icyenda, bashobora kugira amahirwe ku murimo bituma baguma mu gihugu.

Jean-François Terral wabaye Umuyobozi ushinzwe kurengera impunzi n’abantu batagira ubwenegihugu (1996-2000) na we yibuka ko hari ububiko bwarimo inyandiko zihariye z’abantu runaka.

Mu gihe abasaba ubwenegihugu bahawe ikarita ibemerera gukora akazi, iyo abana babo biga, biba byoroshye kwemererwa kuhatura bemye nyuma yo kuhamara imyaka itanu.

Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ibiro bishinzwe Abinjira n’Abasohoka n’ibijyanye no gusubiza abantu mu buzima busanzwe mu Bufaransa (OFII), Didier Leschi, yatunze agatoki uburyo ubwenegihugu butangwamo.

Yagize ati ‘‘Hari abantu bashobora kuguma mu ikoranabuhanga ryakirirwamo abasaba ubwenegihugu ndetse bagakomeza guhabwa ibyo bagenerwa mu myaka myinshi. Twe, tugerageza kuvugurura Ofpra. Ikibazo ni uko nta buryo buhamye bwo kugenzura abasaba ubwenegihugu kandi ntitwaganira na Ofpra kuko ntacyo ibivugaho.’’

Kugeza uyu munsi hari dosiye 29 zatanzwe hagati ya 1995 na 2015 zitarasubizwa ndetse urwego rubishinzwe rwanze gutangaza ubwenegihugu bw’abasabye ariko amakuru ahari ni uko kugeza mu 2014, abari bamaze gusaba benshi ni Abanyarwanda.

Ofpra yamaze igihe kirekire ikorana na Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga, ubusanzwe iyoborwa n’umudipolomate. Kuva mu 1990, abayobozi muri minisiteri bashyize imbaraga mu gushyigikira amahitamo y’u Bufaransa bwagize uruhare mu gufasha Leta yakoze Jenoside.

Mu 2010 nibwo Urwego ushinzwe kurengera impunzi n’abantu batagira ubwenegihugu mu Bufaransa rwakuwe muri Minisiteri y’Umutekano ruguma rukorana cyane na Minisiteri y’Ububanyi n’Amahanga.

Nyuma y’imyaka itanu uru rwego ruyoborwa n’undi muntu rwaje gusubizwa mu maboko ya Pascal Brice mu 2012-2018.

Pascal wanditse igitabo kuri uru rwego arubajijweho, yavuze ko ntacyo yaruvugaho mu gihe atakirubarizwamo.

Ati ‘‘Sindavuga kuri Ofpra kuva nayivamo. Ni ihame ry’ibanze ko ntazavugira ruriya rwego.’’

Ofpra mu mwaka ushize yahawe umuyobozi mushya, Julien Boucher, washyizweho na Perezida Macron.

Hategerejwe kureba uko azabanira u Rwanda bijyanye n’uburyo abasaba ubwenegihugu barimo n’abasize bakoze Jenoside bakurikiranwa kugira ngo bahabwe ubutabera.

Ibiro kurengera abashaka ubuhunzi mu Bufaransa byashyizwe mu majwi ku gukingira ikibaba abasize bakoze Jenoside mu Rwanda

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