U Burusiya n’u Bufaransa mu ihangana ryeruye ryo kwigarurira Centrafrique

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 3 Ukuboza 2019 saa 10:18
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Centrafrique ni igihugu cyakunze kugaragra nk’ikidashamaje cyane ibihugu bikomeye nubwo gifite umutungo kamere nka diyama, zahabu na Uranium. Nubwo kandi gifite ubutunzi kamere bwinshi, nacyo ubwacyo nta bushobozi gifite bwo kububyaza umusaruro.

Ni igihugu cyaranzwe n’intambara z’urudaca kuva cyabona ubwigenge. Inshuro nyinshi cyakunze kubaho ku nkunga y’igisirikare cy’amahanga.

Igihugu cyadutsemo imvururu mu 2012 zasize ibihumbi by’abaturage bishwe, abasaga miliyoni bava mu byabo. Izo mvururu zaturutse ku nyeshyamba ziyitirira kuba izo mu idini ya Islam, Séléka n’iz’abakirisitu ziyise anti Balaka.

Muri Gashyantare 2019 i Khartoum, Leta yasinye amasezerano n’imitwe 14 y’inyeshyamba, bitanga agahenge ariko ntibyahagaritse ibitero n’ubwicanyi bikozwe na bamwe.

Muri iyi myaka ishize, icyo gihugu cyabengutswe n’ibihugu bikomeye by’umwihariko u Bufaransa bwabanye nacyo kuva mu bukoloni n’u Burusiya buje vuba.

Ihangana ry’u Burusiya n’u Bufaransa muri Centrafrique

Mu Ugushyingo 2017, Loni yakuriyeho u Burusiya ibihano ku kugurisha intwaro muri Centrafrique maze icyo gihugu gitangira kugurishayo intwaro nto. Guhera ubwo u Burusiya bwatangiye kwiyegereza icyo gihugu mu bya gisirikare kugeza aho bwanatanze umujyanama wihariye mu by’umutekano wa Perezida Faustin-Archange Touadéra.

Mu majyepfo ashyira uburengerazuba bw’Umurwa Mukuru Bangui, hashinzwe ikigo cy’imyitozo ya gisirikare aho abasirikare ba Centrafrique batozwa n’Abarusiya ari naho hafatwa nk’ibirindiro bikuru bya gisirikare.

U Burusiya ni nabwo bwagize uruhare mu isinywa ry’amasezerano y’amahoro aherutse hagati ya Leta n’imitwe 14 y’inyeshyamba. Uko kwiyegereza Centrafrique k’u Burusiya ntikwashimishije na gato u Bufaransa, bwabaye muri icyo gihugu guhera mu bihe by’ubukoloni.

U Bufaransa, umutware ushaje

Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni, hari igice cyiswe Ubangi-Shari cyahoze mu cyitwaga Afrique-Équatoriale française, igice kirimo ibihugu nka Tchad, Gabon na Congo cyakolonizwaga n’u Bufaransa.

Icyo gice cyaje kujya kuri Centrafrique. Muri icyo gihe, ubutegetsi bw’u Bufaransa muri Ubangi-Shari bwaranzwe no gusahura bujyana mu Bufaransa, gufata nabi abaturage no kwica bamwe mu baturage.

Ibyo byatumye abaturage binubira u Bufaransa. Icyakora na nyuma y’ubukoloni, u Bufaransa bwakomeje kugira ijambo rikomeye ku butegetsi bwa Centrafrique ariko abaturage basa nk’abatabyishimiye.

Uruhare rw’u Bufaransa rwakomeje guhamya ibirindiro ndetse hafi buri muyobozi wese wayoboye Centrafrique yajyagaho ku ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ryagizwemo uruhare n’u Bufaransa.

Urugero nka François Bozizé yagiye ku butegetsi mu 2003 ku ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ryateguwe n’u Bufaransa. Icyo gihe u Bufaransa bwabonaga uwari perezida, Ange-Félix Patassé atangiye kubatera umugongo.

Ibintu byatangiye guhinduka mu 2013 ubwo Centrafrique yabonaga Perezida mushya, Michel Djotodia wari uyoboye inyeshyamba za Séléka zahiritse Bozizé nyuma yo gusinyana amasezerano akanga kuyashyira mu bikorwa.

Djotodia ni we Perezida wa mbere Centrafrique yagize nta ruhare rugaragara rw’u Bufaransa mu kujyaho kwe.

Djotodia amaze kujya ku butegetsi, bamwe mu ngabo ze za Séléka batangiye kugenda bica abaturage hirya no hino mu gihugu cyane cyane abakirisitu. Byabaye ikibazo gikomeye Perezida ananirwa kubihagarika, afata umwanzuro wo gusesa Séléka nubwo nabyo bisa nk’ibitarahise bitanga umusaruro.

Mu Ukuboza 2013, ubugizi bwa nabi muri Centrafrique bwari bumaze gukaza umurego, inyeshyambva za Séléka zibasiye abakirisitu, n’inyeshyamba z’abakirisitu, anti –Balaka zibasiye abaturage b’abayisilamu ku buryo Umuryango w’Abibumbye wagize impungenge ko bishobora kuba Jenoside.

Akanama ka Loni gashinzwe umutekano kahise kemeza kohereza ingabo muri icyo gihugu mu butumwa bw’amahoro bwiswe MISCA. Nubwo Loni yari yemeje ko ingabo zijya muri ubwo butumwa ziba izo ku mugabane wa Afurika, u Bufaransa bwasabye ko bwajya gutanga ubufasha bw’igihe gito, bwiswe Operation Sangaris.

Abasesenguzi bavuga ko kugaruka k’u Bufaransa atari impuhwe nyinshi bwari bufitiye Centrafrique ahubwo ari ukwisubiza ijambo ryabwo muri icyo gihugu cyagendaga ritakara.

Ingabo z'u Bufaransa muri Centrafrique zahavanye icyasha nyuma yo gushinjwa gufata abagore ku ngufu. Icyakora, u Bufaransa ntiburava muri icyo gihugu burundu

Ubufasha bw’u Bufaransa ntacyo bwakoze ngo buhagarike ubugizi bwa nabi nubwo bwari buri gushora amafaranga menshi muri icyo gikorwa, na nyuma y’aho Perezida Djotodia avuye ku butegetsi. Isura y’u Bufaransa muri icyo gihugu yarushijeho guhindana ubwo hasokaga raporo ivuga ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zafashe abagore n’abakobwa ku ngufu muri Centrafrique.

Muri Gashyantare 2016, hatowe Perezida mushya Faustin-Archange Touadéra, u Bufaransa buvana ingabo zabwo muri icyo gihugu zisimburwa n’iz’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, mu butumwa bwiswe MINUSCA.

Mu gihe ingabo z’u Bufaransa zari zivuye muri Centrafrique, u Burusiya bwabonye icyuho, butangira gufasha no gutera inkunga igisirikare na Leta ya Centrafrique.

Nyuma y’uko ingabo z’u Bufaransa ziviriye muri icyo gihugu mu 2016, Perezida Touadéra wari ukimara gutorwa yabonye ko byaba byiza ashatse ikindi gihugu gikomeye yishingikiriza.

U Bufaransa n’ibindi bihugu by’i Burayi byatangiye gukemanga ubufasha bw’u Burusiya, nubwo icyo gihugu cyo kivuga ko kirajwe ishinga no kugarura amahoro, ibindi bihugu bisanga ari uburyo bwo kugira ijambo rinini mu bihugu cyane ibya Afurika.

Bamwe bakeka ko u Burusiya bufasha icyo gihugu mu bya gisirikare ngo buhabwe umutungo kamere urimo amabuye y’agaciro yifashishwa mu gukora ibyuma by’ikoranabuhanga. Mu by’ukuri amasezerano ari hagati y’u Burusiya na Centrafrique ntarashyirwa ahagaragara ari nabyo bitera inkeke u Bufaransa, u Burayi na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika.

Ikirushaho gutera inkeke ibi bihugu, ni uko u Burusiya bwaje muri Centrafrique no mu buryo bw’abikorera. Byinshi mu bigo bicunga umutekano bituruka mu Burusiya, nk’icyizwi cyane cyitwa Wagner Group.

Perezida wa Centrafrique ubwo yahuraga na Vladmir Putin w’u Burusiya mu Ukwakira, yamusabye kumuha ubufasha buhagije mu bya gisirikare

Bivugwa ko kandi u Burusiya bwabonye amasezerano atandukanye yo gucukura diyama na zahabu mu bice bigenzurwa n’inyeshyamba ari nabyo byatumye bwinjira mu bikorwa byo guhuza impande zitavuga rumwe.

Mu 2018, u Burusiya bwagoganye n’Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe mu guhuza impande zitavuga rumwe. U Burusiya bwashakaga guhuza izo mpande mu buryo bwabwo mu gihe Afurika Yunze Ubumwe nayo yashakaga kubikora ukwayo. Iyo migirire y’u Burusiya yamaganywe cyane n’ibihugu by’amahanga birimo u Burayi na Amerika.

Icyakora, Afurika Yunze Ubumwe yaje kubasha kwiyegurira ubwo buhuza bw’u Burusiya ari nabyo byabyaye amasezerano y’amahoro yo muri Gashyantare 2019. Bamwe mu bayobozi b’imitwe y’inyeshyamba bahawe ubuyobozi muri Guverinoma nubwo bitahagaritse ubugizi bwa nabi nkuko byari byitezwe.

Abaturage benshi ba Centrafrique bishimira icyemezo Perezida wabo yafashe, cyo kwigizayo u Bufaransa bwaranzwe no gutoba icyo gihugu kuva kibonye ubwigenge. Icyakora, ntibashimishijwe n’uburyo amasezerano ya Khartoum yagenze kuko ubutabera bwaguranywe amahoro nayo batarabona neza kugeza ubu.

Ni ukuvuga ko abaturage basanga aho guhana abo bari mu mitwe y’inyeshyamba bishe ibihumbi by’abaturage, bagororewe imyanya muri Leta.

Uko kwinjira k’u Burusiya muri iki gihugu kandi byaciyemo ibice abari muri Leta kuko hari abiyumva ku ruhande rw’Abafaransa n’abandi biyumva ku ruhande rw’Abarusiya.

Perezida wa Centrafrique ubwo yahuraga na Vladmir Putin w’u Burusiya mu Ukwakira uyu mwaka yavuze ko bakeneye inkunga nyinshi ya gisirikare ivuye ku Barusiya.

Yagize ati “Hakenewe intwaro zikomeye ngo tugire igisirikare gihamye. Twizeye ko abafatanyabikorwa bacu b’Abarusiya bazaduha intwaro nini, imodoka z’intambara, imbunda zikomeye n’izindi ntwaro zizadufasha kugira ubushobozi mu by’ingabo n’umutekano.”

Icyakora ntabwo u Burusiya burabasha kwirukana burundu u Bufaransa muri Centrafrique. Hari agatsinda gato k’abasirikare b’u Bufaransa gafatanya n’ingabo za Centrafrique kurinda ikibuga cy’indege. Iki gihugu kandi cyiracyatanga ubufasha ku ngabo za Loni ziri mu butumwa bw’amahoro muri Centrafrique.

Icyo gihugu kandi ifaranga bakoresha ni iry’ibihugu byahoze bikolonijwe n’u Bufaransa, CFA, n’amadevize menshi y’icyo gihugu ari muri Banki Nkuru y’u Bufaransa.

U Burusiya n’u Bufaransa bisa n’ibyatangiye no guhangana mu itangazamakuru. Nko muri Kamena 2019, Ibiro Ntaramakuru by’Abarusiya byatangaje ko abanyamakuru batatu b’Abarusiya bishwe umwaka ushize bari muri Centrafrique bigizwemo uruhare n’intasi z’u Bufaransa.

Icyakora nubwo ibihugu byombi bigihataniye ubutware muri Centrafrique, imvururu zo ntizahagaze ndetse uko guhangana gushobora gusubiza ibintu irudubi, hakaduka izindi nyeshyamba zishamikiye ku kutumvikana kwabyo cyangwa kimwe kikaba cyatera inkunga imitwe y’inyeshyamba kigamije kwirukana ikindi.

Ingabo z'u Burusiya ni zimwe mu itsinda rishinzwe kurinda Perezida wa Centrafrique

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