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Ni nde uzabaza u Bwongereza impfu z’Abahinde barenga miliyoni 100?

Yanditswe na Zigiranyirazo Bajecteur
Kuya 6 Ukuboza 2022 saa 11:11
Yasuwe :

Mu Isi tubayemo uyu munsi bisa n’aho hari bamwe bemerewe gukora amakosa arimo n’ay’indengakamere nko kwica abantu, bakabaho bidegembya ntawe uyababaza, hakabaho n’abandi bakorerwa amakosa ariko bakarenga bakagerekwaho ibyaha akangaratete. Ese niba abantu bose bareshya imbere y’ubutabera kuki u Bwongereza butabazwa impfu z’Abahinde barenga miliyoni 100?

Imibare igaragaza ko hagati y’umwaka wa 1880 na 1920, politiki y’ubukoloni bw’Abongereza mu Buhinde yahitanye abantu baruta abishwe n’inzara zose zibasiye abo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete, abaguye mu cyiswe Maoist China ndetse n’abaguye muri Koreya ya Ruguru bose ubakomatanyije.

Hakunda kugaragazwa uruhare u Bwongereza bwagiye bugira mu iterambere ry’ibihugu runaka, by’umwihariko ibyo bwagiye bukoloniza, ariko kandi ugasanga hararenzwa ingohe uruhare rwabwo mu guhitana ubuzima bwa benshi.

Mu myaka ibiri ishize, Ikigo cy’Ubushakashatsi, YouGov cyagaragaje ko Abongereza babarirwa muri 32% batewe ishema n’amateka y’igihugu cyabo ku bijyanye n’ubukoloni ndetse hanagiye handikwa ibitabo bitandukanye bibuvuga imyato mu iterambere ry’Isi ya none nk’ahantu hatangiriye impinduramatwara mu by’inganda.

Aljazeera itangaza ko iyi sura nziza iki gihugu gifite, ivuguruzwa cyane n’amateka, aho yashingiye ku bushakashatsi bwakozwe n’impuguke mu mateka y’ubukungu, Robert C Allen, bugaragaza ko ubukene bukabije bwabayeho mu mateka y’u Buhinde, bwiyongereye ubwo iki gihugu cyari mu maboko y’u Bwongereza.

Allen agaragaza ko mu 1810, ubukene bwari ku kigero cya 23% bwazamutse bukagera ku rugero rurenga 50% hagati mu kinyejana cya 20 aho yungamo ko imishahara yagabanutse ikajya hasi cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoloni bw’Abongereza mu kinyejana cya 19 ndetse n’inzara ikibasira benshi abandi bakahasiga ubuzima.

Hari abahanga bavuga ko igihe cyo gukomera k’u Bwongereza hagati ya 1880 na 1920, cyabereye ibyago bikomeye u Buhinde kugeza ubwo imibare y’abapfa yavuye kuri 37,2 mu bantu 1000 mu myaka ya 1880, bakagera kuri 44,2 mu 1910 ndetse n’icyizere cyo kurama kikava ku myaka 26,7 kikagera ku myaka 21,9.

Hari imibare ishingiye ku bushakashatsi iherutse gusohorwa n’ikinyamakuru World Development, yagarukaga cyane ku bantu bishwe n’ubukoloni bw’Abongereza mu gihe cy’imyaka 40, aho nko mu Buhinde honyine byagaragajwe ko hagati ya 1891 na 1920 habaye impfu z’abarenga miliyoni 50 zidafite aho zihuriye n’impfu zisanzwe.

Aba bahanga barimo Allen bavuga ko batazi neza impuzandengo y’abantu bapfaga mu Buhinde mbere y’ubukoloni, ariko bagaragaza ko bagendeye ku mpuzandengo y’abapfaga icyo gihe mu Bwongereza mu kinyejana cya 16 n’icya 17, hapfaga 27,18 mu bantu 1000, basanga uwo mubare warazamutse cyane mu gihe cy’ubukoloni bw’Abongereza kugeza ubwo mu buryo bukomatanyije basanga harapfuye abagera kuri miliyoni 165 mu Buhinde hagati ya 1881 na 1920.

Ibi ni byo bashingiraho bavuga ko hari abagera muri miliyoni 100 bapfuye imburagihe muri iyo myaka, umubare munini mu mateka w’abantu bapfuye bazize politiki z’ibihugu, uruta cyane uw’abazize inzara mu yahoze ari URSS, mu mpinduramatwara y’u Bushinwa, muri Koreya ya Ruguru, abahitanwe n’abanyagitugu bo muri Cambodge n’abahitanwe na Mengistu muri Ethiopia bose ubakomatanyije.

Impamvu zigaragazwa nk’izateye izi mpfu, harimo isenywa ry’urwego rw’inganda mu Buhinde na cyane ko iki gihugu cyari mu biza ku isonga ku Isi muri urwo rwego mbere y’ubukoloni. Imyenda yo hirya no hino ku Isi, icyo gihe ntiyashoboraga guhanganira ku isoko n’iyakorewe mu Buhinde.

Hashyizweho politiki nyinshi zo guca intege Abahinde zirimo n’iz’imisoro ihanitse kugeza ubwo batanashoboraga gucururiza iwabo imbere mu gihugu, ibintu byose bijya mu maboko y’Abongereza bacuruzaga iyo myenda mu mahanga kuva mu 1757 ubwo batangiraga kugenzura agace ka Bengal.

Abahinde benshi basunikiwe mu kubura akazi baba abashomeri maze inzara ibiraramo ku buryo abenshi bahitanwe na yo.

Ibintu byarushijeho kujya irudubi ubwo Abongereza batangizaga icyiswe “Drain of Wealth” aho basoreshaga Abahinde maze iyo misoro bagahita bayiguramo ibyakorerwaga mu Buhinde birimo ipamba, imbuto na opium batangira byose kujya babishora mu nganda zabo mu Bwongereza, Canada, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika na Australia.

Ibi byose byahombeje u Buhinde akayabo k’amafaranga abarirwa muri miliyari ibihumbi z’amadolari ya Amerika ushyize mu igenagaciro ry’iki gihe.

Impuguke mu mateka zivuga ko Abahinde barenga miliyoni 10 bazize inzara bitewe no gushyirwaho igitutu cyo kohereza ibyo kurya mu mahanga hatitawe ku kuba nabo ubwabo babibonye; byose ngo byakozwe n’abakoloni b’Abongereza.

Abasesenguzi bavuga ko amateka adashobora guhinduka kandi ibyaha byakozwe n’ubwami bw’Abongereza bidashobora gusibangana” hagatangwa inama y’uko ibijyanye n’indishyi bishobora gufasha mu guhashya ikibazo cy’ubusumbane bwabyawe n’ubukoloni nk’intambwe ikomeye iganisha ku butabera no gukira.

Imibare igaragaza ko mu gihe u Bwongereza bwamaze bukoloniza u Buhinde, hapfuye abarenga miliyoni 100

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