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Kuva mu myaka 130 ishize, bwa mbere u Rwanda rumaze 28 rutabayemo imvururu

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 1 Ukwakira 2022 saa 05:41
Yasuwe :

Imyaka 130 irashize u Rwanda rufunguye paji nshya y’ubutegetsi, ingoma n’ibipfunsi bibisikana hagati y’abenegihugu n’abanyaburayi. Igice kinini cy’iyo myaka rwakimaze rutarimenya neza ahanini bitewe n’ababaga barutegeka.

Ni imyaka kandi yaranzwe n’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi rya hato na hato kugeza mu 1973 aho habaye coup d’etat enye zirimo iyo ku Rucunshu, Mutara III Rudahigwa asimbuzwa se Yuhi Musinga, Ubwami busimbuzwa Repubulika, umwami agahezwa ishyanga na Juvenal Habyarimana ahirika Kayibanda mu 1973.

Mu bakuru b’igihugu icyenda bayoboye u Rwanda muri iyo myaka yose (harimo n’abami ba nyuma ya Rwabugiri), imyaka 28 ishize niyo yonyine u Rwanda rutagizemo imvururu za politiki cyangwa iza gisirikare, ari na byo byafashije igihugu kongera kwiyubaka. Iyegura rya Perezida mu 2000 niryo ryaciyemo ariko ihererekanyabutegetsi mu mahoro ryakozwe neza, imvururu benshi bari biteze mu Rwanda rushya ziburizwamo.

Kuva u Rwanda rwigabijwe n’Abanyaburayi kugeza ubu, rumaze guhura n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro isaga icyenda irimo itatu yigeze gufata uduce tw’igihugu ikatumarana igihe nk’Ibijabura bya Basebya byamaze igihe byarigaruriye ibice by’Amajyaruguru y’u Rwanda, Inyenzi zigeze gufata u Bugesera ziri hafi kugera i Kigali na FPR Inkotanyi yigeze kurwana igafata ibice by’Amajyaruguru kugeza Shyorongi.

Muri iyo myaka 130 ishize, nibwo bwa mbere imyaka 28 ishize ruganje mu mahoro, nta ntambara, imvururu n’ibindi bituma abarutuye barara rwantambi, bahangayitse, batazi ko bucya, cyangwa niba bukeye, buri bwire.

Ubu abahakanyi n’intyoza mu mateka mugiye kunyiha ariko aha ho turarwanisha ibimenyetso, keretse nituba tutumva kimwe icyo gutekana cyangwa amahoro bivuze.

Imyaka 130 mvuga tuyihere ku ndunduro y’ubutegetsi bwa Kigeli IV Rwabugiri, ari nabwo Abadage bari bamaze kugabana u Rwanda mu nama yarangiye mu ntangiriro za 1895, ari nawo mwaka uyu mwami yatangiyemo.

Kuva ku ngoma ya Rwabugiri kugeza ubu, imyaka 127 irashize ariko hafi 100 rwayimaze mu bibazo, imvururu n’intambara byatumye nta gikorwa kizima cy’iterambere kigerwaho.

Iyo ku nkike z’igihugu habaga hatuje, imbere mu butegetsi byabaga bicika cyangwa se abaturage ubwabo baryana.

Rwabugiri yasimbuwe n’umuhungu we Rutalindwa, utaramaranye ubutegetsi kabiri, kuko Kanjongera bari bamuhaye nk’Umugabekazi na musaza we Kabare bamuhitaniye ku Rucunshu mu 1896, apfana na benshi mu bari abambari be.

Ubutegetsi bwahawe Yuhi V Musinga, umwana wa Kanjogera, ariko na we iminsi ya mbere yayimaze arwana no kugumana ingoma benewabo bashakaga kumwambura.

Imbere mu muryango w’ibwami byari ibicika, tutibagiwe n’abakoloni hamwe n’abamisiyoneri u Rwanda bari barugeze ku buce.

Abazungu bamaze kugera mu Rwanda bazonze Musinga wari usanzwe yifitiye ibibazo imbere mu butegetsi bwe, agerageza kubarwanya ariko abura imbaraga, bihumira ku mirari ubwo Ababiligi basimburaga Abadage mu 1916.

Kugeza mu 1931 ubwo Musinga yirukanwaga mu gihugu, igihe kinini yakimaze ari mu ntambara yo kurwana no kwigobotora abazungu bari baramwambuye ububasha bwose.

Umwana we Mutara III Rudahigwa wamusimbuye cyangwa se wamuhiritse, na we ni nk’aho nta mahoro ubutegetsi bwe bwagize.

Yatangiye akorera inyungu z’Abazungu bari bamushyizeho. Ntiyashoboraga kubirengaho kuko ibyo bari bakoreye se yari abizi.

Aho kujya mu bikorwa biteza imbere igihugu, Ababiligi bahise batangira umushinga wo kuvangura Abanyarwanda babaha amoko ashingiye ku miterere, indeshyo n’ubukungu bwabo.

Ni umushinga wunganiwe n’uwo gutanga amabuku - indangamuntu za mbere zirimo ubwoko - yanashingiweho n’ubutegetsi mu yindi myaka 60 yakurikiyeho ubwo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yari irimbanyije.

Rudahigwa yamaze imyaka 28 ariko ibikorwa bye bizima byubaka igihugu byagaragaye mu myaka ye ya nyuma ubwo yasabaga Ababiligi ubwigenge.

Byamukozeho kuko mu 1959 yapfuye amarabira, akagwa mu maboko y’umuganga w’Umubiligi wari umaze kumutera urw’ingusho i Bujumbura.

Imyaka yakurikiye itanga rya Rudahigwa na yo yabaye akaga ku Rwanda, kuko Kigeli V Ndahindurwa wamusimbuye, Ababiligi na Parmehutu batamuhaye amahirwe ngo ayobore kugeza ubwo bamuhejeje ishyanga mu 1960.

Aho guharanira ubwigenge bukubira hamwe abenegihugu nk’uko mu bindi bihugu byari biri gukorwa bigaranzura ubukoloni, Parmehutu yafatanyije n’Ababiligi kwica no kumenesha Abatutsi, kugeza mu 1962 u Rwanda rugabirwa ubwigenge.

Ibyo birori nabwo byaryoheye bake kuko byabaye Abatutsi basaga ibihumbi 300 batari mu gihugu. Muri icyo gihe bake bari bagisigayemo bari babayeho batazi ko bwira cyangwa ngo bucye.

Ubutegetsi bw’Umuseminari w’i Gitarama, Grégoire Kayibanda, bwatangiye mu buryo bwemewe mu 1962 kugeza mu 1973, gusa bwaranzwe no gukomeza kwica no guheza Abatutsi.

Akibugeraho muri uwo mwaka n’uwa 1964, yitwaje ko yatewe n’Inyenzi, aho kurwana na zo yahuka mu baturage ararimbagura abaziza ko ari Abatutsi, bityo ko baba babizi cyangwa batabizi bose ari ibyitso by’Inyenzi kuko nazo ari Abatutsi.

Yongeye kubikora mu 1972 ubwo Abatutsi bari barahonotse ubwicanyi bwa mbere, bameneshwaga mu mashuri no mu kazi, abandi bakicwa.

Iri totezwa ry’uruhererekane ryagejeje ubutegetsi bwe ku ndunduro ku wa 5 Nyakanga 1973, ubwo yahirikwaga na Gen Maj Habyarimana Juvénal wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo.

Imyaka 21 ya Gen Gisunzu nk’uko bamwitaga, na yo yaranzwe no guheza Abatutsi ku byiza by’igihugu, byongeraho kubahiga no gutangira kubica mu mugambi wa Jenoside, ubwo FPR Inkotanyi yateraga mu 1990 nyuma yo kwangira impunzi gutaha, ngo igihugu cyaruzuye.

Imyaka ine ya nyuma ya Habyarimana kandi yayimaze arwana no kugumana ubutegetsi bwasaga n’ubwamucitse.

Ku ruhande rumwe, umuriro wakaga mu Kazu Habyarimana yubatse ari na ko kayoboraga igihugu kadashaka kurekura, ku rundi ruhande yari ahanganye n’amashyaka ataravugaga rumwe na we, yasaga n’ayayobotswe na benshi mu baturage bari barazahajwe n’ubukene.

Ni na ko ingabo ze ku rugamba zari zaracitsemo ibice, aho guhangana na FPR Inkotanyi, zimwe zigasubiranamo zishingiye ku moko.

Bwa mbere mu mateka, imyaka 28 ishize igihugu gitekanye mu nzego zose

Uwavuga ko ntaho u Rwanda rwavuye mu myaka 28 ishize, ntaho yaba ataniye na wa wundi ubura icyo anenga inka, akagira ati “Dore igicebe cyayo!”

Igihugu cyabohowe ku wa 4 Nyakanga 1994, miliyoni y’Abatutsi bamaze kwicwa, Abahutu n’abandi batahigwaga basaga miliyoni eshatu bakurikira muri Zaïre Leta yari imaze gukora Jenoside, basiga bateze iminsi FPR kwigera Kigali ikayivamo vuba, kuko baraye bari bugaruke.

Ibyo bibwiraga ko bizaba bidatinze, barabitegereje baraheba. Na n’ubu hari abagifite iyo mitekerereze ko igihe kizagera bigasohora.

Urebye uko igihugu cyiyubatse mu kurinda ubusugire bwacyo no kwiteza imbere, uwavuga ko barota ku manywa ntiyaba ari kure y’ukuri.

Gen Maj Ntawunguka Pacifique wabwiye Gen Kabarebe ko azagaruka mu Rwanda Abatutsi bararushizemo, asaziye mu mashyamba ya Congo nyuma yo gusimbura Gen Mudacumura wapfanye ikiyiko.

Inshuro nyinshi Umutwe w’Iterabwoba ayoboye wa FDLR wagerageje gutera imigeri imbere y’Ingabo z’u Rwanda, ariko byaranze.

Uretse ibitero by’Abacengezi byazuye umugara mu myaka ya za 1997 na 1998 nabyo ntibimare kabiri, nta kindi kintu mu myaka 28 ishize cyigeze gihangara umutekano w’Abanyarwanda.

Imitwe irimo RUD Urunana na MRCD-FLN ya Rusesabagina [uyu uri i Mageragere aho afungiye ibyaha by’iterabwoba] yihaye kuzura umugara ejo bundi mu 2018 na 2019 ibyo yakorewe mwarabibonye.

Muri iyi myaka 28 ni bwo Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda cyubatswe, kigirirwa icyizere ku rwego mpuzamahanga kugeza ubwo cyitabajwe mu bikorwa byo kugarura amahoro mu bindi bihugu.

Byabaye nta n’imyaka 12 ishize u Rwanda rubohowe. Ubu ruza mu bihugu bya mbere bifite ingabo nyinshi mu bikorwa byo kugarura amahoro.

Abanyarwanda bavuye kuri miliyoni eshanu mu 1994 ubu basaga miliyoni 12, ariko u Rwanda ntiruruzura nk’uko Habyarimana yakundaga kubyitwaza.

Ubu ahubwo rufite n’aho rwakirira abimukira bamaze kuva mu bihugu bya Libya, Afghanistan, Israel, impunzi ibihumbi zo muri RDC, u Burundi, ndetse vuba aha rushobora no kwakira abimukira bavuye mu Bwongereza.

Kayibanda na Gitera Joseph bavuze ko Abahutu n’Abatutsi badashobora kubana mu mahoro, ariko Leta y’Ubumwe yaberetse ko barebaga hafi kuko mu myaka 28, nta we urahora undi ubwoko bwe ngo abikire.

N’uwabigerageza inzego z’ubutabera zarubatswe bikomeye, amasaha ye muri rubanda yaba abarirwa ku ntoki.

Ikintu cya mbere Leta y’Ubumwe yaciye igitangira inshingano zo kubaka igihugu cyari cyasenywe burundu, ni indangamuntu ishingiye ku moko ari na yo yifashishijwe harimburwa miliyoni y’Abatutsi mu 1994.

Kwigamba amazuru yacamo imodoka, amaremare cyangwa indeshyo itamanura imvura ntaho wabirisha ubu, mu gihe wikoreye umutwe urimo ubusa.

Mu Rwanda rw’ubu harya uzi gukora, inkorabusa zaburijwemo, bigashimangirwa n’umusaruro mbumbe w’umuturage (GDP) wavuye ku madolari 146 mu myaka 28 ishize, ubu ugeze ku madolari asaga 800.

Mbere ya 1994, hafi igihugu cyose cyari mu bukene kuko ababurimo barengaga 80 %. Ubu usoma ibi ababusigayemo ntibarenze 38 % kandi na bo mu myaka ibiri iri imbere imibare izongera gukorwa bagabanutseho kimwe cya kabiri.

Mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1990 ubwo Habyarimana na Muvoma bari bari mu marembera, Umunyarwanda wuzuzaga imyaka 29 yabagaga ikimasa!

Nyuma y’imyaka 28, icyizere cyo kubaho ku Munyarwanda kiri ku myaka igera kuri 69.Turi imbere y’ibihugu nk’u Buhinde (icya gatandatu gikize ku Isi), u Burusiya itunze ibisasu kirimbuzi, Afurika y’Epfo n’ibindi.

Mu mahanga, u Rwanda rwafatwaga nk’urutariho ndetse rusuzugurwa n’ibihugu bituranye na rwo. Mu myaka 28 ishize u Rwanda rwashyize imbaraga mu gutsura umubano n’ibihugu hafi ya byose ku Isi, kugeza no kubana n’ibihugu byo ubwabyo birebana ay’ingwe.

U Rwanda ni inshuti ikomeye ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Bwongereza, u Bufaransa n’ibindi, rugahindukira rukabana n’u Burusiya ndetse n’u Bushinwa bitarebana neza n’Abanyaburayi.

Muri Nyakanga 2018, Perezida w’u Bushinwa Xi Jinping yabisikanye na Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Buhinde, Narendra Modi, mu ruzinduko mu Rwanda. Umwe yuriye indege, undi ahageze kandi ubusanzwe ntibirebana neza, ariko buri cyose u Rwanda ruzi kubana nacyo mu nyungu za byombi.

Israel ni inshuti y’akadasohoka y’u Rwanda ikarebana ay’ingwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu (UAE), nyamara iki gihugu ni inshuti ikomeye y’u Rwanda.

Ambasade z’u Rwanda zivuka buri munsi kandi abadipolomate bagahabwa misiyo yo guhahira igihugu aho gutwarwa n’akayaga cyangwa akabeho k’ibwotamasimbi.

Hari abatunguwe n’ibishashi by’umuriro byarashwe mu ijoro ryo ku wa 4 Nyakanga 2022 hishimirwa imyaka 28 u Rwanda rumaze rubohowe. Ni mu gihe kuko u Rwanda rw’ubu rutuwe n’abasaga 50 % batarigera bumva isasu kuva bavutse kuko imyaka bafite ingana cyangwa iri munsi y’iy’u Rwanda rushya.

Wibarenganya mu cyimbo cy’amasasu, icyo bazi ni imihanda, amashuri, ibitaro, amazi meza, amashanyarazi n’ibindi byubakwa amanywa n’ijoro.

Icyo bazi ni ukunyereza ‘souris’ (mouse) ya mudasobwa bagendana n’ibigezweho, bashakisha icyabateza imbere ngo ejo batitwa imburamukoro, bakaba ibisuma bakoherezwa i Iwawa cyangwa i Mageragere.

Umwami Musinga yanze gukurikiza ibyo Abakoloni bamubwiraga, bamucira ishyanga mu 1931
Umwami Rudahigwa yagerageje kenshi gushakira u Rwanda ubwigenge ariko Ababiligi baramunaniza kugeza atanze amarabira mu 1959
Kayibanda ashyigikiwe n'Ababiligi, yatoteje amanesha abatutsi muri Repubulika ya mbere, ahirikwa ku butegetsi na Habyarimana Juvenal yitaga inshuti ye
Gitera Joseph azwi mu ishingwa ry'ishyaka Aprosoma n'iyandikwa ry'icyo yise 'Amategeko icumi y'Abahutu' yifashushijwe mu kubiba urwango rwibasiye Abatutsi
Musenyeri Léon Classe ari mu bananije ubwami bwa Yuhi V Musinga no gushyigikira politiki icamo abanyarwanda ibice
Mgr André Perraudin yagize uruhare mu kunaniza ubwami no kubiba politiki y'amacakubiri mu Rwanda, yabaye umuzi wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi
Habyarimana Juvenal (hagati) na Kayibanda (ibumoso) bari ku isonga ry'abahembereye urwango rwibasiye Abatutsi rwagejeje kuri Jenoside mu 1994
Col Guy Logiest yagize uruhare mu gufasha Parmehutu n'andi mashyaka bakoranaga mu kumenesha abatutsi mu Rwanda mu myaka ya 1959 na nyuma y'aho
Théoneste Bagosora yari mu buyobozi bukuru bw'Akazu kateguye Jenoside. Aherutse gupfira muri gereza y'urukiko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga aho yari yarahamijwe ibyaha bya Jenoside
Théodore Sindikubwabo yayoboye Leta y'Abatabazi yashyize mu bikorwa Jenoside, apfa ataragezwa mu butabera
Léon Mugesera ni umwe mu benyegeje urwango rwibasiye Abatutsi, ruganisha kuri Jenoside. Kuri ubu ari muri gereza ku gihano cya burundu yakatiwe n'urukiko
Rusesabagina yashinze MRCD-FLN ngo ihungabanye umutekano w'u Rwanda ariko biranga
Mudacumura yayoboye imyaka myinshi umutwe w'iterabwoba wa FDLR ugamije guhungabanya umutekano w'u Rwanda ariko yarinze apfa atabigezeho
Ubushobozi bw'ingabo z'u Rwanda n'amahanga yarabubonye, ubu zisigaye zitabazwa ahabuze umutekano mu mahanga
Inzego z'u Rwanda zishinzwe umutekano zihora mu myitozo ijyanye n'ibibazo by'umutekano byugarije Isi
Mu myaka 28 u Rwanda rwariyubatse mu nzego zose by'umwihariko z'umutekano
Icyizere cyo kubaho ku Banyarwanda cyarazamutse kubera gahunda nyinshi zigamije imibereho myiza n'iterambere ry'abaturage
Mu duce twasaga nk'utwarazwe ubukene ibintu byarahindutse. Ibi ni ibitaro bya Munini mu karere ka Nyaruguru, hafi y'umudugudu w'icyitegererezo watashywe mu mezi atatu ashize
Amahoteli agezweho yagiye yubakwa hirya no hino. Aha ni mu karere ka Rusizi ku nkombe z'ikiyaga cya Kivu ahubatse Hoteli Kivu Marina Bay
Ibikorwa remezo byakwirakwijwe hirya no hino mu gihugu. Uyu ni umwe mu mihanda yo mu karere ka Nyagatare
Imijyi nka Musanze yunganira Kigali kuri ubu irarabagirana

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