Kuki ibibazo by’abahoze muri M23 bikomeje kuba agatereranzamba? Ikiganiro na Bishop Runiga ubayobora

Yanditswe na Philbert Girinema
Kuya 27 Nyakanga 2020 saa 07:25
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Umutwe wa M23 ni umwe mu yavuzwe cyane mu myaka ya 2012, bigeza n’aho u Rwanda rushyirwa mu majwi na Loni ko ruwuri inyuma, bibyara ikindi kibazo gikomeye ubwo bamwe mu banyaburayi baruhagarikaga inkunga zabo, nubwo uko bagendaga bamenya ukuri bazirekuraga.

Raporo ya Loni yo mu 2012 yashinjaga u Rwanda gushyigikira uyu mutwe, ni yo yashingiweho icyo gihe n’ibihugu birimo Suède, u Budage, u Bwongereza na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika maze biruhagarikira inkunga.

U Rwanda rwahise ruyisubiza rugaragaza amakosa 10 yakozwe n’impuguke za Loni zirubeshyera muri iyo raporo, ari nabyo ibihugu byahereyeho byisubiraho ku myanzuro byari byagiye bifata. Rwakunze kuvuga ko rudakwiye kwitirirwa ikibi cyose kibangamiye umutekano muri Repubulika ya Demokarasi ya Congo, kuko ntaho ruhuriye n’uyu mutwe.

Aba barwanyi barwanaga basaba kubona uburenganzira mu gihugu cyabo nk’abandi baturage b’abanye-Congoyabikiriye , mu 2012 bakije umuriro ku ngabo za RDC bigera n’aho ku wa 20 Ugushyingo bigarurira umujyi wa Goma.

Ingabo za Loni n’iza FARDC zariyunze maze zirawuryanya, bigeza ubwo aba barwanyi bemera gushyira intwaro hasi hagakurikiraho inzira y’amahoro. Bamwe bahise berekeza mu buhungiro mu bihugu bitandukanye birimo n’u Rwanda aho bacumbikiwe mu Burasirazuba bw’Igihugu mu Karere ka Ngoma.

Imibereho y’abahoze muri M23 bari mu Rwanda

Hashize imyaka irindwi abahoze ari abarwanyi b’uyu mutwe bavuye mu burasirazuba bwa RDC, aho bari barigaruriye uduce tumwe na tumwe.

Abarimo Jean Marie Runiga Lugerero binjiye mu Rwanda mu gihe ikindi gice kirimo Sultan Makenga cyo cyerekeje muri Uganda, aho bamaze imyaka itandatu nubwo nyuma aba bari muri Uganda baje gusubira muri Congo.

Pasiteri Jean Marie Runiga ni we uyoboye abahoze ari abarwanyi ba M23 bari mu Rwanda mu nkambi mu Karere ka Ngoma. Muri iyo nkambi nubwo adatangaza imibare nyakuri y’abayirimo, asobanura ko bageze kuri 680.

Avuga ko Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yabakiriye neza ndetse ikagaragaza n’umutima mwiza wo gushakira umuti urambye ikibazo cyabo.

Ati “I Kibungo aho turi, kuva twagera aha twafashwe neza na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda. Ni yo itugaburira, ni yo ivuza abantu, ni yo iducumbikiye, iducungiye umutekano,... Muri make mu izina ry’abahoze ari abarwanyi ba M23, mu by’ukuri ndashimira Guverinoma y’u Rwanda kubera uburyo yatwakiriye. Turabashimiye cyane kuri byose bakoze kandi bagikora kuri twe.”

Abajijwe aho umuryango we uherereye muri iki gihe yasubije ati “Njye ndi i Kibungo, ariko ku bw’impamvu z’umutekano wanjye ntabwo navuga aho umuryango wanjye uri.”

Gen Sultan Makenga wari umuyobozi muri uyu mutwe yahungiye muri Uganda, ariko mu 2017 yahise asubirana n’abarwanyi yari ari kumwe nabo muri RDC, ubu bari ku mupaka wa Uganda n’u Rwanda muri RDC. Runiga ati “Turavugana rimwe na rimwe.”

Kuki aba barwanyi badataha muri Congo

Mu kiganiro na IGIHE, Runiga yasobanuye ko ubwo bari bamaze gufata Umujyi wa Goma mu 2012, basabye abakuru b’ibihugu byo mu Karere kubafasha bakagirana ibiganiro na Guverinoma ya Congo yari iyobowe icyo gihe na Joseph Kabila.

Ati “Nyuma yaho habayeho amasezerano ya Addis Abeba yavugaga ku byo kugarura amahoro muri RDC no gushyigikira amahoro mu karere kose k’Ibiyaga Bigari. Ayo masezerano ntabwo yigeze yubahirizwa neza na Guverinoma ya Congo kuko nta bushake bwari buhari.”

Hakomeje kubaho ibiganiro bigamije kureba uburyo aba bahoze ari abarwanyi bakwinjizwa muri politiki n’igisirikare cya Congo.

Yakomeje agira ati “Ubwo Perezida Félix Tshisekedi yageraga ku butegetsi mu 2018, umwaka ushize, Perezida w’u Rwanda, Paul Kagame na Tshisekedi barahuye bemeranya gushakira umuti iki kibazo cy’abahoze muri M23 hagamijwe gushyigikira ibikorwa by’amahoro mu karere.”

U Rwanda rwahise rwemera kuba umuhuza mu biganiro maze intumwa za RDC n’iza M23 bahurira i Kigali muri Hotel Portofino ku wa 11 na 12 Nyakanga 2019 bemeranya ibintu bitatu by’ingenzi.

Ati “Imbabazi ku bahoze ari abarwanyi, gukuraho impapuro zisaba itabwa muri yombi ku bahoze muri M23 ndetse twemeranya no kuba bashyirwa mu nzego za politiki no mu gisirikare cya RDC hamwe no gucyura impunzi z’abanye-Congo ziri mu Rwanda.”

Ayo masezerano yarasinywe, impande zose zemeranya ko zigiye kuyashyira mu bikorwa mu gihe cyihuse. Ku wa 28 Ukwakira, na none bigizwemo uruhare na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda, intumwa za RDC n’iz’abahoze ari abarwanyi ba M23 bongeye guhura, bahurira muri Gorilla Hotel i Kigali, basinya inyandiko ihuriweho igaragaza uburyo amasezerano ya mbere azagenda ashyirwa mu bikorwa mu byiciro.

Mu mahame harimo ko mu mezi abiri gusa amasezerano azaba yamaze gushyirwa mu bikorwa, bivuze ko mu Ukuboza 2019 ikibazo cy’aba barwanyi cyagombaga kuba cyararangiye burundu. Gusa kuva ubwo nta kintu kirakorwa.

Hatangiye kuvugwa imirwano y’abahoze muri M23 i Rutshuru

Ku wa 21 Nyakanga, mu binyamakuru bitandukanye byo muri RDC handitswe inkuru ko umutwe wa M23 waba wubuye imirwano mu Burasirazuba bw’igihugu, nyuma y’uko hagabwe igitero ku birindiro by’ingabo za Congo, FARDC.

Icyo gitero cyahitanye abasirikare batatu ba Leta undi umwe arakomereka. Urwego rushinzwe kugenzura uko umutekano muri Kivu wifashe (Baromètre Sécuritaire du Kivu) umushinga ukorana na Human Rights Watch, rubinyujije ku rubuga rwa Twitter rwavuze ko igitero cyagabwe ku wa Kabiri tariki 21 Nyakanga 2020, ku birindiro bya FARDC biherereye ahitwa Binkenke, muri Teritwari ya Rutshuru muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru.

Umuvugizi w’Ingabo za Congo ziri mu bikorwa byo guhashya imitwe yitwaje intwaro, Major Guillaume Njike Kaiko, yemeje aya makuru ariko ntacyo yavuze ku bagabye iki gitero.

Ni igitero bivugwa ko cyagabwe n’abarwanyi bari kumwe na Gen Sultan Makenga.

Runiga yahakanye ibivugwa, ashimangira ko we na bagenzi be barangajwe imbere n’amahoro. Ati “Uyu munsi ntabwo turi mu ntambara. Turacyahagaze ku masezerano ya Kigali, ku masezerano ya Addis Abeba. Turashaka amahoro, icyo dusaba guverinoma ya Congo ni ukwihutisha amasezerano, abantu bagasubira muri Congo ku buryo ibyo bibazo byose bikemuka. Ni ibyo nta kindi.”

Runiga avuga ko mu gihe cyose Guverinoma ya Congo izashyira mu bikorwa ibiri mu masezerano, we na bagenzi be bazahita bataha. Ati “Tuzahita tugenda nta kibazo. Ni cyo dutegereje, gusa ubu ntabwo turi mu by’intambara, dushyigikiye inzira z’amahoro nta mpamvu y’intambara.”

M23 ntiyapfuye kubaho

Izina rya M23 (Mouvement du 23 Mars) rifite inkomoko kuwa 23 Werurwe 2009, ubwo Leta ya Congo yasinyanaga amasezerano y’amahoro na CNDP (Congres National pour la Defence du Peuple) yayoborwaga na Gen Laurent Nkunda (yaje gusimburwa na Gen. Bosco Ntaganda ubu uri inyuma ya ‘fer à béton’ z’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga rw’i La Haye nyuma yo guhamwa n’ibyaha by’intambara n’ibyibasiye inyokomuntu agakatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka 30)

Igice cy’abaturage Nkunda yarwaniraga bamwe mu Banye-Congo ntibabemera nk’abenegihugu bagenzi babo ku buryo babahigaga bukware bakicwa nk’inyamaswa, maze hagiyeho umutwe ubarengera bose barawuyoboka.

Aba ni bo bari batuye mu Burasirazuba bwa Repubilika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo mu gice cyahoze ari icy’u Rwanda ari na yo ntandaro yo kuba benshi mu bari muri M23 bavuga ikinyarwanda ku buryo wakeka ko ari Abanyarwanda.

Amasezerano yo kuwa 23 Werurwe yagenaga ko abari muri uwo mutwe bashyirwa mu ngabo za leta abandi bagasezererwa bagasubizwa mu buzima busanzwe, ugahinduka ishyaka rya politiki n’abari abarwanyi bawo bafunzwe bakarekurwa.

Gusa kuwa 4 Mata 2012, havutse undi mutwe wavugaga ko ya masezerano atashyizwe mu bikorwa, abari binjijwe mu ngabo za leta batangira kuziyomoraho. M23 icyo gihe yahise itangirana n’abasirikare bagera kuri 300 bahoze muri CNDP bigumuraga bavuga ko bafashwe nabi mu ngabo za leta, badahembwa, igisirikare nta bushobozi gifite ndetse ko bicwa n’inzara.

Barakamejeje biratinda

Mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, Afurika yose n’amahanga ntazibagirwa M23 yarwanye inkundura ariko hagati ya Nzeri na Ukwakira 2013, nyuma yo gutsindwa n’ingabo za Leta ya Congo n’iza Monusco, bamwe mu barwanyi bayo bagashyira intwaro hasi abandi bakayabangira ingata bagatatana, aho igice kiyobowe na Pasiteri Runiga kirimo abasaga 600 cyerekeje mu Rwanda abandi bajyana na Colonel Sultan Makenga muri Uganda.

Inkuru yabo yaribagiranye ariko mu gihe gishize habaye ibyatunguranye bisa n’ibya ya filime kuko abasirikare ba Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, u Buhinde, u Bushinwa, u Rwanda na Tanzania bagiye muri Uganda mu Karere ka Ibanda bahageze bakubitwa n’inkuba kubera inkuru babwiwe.

Aha muri aka karere niho hari inkambi ikomeye ya gisirikare mu 2015 yashyizwemo abahoze muri M23 bagera ku 1374 bavanywe ahazwi nka Kasese gusa icyo gihe hababarizwaga 300 gusa.

Muri aba basaga 1300 bari barajyanywe muri iyi nkambi, 19 nibo byari bizwi ko bajyanywe kuvururirwa mu bitaro bya gisirikare bya Bombo, icyenda bizwi ko bapfuye kuva mu 2013 bagezwa muri Uganda. Barindwi bahoze ari abarwanyi bagiye mu kazi kazwi mu gihe abandi barindwi bahawe uruhushya rwo kujya kureba abavandimwe babo.

Abandi bagiye he? Ibyibazwaga icyo gihe n’ubu ni byinshi ariko igikomeye ni uburyo batorotse. Uganda yemeza ko yafashe 101 batorotse, hakibazwa uko babikoze niba barakinnye imikino nk’imwe yo muri ya filime ya ‘Prison Break’ cyangwa niba hari undi wabacikishije.

Ubwo Bishop Jean Marie Runiga yaganiraga n'abanyamakuru i Bunagana muri RDC, ku wa 11 Nyakanga 2012

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