2020, ihurizo ku ireme rya demokarasi ya Afurika y’Iburasizuba kubera amatora ateganyijwe

Yanditswe na IGIHE
Kuya 6 Mutarama 2020 saa 09:43
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Muri uyu mwaka, ibihugu bine byo muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba birateganya kuzagira amatora. Ibyo birimo Somalia, Tanzania, Ethiopia n’u Burundi. Ni amatora arimo ay’abakuru b’ibihugu n’ay’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko yombi azashyira ku munzani ireme rya demokarasi muri ako gace.

Tanzania

Ni igihugu cyakunze kurangwa no guhererekanya ubutegetsi mu mahoro guhera igihe cyaboneye ubwigenge. Ishyaka riri ku butegetsi Chama Cha Mapinduzi riracyahabwa amahirwe yo kugumana ubutegetsi.

Mu gihe hitegurwa amatora rusange azaba mu Ukwakira 2020, abatavuga rumwe na Leta n’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta bafite impungenge ko Guverinoma ya Perezida John Pombe Magufuli ishobora kubangamira ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo.

The East African yatangaje ko kuri ubu Guverinoma yakuyeho ibikorwa by’abatavuga rumwe na Leta, bivuze ko nta bikorwa byo gukoresha inama bishoboka mu mashyaka atavuga rumwe na Leta. Hari abantu bafunzwe, abanyamakuru bamwe baburirwa irengero abandi barafungwa nk’urugero rw’umunyamakuru Eric Kabendera cyangwa Paul Magotti wari impirimbanyi y’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Uko kubangamira abatavuga rumwe na Leta kwatumye amashyaka atavuga rumwe na Leta yanga kwitabira amatora y’inzego z’ibanze yabaye mu Ugushyingo umwaka ushize, bituma ishyaka CCM riyatsinda ku kigero cya 99%.

Umunyapolitiki utavuga rumwe na Leta, Tundu Lissu aherutse kuvuga ko guhagarika ibikorwa y’abatavuga rumwe na Leta, ari ikimenyetso ko amatora ya 2020 atazaba mu mucyo.

Perezida Magufuli yatowe mu 2015 afite intego yo kurwanya ruswa. Nubwo yatangije intambara ku baryi ba ruswa, ashinjwa kubangamira demokarasi mu gihugu, gupfukirana amajwi y’abamunenga no kubibasira.

U Burundi

Amatora atenganyijwe muri Gicurasi uyu mwaka, mu gihe hakiri urujijo niba Perezida Pierre Nkurunziza azongera kwiyamamaza nyuma ya manda ya gatatu yafashe mu 2015 igateza imvururu.

Ikindi gihangayikishije ni ukumenya niba Guverinoma ye ifite ubushobozi bwo gutegura amatora anyuze mu mucyo, kuko imiryango n’ibihugu byinshi byateraga inkunga icyo gihugu, byarayihagaritse bishinja Nkurunziza guteza akaduruvayo mu gihugu.

Nubwo Nkurunziza yatangaje ko atazongera kwiyamamaza, ababirebera hafi bavuga ko ashobora kwisubiraho cyangwa agashyiraho umuntu azajya atagekeramo.

Nta kimenyetso cyerekana ko Nkurunziza agiye kuva muri politiki y’u Burundi mu gihe muri Gashyantare umwaka ushize, yimuye ibiro bya Perezida akabijyana mu Mujyi wa Gitega ari naho avuka.

Raporo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yo muri Nzeri 2019, igaragaza ko nta cyizere cy’imigendekere myiza y’amatora mu Burundi mu 2020, mu gihe hakiri Perezida wigaragaza nk’igitangaza’.

Loni ivuga ko ari Perezida wigwijeho ububasha bwose we n’ishyaka rye CNDD FDD, n’ibyaha bishinjwa urubyiruko rw’ishyaka rye ruzwi nk’Imbonerakure rushinjwa guhutaza uburenganzira bw’abaturage n’abatavuga rumwe na Leta.

Icyakora Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga w’u Burundi, Ezechiel Nibigira, aherutse kubwira Inteko rusange ya Loni, ko mu gihugu hari umwuka mwiza uzatuma amatora agenda neza.

Amatora aheruka mu Burundi yaranzwe n'imvururu zikomeye z'abadashyigikiye Nkurunziza

Somalia

Amatora yo muri Somalia ni ingenzi cyane ku mutekano w’akarere. Iki ni igihugu kimaze igihe mu mvururu. Hashize imyaka 50 Perezida atorwa n’itsinda ry’abantu bake baba batoranyijwe, kubera ubwoba bw’uko hateguwe amatora rusange abaturage bakitabira, bishobora guteza imvururu n’umutekano muke.

Mu matora ya 2009, aya 2012 na 2017 hose abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko na Perezida bagiye batorwa n’abantu 14 000 babaga batoranyijwe ngo bahagararire ubwoko buba muri icyo gihugu.

N’uyu munsi haracyari impungenge niba amatora yo muri Somalia koko azaba dore ko aya Perezida aherutse yabereye muri parikingi y’ikibuga cy’indege.

Ikibazo cy’umutwe w’iterabwoba wa al Shabaab ndetse no kuba abatavuga rumwe na Leta baherutse gushinja Perezida Mohamed Abdullahi Farmaajo gushaka kuguma ku butegetsi biteye impungenge ku mutekano w’amatora ateganyijwe.

Guverinoma yatangaje ko yiteguye gukoresha amatora agaca mu mucyo kandi buri muturage wemerewe gutora agatora. Guverinoma yanavuze ko vuba aha izageza ku Nteko Ishinga Amatora umushinga w’amatora kugira ngo wemezwe.

Icyakora, iki gihugu cyiracyafite ikibazo cyo kuvugurura Itegeko Nshinga. Nubwo itsinda ryahawe kurivugurura ryagejeje ku Nteko umushinga w’itegeko, haracyari imbogamizi.

Iya mbere ni uko nta matora ya kamarampaka ashobora kuba hatarakemuka ikibazo cy’agace ka Somaliland kifata nk’igihugu ukwacyo mu gihe Somalia igafata nk’agace kayo.

Mu bindi kandi ivugurura ry’itegeko Nshinga rigomba kureba harimo aho umurwa mukuru ukwiriye kuba, uburyo ubuyobozi bwa za Leta zigize icyo gihugu bukorana na Leta nkuru n’ibindi.

Mu gihe ivugurura ry’itegeko Nshinga ritaraba, n’tegeko rigenga amatora ntirizashoboka kuko abantu ntibashobora gutangira kwiyandikisha hataraboneka itegeko rigenga amatora kandi naryo rigomba kugenwa n’Itegeko Nshinga.

Indi mbogamizi ni umutekano muke. Igice kinini cy’igihugu kiracyari mu maboko y’umutwe wa al Shabaab, bivuze ko aho hantu al shabaab ifite amatora atazashoboka. No mu murwa mukuru Mogadishu naho umutekano waho ntiwizewe.

Ibyo bigaragazwa n’uko tariki 28 Ukuboza 2019, imodoka itezemo igisasu yaturikiye aho abantu basakirwa mu murwa mukuru kigahitana abantu 78.

Perezida Farmaajo yavuze ko icyo gitero ari icy’iterabwoba kandi kitazihanganirwa, icyakora abatavuga rumwe na we bamushinja kubembekereza al shabaab kuko uduce Leta yigaruriye guhera mu 2017 ubwo Farmaajo yajyaga ku butegetsi ari duke.

Ethiopia

Amatora ateganyijwe muri Gicurasi 2020, ni aya mbere azaba abaye guhera Minisitiri w’Intebe wahawe n’igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel, Dr Abiy Ahmed agiye ku butegetsi.

Umwanzuro aherutse gufata wo gusesa amashyaka yose yari agize Ihuriro EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front), agashinga ishyaka rya PP watumye havuka impungenge n’umwuka mubi mu gihugu.

Hari abadashyigikiye iryo shyaka PP kuko risa nk’irije guhanagura umuco n’umuhate bashyizeho bubaka amashyaka yabo mu myaka 30 ishize. Abatabyumva cyane ni abo mu mashyaka nka Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), n’igice cy’ishyaka Oromo Peoples Democratic Organisation (OPDO) ari naryo Abiy aturukamo, rishobora no kumurwanya agatsindwa.

Amavugurura yakozwe na Dr Abiy yazanye umucyo muri Ethiopia yahoze ifatwa nk’igihugu kibangamira uburenganzira bwa muntu ariko byanateje imvururu zishingiye ku turere zitewe n’abandi bantu bakomeye bafite inyota y’ubutegetsi.

Guhera mu 1995, Ethiopia yagiye ikora amatora mu gihe cyagenwe. Icyakora, uretse mu 2005, nta na rimwe higeze habaho amatora arimo guhangana kugaragara nkuko The East African yabitangaje.


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