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Ukuboko k’u Bufaransa muri Afurika: Umujyanama wikoreramo

Yanditswe na Dufitumukiza Salathiel
Kuya 7 Ukuboza 2021 saa 09:02
Yasuwe :

Ikirenge cy’u Bufaransa mu bihugu bya Afurika bwari bwarigabije cyashinguwe ku wa 27 Kamena 1977 ubwo bwahaga ubwigenge Djibouti yari isigaye; ukuboko kwabwo kuhasigara mu buryo buziguye ariko ubu byose byamaze kujya ahabona.

Uretse ukwikunda kw’Abanyaburayi bageze muri Afurika bavuga ko baje kuyifasha gutera imbere nyamara buri wese yishakira amaronko ngo akungahare, ibindi bihugu byamaze gutanga ubwigenge bigabanya kwivanga muri politiki n’imiyoborere yabyo.

Ku Bufaransa, bisa n’aho ari cyo cyabaye igihe cyo gukoresha imbaraga zisumbuye ngo bugire uruhare rukomeye mu kugena ibikorerwa Abanyafurika ku mugabane wabo. Bwabinyujije mu bayobozi b’ibihugu, inkunga bubigenera, inama zibihuza na bwo no mu miryango mpuzamahanga buhuriramo na byo.

Akenshi bubikora bwigaragaza nk’inshuti y’Abanyafurika, umujyanama ubafasha kuzagera ku majyambere.

Na bamwe mu bayobozi babwo bagiye bihamiriza ko Afurika itariho nta jambo bwagira imbere y’ibindi bihugu by’ibihangange mu Isi kuko “ni ho bukura imbaraga zibuha igitinyiro.”

François Mitterand wabuyoboye hagati ya 1981 na 1995, ubwo yari Minisitiri w’Ubutabera mu 1957 yagize ati “Afurika itariho, u Bufaransa nta mateka [akomeye] buzubaka mu kinyejana cya 21.”

Si we gusa kuko na Jacques Chirac wayoboye iki gihugu hagati ya 1995 na 2007, muri Werurwe 2008 yaravuze ati “Afurika idahari, u Bufaransa bwakwisanga mu bihugu bikennye ku Isi.”

Mu bihe bitandukanye bamwe mu bayobozi b’ibindi bihugu bikomeye bateye utwatsi imyitwarire yabwo kuri Afurika. Ibyo ariko ntacyo byahinduye ku mikorere yabwo kugeza n’aho Abanyafurika bihagurukiye bagatangira kugira icyo bakora banabubwiza ukuri.

Luigi Di Maio yanze kurya indimi yerura ko u Bufaransa ari bwo nyirabayazana w'ibibazo Afurika ifite

Mu 2019, Luigi Di Maio wari Minisitiri w’Intebe Wungirije w’u Butaliyani yabaye nk’ukojeje agati mu ntozi ubwo yeruraga ko “u Bufaransa ari bwo mizi y’ibibazo Afurika ifite.”

Icyo gihe yagize ati “U Bufaransa bugira uruhare mu mpunzi ziva muri Afurika zigapfira mu nyanja cyangwa zikagera mu bihugu byacu. Nahagaritse kuba indyarya mvuga ku ngaruka z’abimukira gusa kandi ni cyo gihe cyo kuvuga ku kibatera kuva mu bihugu byabo. Ubumwe bw’u Burayi bwagombye gushyiriraho ibihano ibihugu byose bimeze nk’u Bufaransa bikomeje gukenesha Afurika, bigatuma abaturage bayihunga.”

Icyakora impuguke mu bya politiki Mpuzamahanga akaba n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Dr Ismaël Buchanan, yabwiye IGIHE ko atari u Bufaransa gusa kuko n’ibindi bihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi bigishaka kwiha umwanya muri Afurika.

Ati “Ntabwo ari u Bufaransa nk’igihugu bwonyine. Abantu bumve ko utakuramo Amerika, u Bwongereza n’ibihugu by’u Burayi byose kandi n’u Bushinwa buri kuza.”

U Bufaransa bukenesha Afurika bute?

Mu 2014, Ikinyamakuru Mediapart cy’i Paris gikora inkuru z’ubucukumbuzi cyatangaje ko u Bufaransa bwinjiza miliyari 500 z’amadolari avuye muri Afurika buri mwaka.
Cyagaragaje ko bukora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo bugumane ububasha ku bihugu bwakolonije butitaye ku kiguzi icyo ari cyo cyose byasaba.

Ibihugu hafi 14 bya Afurika biracyabwishyura umwenda wo mu bukoloni ndetse “bisabwa” kuba 85% by’amadovize yabyo abitswe muri Banki Nkuru y’u Bufaransa.

Mu bihugu 12 bya Afurika bimaze kubamo Coup d’états nyinshi kuva mu 1952 kugeza mu Ukwakira 2021, aho icyabayemo nkeya ari zirindwi, bitandatu byakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa.

Imibare ya Kaminuza ya Kentucky igaragaza ko ibyo bihugu bimaze kubamo coup d’état 111 byose hamwe. Ibyakolonijwe n’u Bufaransa birimo Bénin, Burkina Faso, Tchad, Ibirwa bya Comores na Niger byihariye 47.

Urwo ni urugero ruto ariko n’ibindi bwakolonije nka Centrafrique, Côte d’Ivoire, Congo Brazzaville n’ibindi byagiye birangwamo isubiranamo ry’abayobozi n’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi.

U Bufaransa bwakuye ingabo muri Mali, Minisitiri w'Intebe ntiyabwinginga ashaka ikindi gisubizo

Umunyarwanda yaravuze ngo “intambara irasenya ntiyubaka”. Biragoye ko igihugu gihoramo intambara za hato na hato n’umwijyane mu buyobozi bwacyo, cyagira iterambere cyangwa ngo abagituye bagire imibereho myiza.

Mediapart yavuze ko u Bufaransa ari wo muvuno bwaciye, aho uba perezida w’igihugu bushakamo inyungu akazitambamira wese bumwikiza bubinyujije mu wundi Munyafurika ubushyigikiye, bikitirirwa ko aje guhindura imiyoborere.

Nk’urugero muri Kanama uyu mwaka, The Sentry yatangaje ko Ikigo cy’Abafaransa gitunganya umusaruro w’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi, SOMDIAA, cyagiye gitera inkunga umutwe wa UPC ufite ingufu n’ibikoresho bikomeye mu yihurije hamwe ngo ihirike ku butegetsi Perezida wa Centrafrique, Faustin Archange Touadéra.

Uwo mutwe na wo wafashaga SOMDIAA kurinda aho ikorera isukari n’imirima ihingamo ibisheke muri icyo gihugu ndetse ukayifasha kwikubira isoko no kwambutsa magendu y’isukari bayikura muri Sudan.

Thomas Sankara yishwe azira gutambamira inyungu z'Abafaransa muri Burkina Faso

Mu 1987, Thomas Sankara waharaniye impinduramatwara zigamije gukura Burkina Faso mu kwaha k’u Bufaransa kugeza abigezeho akayiyobora, yarishwe.

Blaise Comaporé wari Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Perezidansi yashinjwe uruhare muri urwo rupfu ndetse ubu yatangiwe ikirego mu nkiko. Bivugwa ko yari ashyigikiwe n’Abafaransa mu kwivugana Sankara kuko yababangamiraga ntibabashe kwivanga muri politiki y’igihugu cye.

Muamar kadhafi wayoboraga Libye agahirikwa ku butegetsi mu 2011, bivugwa ko yari aberewemo umwenda na Nicolas Sarkozy wayoboraga u Bufaransa ariko yanabangamiraga inyungu z’abo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi yivuye inyuma.

Yishwe n’inyeshyamba zavugaga ko zizanye imiyoborere myiza kurusha iye, zishyigikiwe n’ingabo za NATO zihuriweho n’u Bufaransa, u Bwongereza, Amerika n’ibindi bihugu.

Kuva mu Ukwakira 2011 yicwa urw’agashinyaguro kugeza ubu, Abanya-Libye ntibarabona umutekano.

Izo ntambara z’urudaca ni zo zituma ubukene n’inzara biba nk’akarande muri Afurika kuko abakayigejeje ku majyambere ari zo bahugiyemo, bigatuma abaturage bayihunga rimwe na rimwe bagapfira mu nyanja bambuka.

Afurika ni yo ibyitera…

Dr Buchanan yasobanuye ko kuba u Bufaransa n’ibindi bihugu by’u Burayi na Amerika muri rusange bikiza kwivanga mu miyoborere na politiki y’ibihugu bya Afurika bigirwamo uruhare n’Abanyafurika ubwabo.

Yatanze urugero rw’uko mu myaka yashize icyo gihugu cyari gifite ijambo mu bihugu bigize Akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari birimo n’u Rwanda ariko ubu akaba atari ko bikiri.

Ati “Kuki [mu bihugu u Bufaransa bucyivanga mu miyoborere yabyo] badafata ingamba zo kwigira ku bandi ngo Afurika itahirize umugozi umwe babashe kwigobotora ibyo byose?”

Dr Buchanan ntiyemeranya n’abavuga ko nyirabayazana w’ibibazo Afurika ifite birimo ubukene, inzara n’intambara biterwa n’abo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi.

Ati “Aho [Abanyafurika] bageze nabo bagombye kugira icyo bakora bakagabanya iyo nzara. Biterwa n’imiyoborere y’ibihugu byabo.”

“Icyakora kuba u Bufaransa bwakwivanga muri Politiki y’ibihugu bya Afurika, ni ibintu byagiye bigaragara ko abantu batabyitondeye bishobora guteza ibibazo bikomeye.”

Aha yatanze urugero rw’ibihugu byitwa ko byigenga ariko bikaba bikoresha amafaranga y’ama-CFA acungwa n’u Bufaransa, avuga ko bizateza ikibazo gikomeye ku Banyafurika.

Ati “Sinumva ko igihugu gifite ubwigenge gikwiye kwemerera ikindi kukiyobora ku ifaranga kuko kimwe mu bigaragaza ko ufite ubudahangarwa ni uko uba ufite ubushobozi bwo kwiyoborera ibikureba.”

Impuguke mu by’ubukungu,Teddy Kaberuka, yashimangiye ko u Bufaransa “busahurira mu nduru” ariko atari bwo nyirabayazana w’ibibazo uyu Mugabane ufite, ahubwo benewo ari bo bananiwe kumvikana ngo bawuteze imbere babashe kubuhagarika.

Ati “U Bufaransa nk’igihugu gifite amateka y’ubukoloni muri Afurika, cyakomeje gukoresha ayo mahirwe cyagize cyubakira ku ntege nke z’Abanyafurika. Ni nk’uko waturana n’umuntu ateye imbuto ariko atazi ko zirinda imirire mibi, akarwaza bwaki wowe uzisoroma ukazitwarira.”

“Icyakora nyuma yo gukoloniza hari amasezerano ibyo bihugu byagiranye n’u Bufaransa abwungura bijyanye n’uko yubatse. Nko ku ikoreshwa ry’ama-CFA nta banki nkuru y’igihugu ibaho, banki nkuru iba mu Bufaransa.[…] Gukorana amasezerano n’ibigo by’ubucuruzi nk’ibicukura peteroli n’ibindi bikorwa bikomeye ni ukubanza kureba ko nta by’Abafaransa bibishoboye hakabona gushakwa ibindi. Ariko se niba ari amasezerano basinye kuki batayasinyura?”

Sylvanus Olympio wabaye Perezida wa mbere wa Togo yagerageje gukora amafaranga y’igihugu cye bwite mu 1963 ahita yicwa

Usubiye mu myaka yashize, Sylvanus Olympio wabaye perezida wa mbere wa Togo yagerageje gukora amafaranga y’igihugu cye bwite mu 1963 ahita yicwa binyujijwe muri Étienne Eyadéma Gnassingbé, bivugwa ko Ambasade y’Abafaransa muri icyo gihugu yamuhembye 612$.

Modiba Keita wayoboye Mali bwa mbere na we mu 1962 yanze ko icyo gihugu gikomeza gukoresha ama-CFA, maze mu 1968 Abafaransa bafasha Moussa Traoré kumuhirika ku butegetsi.

Ibihugu birimo Niger, Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Congo Brazaville, Centrafrique, Mali, Algérie, Libye n’ibindi byinshi muri Afurika bizi akaboko k’u Bufaransa mu mvururu n’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi byahabaye.

Kuri Buchanan ibyo ntibikwiye kuba ibicantege ahubwo byakabafashije kumenya neza aho bahera biyubaka ku buryo abo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi batabona aho bamenera babacamo ibice.

Hari icyizere cy’impinduka no kwiyuburura kwa Afurika

Mu nkundura y’ikoreshwa rya porogaramu ya Pegasus iheruka muri Nyakanga 2021, Maroc yashyizwe ku rutonde rw’ibihugu biyikoresha bineka abatavuga rumwe na yo.
Muri nimero za telefoni Maroc yumvirizaga hasanzwemo n’iya Perezida w’u Bufaransa, Emmanuel Macron.

Mu gihe ibihugu bwakolonije byari bisanzwe bibutinya bikaba bigeze ku rwego rwo kumviriza n’ibyo Perezida wabwo avuga, abo avugana na bo n’aho ajya hose; impuguke mu bya politiki zemeza ko ari intambwe ikomeye igaragaza ko Afurika na yo ishoboye.

Ubusanzwe ibihugu byakoronijwe n’u Bufaransa byabagamo intambara ugasanga ingabo zabwo “ni zo kamara” ariko urugero rwiza rw’impinduka muri iyo myumvire ni Centrafrique.

Umutekano wa Centrafrique wagaruwe bigizwemo uruhare rukomeye n’ingabo z’u Rwanda ku bufatanye n’iz’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ndetse n’iz’u Burusiya.

Impuguke mu bya politiki Mpuzamahanga akaba n’umwarimu muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Dr Ismaël Buchanan, yavuze ko aho Afurika igana ari heza nidasubira inyuma

Muri Mali ho u Bufararansa bwatangiye kuhakura ingabo zabwo zafashaga icyo gihugu guhangana n’Aba-Djihadistes mu mpera za Nzeri 2021, nyuma y’umusirikari wabwo wari waguye ku rugamba akaba uwa 53 uhiciwe kuva mu 2013.

Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Mali, Choguel Kokalla Maïga, yanze kubinginga. France 24 yatangaje ko hatangiye ibiganiro na sosiyete y’Abarusiya yigenga ngo ifashe icyo gihugu kubungabunga umutekano.

Babonye bigenze uko batangiye gutera Mali ubwoba ko nibikora bayifatira ibihano mu miryango mpuzamahanga.

Ku wa 2 Ukwakira 2021, Algérie yahamagaje Ambasaderi wayo mu Bufaransa nyuma y’amagambo “y’agasuzuguro” Perezida Macron yari yayivuzeho.

Mu kiganiro na Le Monde, yumvikanye agira ati “Ese wavuga ko Algérie yariho mbere y’uko ikolonizwa n’u Bufaransa?”

Si ibyo gusa kuko no mu Nama ya France-Afrique iheruka kubera i Montpellier mu ntangiriro za Ukwakira 2021, urubyiruko rw’Abanyafurika rwabwiye Perezida Macron ko “Afurika itagikeneye gufashwa gutera imbere ahubwo u Bufaransa bukwiye kuyireka ikiteza imbere”.

Dr Buchanan yashimangiye ko kuba noneho Abanyafurika bamaze gushira amanga bakagaragariza abiyumvaga ko babafiteho ububasha ko na bo bifitemo ubushobozi, bitanga icyizere cy’impinduka nziza.

Ati “Ndabishima cyane kandi ndanabishyigikira iyo numva uko Afurika irimo kwiyubaka, yigarurira icyizere iniha agaciro. Gusa ikibazo kiracyari ukwibaza ngo bizageza ryari? Hari aho byagiye bigeragezwa ariko igihe kikagera ugasanga bamwe mu benegihugu ni bo babavangiye babereka ko aho bageze bidashoboka.”

“Icyakora biratanga icyizere. Iyo igihugu cya Afurika kibayemo intambara kigatabarwa n’ikindi cyo kuri uyu Mugabane akaba ari cyo kiyihosha mu gihe gito, ni ishema ku Munyafurika.”

François Mitterand yeruye ko u Bufaransa nta mateka bwakubaka Afurika itabayeho
Ubwo Perezida w'u Bufaransa Emmanuel Macron yaganiraga n'urubyiruko rw'Abanyafurika rwamubwiye ko Afurika itagikeneye gufashwa gutera imbere
Nyuma y'amagambo yuje agasuzuguro Perezida Macron yavuze kuri Algérie, Ambasaderi wayo mu Bufaransa yarahamagajwe

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