Imyaka 59 iruzuye! Umunsi Kayibanda yafashe ubutegetsi bikongera icuraburindi ku gihugu

Yanditswe na Bukuru JC
Kuya 26 Ukwakira 2020 saa 10:58
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Kuva ubwo abakoloni bageraga mu Rwanda, amateka yarwo yahindutse bidasubirwaho biturutse ku ruhare rwabo mu kwenyegeza ivanguramoko hagati y’Abahuu n’Abatutsi, byaje no kugeza kuri Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu 1994.

Umwe mu bagize uruhare mu mateka mabi u Rwanda rwagize, bayoboye nyuma y’ubwigenge, ni Gregoire Kayibanda, aho gukosora ibyo abakoloni bazambije, ahubwo yarabishimangiye kuko ari nabo bamuzamuye kugeza bamwicaye mu ntebe nkuru mu gihugu.

Kayibanda yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe wa mbere w’u Rwanda ubwo ingoma ya Cyami yari iri mu marembera. Yari mu bahihibikaniraga ko ubwami buvanwaho, ndetse yaje no gukorana na Mbonyumutwa Dominique wabaye perezida wa mbere mu nzibacyuho.

Kayibanda yaje kumusimbura ku wa 26 Ukwakira 1961. Imyaka 59 iruzuye agiye ku butegetsi, n’ubu ingaruka z’ibikorwa bye ntizirasibangana.

Urugendo rwagejeje Kayibanda ku butegetsi

Mbere gato y’ubwigenge, umwaka wa 1959 ubitse byinshi mu mateka y’u Rwanda kuko ari wo wabaye nk’itangiriro ry’amateka mabi ku Banyarwanda n’intango y’ibibazo mu myaka yakurikiyeho kugeza kuri Jenoside mu 1994, ndetse n’ingaruka zayikurikiye.

Icyo gihe mu gihugu hari amashyaka menshi nka Parmehutu na Aprosoma yari ashyigikiwe n’Abakoloni b’Ababiligi yifuzaga ko ubwami buvaho, ubutegetsi bukajya mu maboko y’Abahutu kandi hakajyaho Repubulika, n’amashyaka nka UNAR na RADER yashakaga ko ubwami bugumaho kandi u Rwanda rugahabwa ubwigenge byihuse.

Kimwe mu bibazo byabaye ni ubwo ku Cyumweru tariki ya 1 Ugushyingo 1959, Mbonyumutwa Dominique wari umuyoboke wa Parmehutu, akaba Sous Chef muri Ndiza i Gitarama, yakubitwaga n’abasore byavuzwe ko bari Abatutsi, akiruka. Abarwanashyaka ba Parmehutu bakwirakwije igihuha cy’uko yishwe n’abambari ba UNAR, ari nako bashishikariza Abahutu kwihorera.

Byaranabaye kuko batangiye kwihorera hirya no hino mu gihugu, batwika inzu n’imyaka y’Abatutsi irarandurwa. Bamwe mu batutsi kandi barimo abari abayobozi batangiye kwicwa, abagize amahirwe barahunga.

Akaduruvayo kakomeje kwenyegezwa, tariki 10 Ugushyingo 1959 u Bubiligi bwemeza itegeko rigenga amavugurura mu miyoborere y’u Rwanda, nk’aho izari sous-chefferies zagombaga guhindurwa komine hakanakorwa amatora ya za Komine, no gushyiraho inzego zagombaga kuganisha u Rwanda ku bwami bugendera kuri Repubulika.

Iryo teka kandi ryasabye amashyaka ya politiki kwitegura amatora ya za komine ndetse inategeka ko tariki 6 Gashyantare 1960 hashyirwaho inama nkuru y’igihugu y’agateganyo yakoraga nk’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko, igizwe na babiri bahagarariye buri shyaka muri ane yari akomeye mu gihugu.

Inama nkuru yari igizwe ahanini n’abakomoka mu mashyaka yarwanyaga ubwami, muri iyo minsi yarateranye iza kwandikira Umwami Kigeli imuha imyanzuro bitaga ko igamije kuzana amahoro mu gihugu ariko Kigeli arayanga kuko yayifataga nk’igamije kumuhatira kwemera ibyo Ababiligi bashaka.

Mubyo bamusabye akabyanga harimo kuva i Nyanza akimukira i Kigali, kuvanaho Kalinga n’indi migenzo yakorwaga ibwami.

Kigeli amaze kubyanga, tariki 30 Mata 1960, amashyaka atatu arimo Parmehutu, Aprosoma na RADER yandikiye Guverinoma y’u Bubiligi ayimenyesha ko umwami yanze gukorana n’amashyaka ndetse n’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu, bityo ko “batangije ihangana na Kigeli.”

Tariki 6 Kamena 1960, abayobozi ba Parmehutu bateraniye mu Ruhengeri bayobowe na Kayibanda, batangaza ko batemera Ubwami, ko bashyigikiye Repubulika, ari nabwo batangazaga ko ishyaka ryabo rihindutse MDR Parmehutu ((Mouvement démocratique républicain – Parti du mouvement d’émancipation hutu).

Kubera ibibazo bya Politiki byari mu gihugu, muri Nyakanga 1960, Umwami Kigeli yumvise ko Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Loni, Dag Hammarskjöld azaba ari i Léopoldville (Kinshasa) muri Congo, asaba Guverineri wa Ruanda-Urundi pasiporo ngo azagende bahure, amugezeho ikibazo cy’abanyarwanda kuko yabonaga ko Ababiligi batazagikemura.

Yabanje kwangirwa pasiporo ariko ageze aho arayihabwa, agiye yangirwa kugaruka ndetse Abakoloni bakwirakwiza kuri Radiyo ko Umwami atemerewe kugaruka mu Rwanda. Yagerageje no kuza mu ibanga babimenye bamusubizayo ku ngufu.

Tariki 18 Ukwakira 1960 hatowe ba Burugumesitiri ba Komine. Muri ba burugumesitiri 229, hari harimo 210 ba MDR Parmehutu. Mu matora y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko yabaye tariki 26 Ukwakira MDR Parmehutu yagize imyanya 31, irindwi ya Aprosoma n’icyenda ya RADER.

Kubera ko MDR Parmehutu ariyo yari ifite ubwiganze mu Nteko niyo yasabwe gushyiraho Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho. Ni Guverinoma yari igizwe n’abaminisititi 9 n’abanyamahanga ba Leta 12 barimo Ababiligi umunani.

Ibyo ubwabyo bigaragaza urwego rw’ubwigenge u Bubiligi bwateguriraga u Rwanda kuko icyo gihugu cyakomeje kugira ijambo rigaragara mu butegetsi bw’u Rwanda na nyuma y’ubwigenge.

Kayibanda na MDR ye bashyigikiwe n’Umubiligi Colonel Logiest, baje kwemeranya gutegura inama y’abajyanama ba Komine yaje guterana ku wa 28 Mutarama 1961 i Gitarama, ari nayo ku mugaragaro yatangaje ko ubwami bukuweho mu Rwanda, hashyirwaho n’ibirango bishya by’igihugu n’ubuyobozi bushya.

Uwo munsi hatowe Dominique Mbonyumutwa nka Perezida w’inzibacyuho, hatorwa abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko nshya, MDR ibona imyanya 40 naho Aprosoma igira 4. Minisitiri w’Intebe aba Grégoire Kayibanda.

Tariki 6 Gashyantare 1961 u Bubiligi bwemeje inzego zari zatorewe i Gitarama nubwo zari zinyuranyije n’umwanzuro wa Loni, icyo gihugu kivuga ko kubihakana byashoboraga guteza umwuka mubi mu gihugu.

Tariki 21 Mata 1961, Loni yatoye undi mwanzuro uvuga ko amatora y’abagize inteko Ishinga Amategeko na kamarampaka azaba muri Nzeri 1961. Bivuze ko Loni yari igitsimbaraye ku mwanzuro wayo wo kutemera inzego zashyiriweho i Gitarama.

Tariki 25 Nzeri 1961 niwo munsi wemejwe nk’itariki y’amatora y’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko na Kamarampaka, aho Abanyarwanda bagombaga kwemeza niba bashyigikiwe umwami n’ubwami cyangwa Repubulika.

Mu Nteko, MDR Parmehutu yatsindiye imyanya 35 kuri 44, UNAR itsindira imyanya irindwi, Aprosoma na RADER buri shyaka ritsindira umwanya umwe umwe.

Ku bijyanye na Kamarampaka, ibyavuye mu matora byaje bivuga ko 79% by’abatoye bemeje ko badashyigikiye ubwami n’Umwami Kigeli.

Nubwo ariko MDR yatsinze, inyandiko z’icyo gihe zigaragaza ko ayo matora yabayemo uburiganya kandi ko abarwanashyaka ba UNAR n’abandi bari bashyikiye ubwami batewe ubwoba, bikiyongeraho ko umwami yari yarabujijwe kugaruka mu gihugu no kuba benshi mu barwanashyaka be bari barameneshejwe bagahunga igihugu, abandi barishwe.

Amatora arangiye, benshi mu Batutsi bongeye kwibasirwa ndetse n’abari bafite icyizere ko inzego nshya z’ubuyobozi zagarura ituze mu gihugu, bari batangiye kubona neza umurongo mushya w’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda.

Tariki 26 Ukwakira 1961, Inteko Ishinga amategeko yarateranye itora Amandin Rugira kuba Perezida w’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko mu gihe Kayibanda Inteko yamutoreye kuba Perezida.

Ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda bwakomeje umwuka mubi mu gihugu

Bijyanye n’uko ibintu byagiye bikurikirana, Perezida wa mbere nyuma yo kuvanaho ubwami yabaye Mbonyumutwa Dominique wayoboye by’agateganyo kuva ku wa 28 Mutarana 1961 kugeza ku wa 26 Ukwakira 1961, Kayibanda amubera Minisitiri w’Intebe.

Ubwo ishyaka rye ryatsindiraga imyanya myinshi mu Nteko, Kayibanda yabaye Perezida ubwo igihugu igihe cyabonaga ubwigenge.

Agera ku butegetsi mu mpera za 1960, kimwe mu by’ibanze byamuranze ni irondakarere nubwo bitagarukiye aho.

Akimara gushyikira ubutegetsi, yahihibikaniye gushyiraho abayobozi mu nzego nkuru z’igihugu hafi ya bose bavaga mu yahoze ari Perefegitura ya Gitarama, mbarwa muri bo bakomoka muri Butare, Gikongoro, Kibuye na Kibungo.

Ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo icyo gihe bwasaga n’ubwihariwe n’abakomokaga mu yahoze ari Ruhengeri na Gisenyi barimo Juvenal Habyarimana, Col. Aloys Nsekarije, Col. Alex Kanyarengwe n’abandi. Uku guharira ubuyobozi bukuru bwa gisirikare abakomoka mu majyaruguru, Kayibanda yaje kubikuramo imbwa yiruka.

Hagati ya 1968-1969, ishyaka MDR Parmehutu rya Kayibanda ryacitsemo ibice: Kayibanda yatangiye gufata abasore bakirangiza Kaminuza, akajya abaha imyanya mu buyobozi akabasimbuza bamwe mu bakuze bamufashije kujya ku butegetsi, bituma bamwe batangira kumwigumuraho.

Umwuka warushijeho kuba mubi tariki 18 Gicurasi 1973 ubwo Kayibanda yasinyaga ibwiriza rihindura Itegeko Nshinga, aho mu ngingo zari zahinduwe hagaragayemo ikuramo umubare ntarengwa wa manda, imyaka igize manda ivanwa kuri ine iba itanu ndetse n’ingingo y’uko nta muntu urengeje imyaka 60 wakwiyamamariza kuyobora igihugu nayo yakuwemo.

Icyo gihe byari bivuze ko bamwe bumvaga bazamusimbura mu myaka yari bukurikireho bagombaga gusubiza amerwe mu isaho, cyangwa bagaca undi muvuno.

Benshi mu ba ofisiye bakuru mu gisirikare baturukaga mu Majyaruguru nabo batangiye kubona ingufu nke z’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda. Batangiye no kumushinja irondakarere, by’umwihariko abahutu bo mu Majyaruguru bari bafite inyota y’ubutegetsi bavuze ko yabwujujemo bene wabo baturuka mu Majyepfo by’umwihariko i Gitarama, hitwaga mu Nduga.

Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’intege nke za Kayibanda

Ku ngoma ye, mu 1972 nibwo abanyeshuri n’abakozi b’Abatutsi batangiye kwirukanwa mu mashuri no mu kazi babikorewe na bagenzi babo. Icyo gihe bamwe barishwe, abandi inzu zabo ziratwikwa.

Mu gitabo ‘Toute ma vie pour vous mes frères’ cyanditswe n’umubiligi Baudouin Peternostre de la Mairieu wabaye Umujyanama wa Kayibanda mu by’ububanyi n’amahanga, avuga ko mu ntangiriro za 1973 mu gihugu byagaragaraga ko hashobora kuba impinduka mu butegetsi isaha iyo ari yo yose.

Icyo gihe mu Rwanda hari akaduruvayo kenshi ku buryo byagaragazaga intege nke z’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda.

Uyu mugabo icyo gihe wari ufite imyaka 48, yarangwaga no kurwaragurika ku buryo bwageze aho butangira gutera inkeke ibyegera bye, naho abamurwanya bo batangira kubyuririraho. Baudouin Peternostre avuga ko bamwe mu basirikare bakuru bo mu Majyaruguru bashobora kuba baragize uruhare mu guteza akaduruvayo kugira ngo berekane ko ananiwe.

Urunturuntu n’akaduruvayo byatumye urwikekwe kuri Kayibanda rwiyongera ku buryo byageze aho atangira gukura bamwe mu basirikare bari bakomeye mu myanya barimo mu ngabo abashyira mu myanya isanzwe, nka Lt. Col. Kanyarengwe wagizwe umuyobozi wa Seminari Nto ku Nyundo n’abandi.

Kayibanda yaje kugambanirwa, arahirikwa

Tariki 1 Nyakanga 1973 ku munsi w’Ubwigenge, ibimenyetso byo guhirika Kayibanda yabiboneye kuri Stade Regional Nyamirambo aho umunsi mukuru wabereye.

Maj. Augustin Gatarayiha wari ofisiye mu ngabo z’u Rwanda waganiriye na IGIHE kuri bimwe yibuka Kayibanda yaba yaravugiye muri ibyo birori, avuga ko yeruriye abashakaga kumuhirika.

Gatarayiha yagize ati “Kayibanda yaravuze ati ‘ndabizi ko mushaka kumpirika, nimubikore se turebe, mubikore aka kanya.’ Muri icyo gihe, uwitwa Alphonse Libanje wari kuri Radio Rwanda ngo akupa amajwi abanje kumubwira ngo ‘Vaho turaguhaze’.

Muri ako kanya Col. Nsekarije yahise asohoka muri stade, abari aho batangazwa no kubona Gen. Maj. Habyarimana nta cyo bimubwiye. Kubona Umugaba w’Ikirenga w’Ingabo Kayibanda asuzuguwe mu ruhame Habyarimana wayoboraga ingabo arebera, byari amarenga y’ibihe bya nyuma bya Kayibanda.

Habyarimana yari Minisitiri w'Ingabo ku butegetsi bwa Kayibanda

Bivugwa ko Kayibanda yizeraga cyane Habyarimana ku buryo ngo hari n’abajyaga bamubwira ko ashobora kumuhirika akabita abasazi, ndetse bari inshuti ku buryo yari yaranamubyariye umwana muri batisimu.

Umunsi yahiritsweho tariki 5 Nyakanga 1973 ni bwo hagombaga kuba kongere y’Ishyaka MDR Parmehutu, hakemezwa uzarihagararira mu matora yagombaga kuba muri Nzeri uwo mwaka nk’uko Kayibanda yabyifuzaga ahindura Itegeko Nshinga.

Mu ijoro rishyira uwa 5 Nyakanga, Kayibanda yavanwe ku butegetsi mu buryo bwasaga n’ubwanogejwe bifatika by’icyo gihe. Abasirikare baramugose baramushimuta, avanwa i Kigali bajya kumufungira i Rwerere muri Komini Cyeru, Perefegitura ya Ruhengeri mu Ishuri ryigishaga ibijyanye n’ubuhinzi. Yari acunzwe n’abasirikare 15 ndetse nta burenganzira yari afite bwo gusurwa nk’izindi mfungwa zose.

Nyuma y’ibyumweru bike abari ibyegera bye n’abayobozi muri Leta batawe muri yombi barafungwa, baza no gukatirwa urwo gupfa, abandi bagenda bapfa uruhongohongo mu buryo budasobanutse.

Mu mpera za 1973, Habyarimana yohereje i Rwerere Umuyobozi Mukuru w’inama y’Abaminisitiri, Col Elie Sagatwa, ngo abwire Kayibanda kutiyumva nk’imfungwa, ko kandi igihe kizagera bakaganira.

Icyakora tariki 4 Gashyantare 1974, Kayibanda yagejejwe imbere y’urukiko, ku wa 26 Kamena akatirwa igihano cyo kwicwa we na bagenzi be batandatu. Gusa cyaje guhindurwamo igifungo cya burundu akomeza gufungirwa i Rwerere, ahakurwa ku wa 11 Nzeli 1974 ajyanwa mu rugo rwe ruri i Kavumu mu Murenge wa Nyamabuye, Akarere ka Muhanga hafi y’icyicaro cya Diyosezi ya Kabgayi.

Nyuma y’amezi abiri, umugore we witwa Verediane yitabye Imana. Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri, ahagana saa kumi za mu gitondo ku itariki ya 15 Ukuboza 1976, nibwo Kayibanda yashizemo umwuka ari kumwe n’umwana we w’imfura witwa Kayibanda Pie. Bivugwa ko yapfuye nyuma yo kwicishwa inzara.

Amakuru y’urupfu rwe yabanje kugirwa ibanga rikomeye kuko Abanyarwanda batahise bayamenyeshwa. Yamenywe bwa mbere n’abihaye Imana b’i Kabgayi, bayahererekanya hagati yabo mu ibanga rikomeye.

Habyarimana na we nta muti yazanye

Ku butegetsi bwa Habyarimana, ivanguramoko ryakomeje guhabwa intebe ndetse riva mu moko risingira uturere, mbere ibyo yitaga gucamo igihugu ibice nawe arabyimakaza, arema icyo bise Akazu, politiki y’iringaniza igamije gupyinagaza Abatutsi ihabwa intebe.
Maj. Gatarayiha wabaye mu Gisirikare cya Habyarimana kuva mu 1972-1993, yabwiye IGIHE ko hiyongereyeho n’uburyo abahutu b’abanye-Nduga bamwijunditse ko uretse kuba yarahiritse mwene wabo, yanishe urw’agashinyaguro abategetsi batandukanye.

Hari ubwo mu 1992-1993 bisutse mu mihanda mu nkundura y’amashyaka menshi, bamusaba kurekura ubutegetsi n’umujinya n’inzika ikomeye bari bamufitiye kubera ibyo yabakoreye.

Maj. Gatarayiha avuga ko ubwo imyigaragambyo yari irimbanije, Habyarimana yamutumije muri Village Urugwiro kabiri yikurikiranya ngo amubaze icyo gukora n’uko yakwigobotora imyigaragambyo n’amashyaka yamurwanyaga, anamubaza uwamuhitishamo kujya mu ishyaka, ari irihe yahitamo.

Yagize ati “Namubwiye ko nta shyaka na rimwe najyamo ndetse ko na MRND ntayijyamo, kandi mwerurira ko urugamba rw’amashyaka rutoroshye nk’uwari ushinzwe umutekano mu Mujyi wa Kigali. Yubika umutwe nk’iminota itanu, awubuye ambaza icyo yamfasha kubera yakundaga guha abasirikare amafaranga nk’iturufu yo kubikundishaho, mubwira ko njye ntacyo nkeneye, arumirwa”.

Maj. Gatarayiha wanayoboye Ikigo cya Gisirikare cya Gitarama kuva 1982-1990, anavuga ko mu ishyingurwa rya Kayibanda, nta wundi munyacyubahiro mu bariho wahakandagiye uretse abantu bacye cyane bo mu muryango wa Kayibanda bamushyinguye.

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascene, aheruka kuvuga ko yaba Habyarimana cyangwa Kayibanda, nta wigeze aharanira ko abanyarwanda bunga ubumwe, ari nayo ntandaro y’ibyago igihugu cyagize.

Ati ”Aho u Rwanda ruboneye ubwigenge, ku itariki ya 01/07/1962 kugeza muri Nyakanga 1994, ubutegetsi bw’ishyaka rya PARMEHUTU buyobowe na Kayibanda, n’irya MRND ryari riyobowe na Jenerali Yuvenali Habyarimana, aho gukosora amateka mabi yasizwe n’Abakoloni, ahubwo bwaranzwe no guha ifumbire ya ngengabitekerezo yazanywe n’Abakoloni, bimakaza politiki y’amacakubiri n’urwango ku Batutsi ari nako babakandamiza babavutsa igihugu, amashuri n’imirimo.”

Habyarimana yari Minisitiri w'Ingabo ku butegetsi bwa Kayibanda
Kayibanda ubwo yari yitabiriye inama y'ihuriro ry'abagize inteko zishinga amategeko, mu 1965
Kayibanda anengwa byinshi mu mateka yagejeje u Rwanda kuri Jenoside

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