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Ibihano by’iburyo n’ibumoso: U Burusiya mu ihurizo ry’ibirenga 5000

Yanditswe na Cyprien Niyomwungeri
Kuya 11 March 2022 saa 03:45
Yasuwe :

Mu rukerera rwo ku wa 24 Gashyantare 2022, saa kumi n’imwe n’iminota mike abatuye Ukraine benshi biteguraga kubyuka ngo berekeze ku mirimo nk’uko bisanzwe. Ibyari ubuzima busanzwe byaje guhinduka intambara ubwo igisasu bikekwa ko cyarashwe n’indege y’Abarusiya cyahinduraga ikirere cya Kyiv umuriro n’umwotsi.

Kuva ubwo, iminsi 16 rwambikanye hagati y’ingabo za Vladimir Putin na Volodymyr Zelensky, wakunze kwitsa ku ijambo ‘kwirwanaho’ mu ntambara ikaze ikomeje gushegesha igihugu cye.

Intambara u Burusiya bwagabye kuri Ukraine ikomeje kutavugwaho rumwe. Ubutegetsi bwa Vladimir Putin, bukomeje kuvumirwa ku gahera n’abayamagana mu gihe bamwe bifashe abandi bakayishyigikira.

Ibihugu byo muri NATO n’ibindi bibishyigikiye bikomeje kurwana inkundura mu gupfinagaza u Burusiya kubera iyi ntambara. Ibihano bitabarika by’ingeri zose birisukiranya ubutitsa yaba kuri Leta, ku Barusiya bafitanye umubano na Putin, inganda zo mu Burusiya n’ibindi byose byatuma ubukungu bw’iki gihugu buhungabana.

Imibare yerekana ko u Burusiya bumaze gufatirwa ibihano birenga ibihumbi bitanu, kikaba ari cyo gihugu cya mbere ku Isi gifatiwe ibihano byinshi nyuma ya Iran yafatiwe ibihano 3616, Syria ifite 2608 mu gihe Koreya ya Ruguru ifite ibihano 2077.

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’u Bwongereza bikomeje kuyobora urutonde rw’ibihugu bifatira u Burusiya ibihano mu rwego rw’amabanki, ubucuruzi bwa gaz n’ubwa peteroli, ibyo ni bibi kurusha intambara.

Ibyo bihano bigamije “kuryoza u Burusiya ibyo bwakoze ndetse no gukorera hamwe mu gutuma iyi ntambara ihinduka uburyo bwo gutsindwa kwa Vladimir Poutine.”

Ku rundi ruhande u Burusiya na bwo bukomeje kwihimura ku bihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi, bushyiraho ibihano birimo gukumira ibicuruzwa n’ibindi.

U Burusiya bumaze gufatirwa ibihe bihano?

Ubusanzwe igihugu gifatira ikindi ibihano kugira ngo gihagarike ibikorwa by’ubushotoranyi cyangwa kwica amategeko mpuzamahanga. Ibi bihano cyane cyane biba bigamije gushegesha ubukungu bw’igihugu cyabifatiwe cyangwa ubutunzi bw’abantu runaka nk’abanyapolitiki n’abacuruzi bakomeye.

Ni kimwe mu bikorwa bibi cyane igihugu gishobora gukorerwa. U Burusiya burotswa igitutu ngo buhagarike intambara muri Ukraine, gusa ku rundi ruhande hari abasanga bishobora gutuma u Burusiya burushaho kurakara bukaba bwafata izindi ngamba zikakaye zirimo no gukoresha intwaro zikaze.

Perezida Joe Biden aherutse gutangaza ko ahagaritse gutumiza gaz na peteroli by’u Burusiya. U Bwongereza bwo buzahagarika burundu gutumiza Peteroli mu Burusiya mu mpera za 2022.

Imibare yerekana ko ubungubu kimwe cya kane cya Peteroli ikoreshwa mu bihugu bigize EU, itumizwa mu Burusiya, mu gihe gaz iturukayo ingana na 40% by’ikoreshwa muri EU. Ibi bikaba byatumye uyu muryango udatangaza ko ubihagaritse burundu ariko komisiyo ya EU yatangaje ko ishaka irindi soko vuba vuba ndetse ibihugu bikimukira ku ngufu zisubira zitangiza ibidukikije kugira ngo u Burayi bube bwigenze ku bijyanye n’ingufu nibura mbere 2030.

U Budage ariko bwabaye bwifashe bwitandukanya n’umugambi wo gukumira gaz na peteroli bituruka mu Burusiya, ivuga ko igihugu kibikeneye cyane ndetse ko mu gihe byagenda gutyo byahungabanya urwego rw’ingufu mu gihugu.

Nk’uko BBC ibigaragaza, umwaka ushize, u Budage bwinjije peteroli na gaz bifite agaciro ka miliyari 19,4 z’amadolari bivuye mu Burusiya, ni ukuvuga 59% by’ibyo bwinjije byose bivuye muri icyo gihugu.

Ibihano mu by’imari

Ibihugu byo mu Burengerazuba bw’Isi bikomeje gufatira ibihano u Burusiya. Mu rwego rw’imari byafatiriye ububiko bw’amadovize angana na miliyari 630 z’amadolari Banki Nkuru y’u Burusiya yabitse mu mahanga, ibintu bishobora gutuma buhura n’ikibazo cy’amafaranga yo gutumiza ibicuruzwa mu mahanga.

Itangazo rya Amerika ryabujije kugirana ubucuruzi na Banki Nkuru y’u Burusiya ndetse n’ikigega cya leta cy’imari, rikaba ribwambura ubushobozi bwo gukora ubwo burucuzi no kongera kugera ku bubiko bw’abarirwa muri miliyari z’amadolari.

U Burusiya ntibwemerewe kugera ku butunzi bufite bwaba uburi muri Amerika n’ahandi buri mu madolari ya Amerika. U Bwongereza bwabujije ibigo by’Abongereza kongera kugirana ubucuruzi na banki nkuru y’u Burusiya, Minisiteri yabwo y’imari n’ikigega cya leta y’u Burusiya gishinzwe ishoramari.

Ni mu gihe Leta ya Singapore na yo yatangaje ibihano ku Burusiya birimo ibyerekeranye n’ihererekanya ry’amafaranga muri banki ndetse n’ibyo bwohereza mu mahanga.

Hari ibindi bihano Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika n’ibihugu bifatanya byafashe mu guca intege umuvuduko w’ubukungu bw’u Burusiya no guhagarika imikorere y’amabanki yabwo biyakura muri gahunda yo guhererekanya amafaranga hagati y’amabanki yo ku Isi izwi nka SWIFT. Ibi bizagira ingaruka ku kwishyura peteroli na gaz byo mu Burusiya.

Banki Nkuru y’u Burusiya yanahagaritswe mu muryango uhuza amabanki makuru y’ibihugu, iri rikaba ari ihuriro aya mabanki akoresha mu bucuruzi.

By’umwihariko u Bwongereza bwakuye amabanki yo mu Burusiya muri gahunda yifashishwa mu kwishyurana, imitungo yazo irafatirwa. Guverinoma y’u Burusiya ndetse n’ibigo bikomeye ntibyemerewe gushaka amafaranga cyangwa kuyaguza mu Bwongereza.

Hagomba kandi gushyirwaho umubare ntarengwa w’amafaranga Umurusiya yemerewe kubitsa muri Banki z’Abongereza.

Ibihano by’abantu ku giti cyabo

Amerika, u Bwongereza na EU, byafatiye ibihano abaherwe benshi bagaragara nk’aba hafi mu butegetsi bw’u Burusiya. Imitungo ya Perezida Vladimir Putin na Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga we, Sergei Lavrov, iri muri Amerika, u Bwongereza, EU na Canada, yarafatiriwe.

Amerika kandi yanafatiye ibihano byo kudakorerayo ingendo. U Bwongereza nabwo bwafatiye ibihano abaherwe barindwi b’Abarusiya, barimo nyir’ikipe ya Chelsea, Roman Abramovich, aho bwafatiriye imitungo ye ndetse bubakumira kuhakorera ingendo.

Amerika na yo ifite urutonde rw’abaherwe b’Abarusiya yafatiye ibihano barimo umucuruzi Alisher Usmanov.

U Bwongereza bwahagaritse kugurisha viza z’icyubahiro ‘golden visas’, zemerera abakire b’Abarusiya kubona uburenganzira bwo gutura muri Amerika. Abadepite b’iki gihugu bakaba bagomba kuganira ku itegeko ry’ibyaha byerekeranye n’ubukungu, rigamije kuzafatira imitungo y’abambari ba Putin iri mu Bwongereza.

Nibura mu cyumweru kimwe gusa u Burusiya butangiye intambara muri Ukraine, abaherwe bakomeye cyane muri iki gihugu bari bamaze guhomba miliyari $80.

Bloomberg Billionaires Index, yagaragaje ko abaherwe 20 ba mbere mu Burusiya, nibura kimwe cya gatatu cy’ubukungu bwabo cyahombye mu cyumweru kimwe cy’intambara.

Ibyashegeshe cyane ubukungu bw’abo baherwe harimo ibihano bikomeye byafatiwe inkoramutima za Perezida Vladimir Putin, igabanuka ry’agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Burusiya (Rouble) ndetse n’ibindi bihano by’ubukungu.

Ibihano mu bucuruzi n’ingendo, ibigo binini byateye umugongo u Burusiya

Amerika, EU n’u Bwongereza byahagaritse kohereza ibicuruzwa mu Burusiya birimo ibikoreshwa n’abasivili n’abasirikare byiganjemo ibinyabutabire n’ibindi. EU ishaka kandi ko u Burusiya butazashobora kwagura inganda zabwo zitunganya peteroli, yanahagaritse kandi kugurisha indege n’ibikoresho byazo kuri sosiyete z’ubwikorezi z’u Burusiya.

Amerika n’ibindi bihugu nk’u Bwongereza, EU na Canada, byahagaritse ingendo z’indege z’Abarusiya mu kirere cyabyo. U Bwongere na bwo bwanahagaritse n’indege zihariye z’ibihugu bikorana n’Abarusiya. Aha ni nka Belarus yeruye ko ishyigikiye u Burusiya.

BBC itangaza ko ibigo bikomeye by’ubucuruzi ku Isi nka McDonald’s, Coca-Cola na Starbucks byahagaritse by’agateganyo ubucuruzi mu Burusiya. Universal Music Group, imenyerewe mu by’umuziki yahagaritse ibikorwa ndetse inafunga aho yakoreraga mu Burusiya.

Apple, Netflix, Zara, Mothercare, H&M na Jaguar Land Rover, byamaze gufata umwanzuro wo guhagarika by’agateganyo ibikorwa mu Burusiya.

Ibigo bitatu muri bine binini bizobereye mu ibaruramari KPMG, EY na PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), byatangaje ko nta kigo bigikorana na cyo mu Burusiya, ikigo gikomeye mu by’amategeko, Freshfields, na cyo cyamaze gutangaza ko nta mukiliya ufite aho ahurira n’u Burusiya barimo gukorana na we.

U Burusiya bwakumiriwe muri Siporo

Ishyirahamwe ry’Umupira w’Amaguru ku isi, FIFA n’iry’umupira w’amaguru ku mugabane w’u Burayi-UEFA na yo yahagaritse u Burusiya mu mikino yose itegurwa na yo.

Ni ibihano kandi bitareba ikipe y’igihugu gusa ahubwo amakipe yose y’umupira w’amaguru yo muri icyo gihugu ntiyemerewe kwitabira imikino itegurwa na FIFA ndetse na UEFA.

Ibyo bivuze ko u Burusiya butacyitabiriye imikino y’amajonjora yo guhatanira itike yo kujya mu gikombe cy’isi kizabera i Doha muri Qatar mu mpera z’uyu mwaka wa 2022.

Ikipe zifitwe n’abaherwe b’Abarusiya na zo zikomeje guhura n’akaga. Urugero rwa hafi ni Chelsea y’umuherwe Roman Abramovic. Iyi kipe nta mukinnyi mushya yemerewe kugura ndetse n’abo isanganywe ntiyemerewe kubongerera amasezerano mu gihe ibya nyirayo bitarasobanuka.

Ntabwo kandi Chelsea FC izongera kugurisha amatike yo ku mikino yayo, cyangwa ibicuruzwa biri mu maduka yayo, uretse kko izakomeza gukina amarushanwa iri gukina, ikemerwa kwakira amafaranga y’ibigo byerekana imikino yayo ndetse n’abafana baguze amatike y’umwaka wose bakazemererwa gukomeza kureba imikino yayo. Iki cyemezo cyafashwe nyuma y’uko Leta y’u Bwongereza ihaye iyi kipe uruhushya rudasanzwe.

Kubera iki kibazo cy’ibihano byafatiwe Abramovich, abaterankunga ba Chelsea FC batangiye kugaragaza ko batifuza gukomeza gukorana n’iyi kipe, kuko bishobora kugira ingaruka mbi ku izina ry’ibyo bigo. Ibi byatumye bimwe muri byo bitangira gufata imyanzuro ikomeye irimo gucana umubano na Chelsea.

Icyafashe iya mbere ni ‘Three’, ikigo cy’itumanaho kizwi cyane mu Bwongereza. Iki kigo cyamaze gusaba Chelsea FC gukura ibirango byacyo ku myambaro yayo no ku kibuga cyayo ndetse n’ahandi hantu hose iki kigo kiri kubera Chelsea.

Kubera uruhare u Burusiya na Belarus bifite mu ntambara iri kubera muri Ukraine, Komite Mpuzamahanga y’Imikino y’Abantu bafite ubumuga (IPC), yafashe icyemezo cyo guhagarika abakinnyi babyo bagombaga kwitabira imikino mu Bushinwa.

IPC yari yabanje kwemerera aba bakinnyi kwitabira ku giti cyabo [nta gihugu bahagarariye], ariko byamaganiwe kure n’amakipe menshi, mu rwego rwo kugabanya igitutu iyi komite ihitamo guhagarika ibihugu byombi.

Nyuma yaho, Komite y’Imikino y’Abantu bafite ubumuga mu Burusiya (RPC) yatangaje ku wa Gatanu ko iri gutegura uburyo abakinnyi bava mu Bushinwa ndetse ititeguye kujuririra icyemezo cya IPC mu Rukiko rwa Siporo (CAS) kubera inama yagiriwe.

U Burusiya bwasubije iki ku bihano bukomeje gufatirwa?

Umuvugizi w’ibiro bya Perezida Vladimir Poutine, Dmitry Peskov, yatangaje ko nubwo ibihano birimo gufatirwa u Burusiya biremereye cyane icyo gihugu cyari cyarabanje kubyitegura kandi gifite uburyo bwo “kuburizamo ingaruka mbi byateza.”

Perezida Putin na we yatangaje ko kuba Umuryango OTAN n’inshuti zawo barimo gufatira u Burusiya ibihano ngo byabaye nko gushoza intambara ku gihugu cye.

Putin ariko avuga ko hari izindi mpamvu zisa n’izishaka gukurura intambara yagutse, aho avuga ko kumufatira "ibihano na byo byabaye nko gushoza intambara".

Ati "Hari byinshi birimo kuba biturutse ku byo tubona n’ibyo duhura na byo, ni uburyo bugamije kurwanya u Burusiya".

U Burusiya nabwo ariko bwahise buhagarika kohereza mu mahanga ubwoko bw’ibicuruzwa burenga 200 kugeza mu mpera za 2022, mu rwego rwo kugabanya ingaruka bwagirwaho n’ibihano bukomeje gufatirwa.

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu kandi yahise ikuba kabiri inyungu iheraho amabanki amafaranga mu kugabanya guta agaciro kw’ifaranga, ryamaze kumanukaho 30% ugereranyije n’idolari nyuma y’ibihano.

Guverinoma y’u Burusiya yanakuyeho kwishyura inyungu ku bashoramari b’abanyamahanga bayifitiye impapuro mpeshamwenda, inabuza ibigo byo mu Burusiya kwishyura abanyamigabane babyo bataba mu gihugu.

Bwabujije kandi abashoramari b’abanyamahanga bafite imari n’imigabane ku isoko kubigurisha.

U Burusiya bwahagaritse ingendo za sosiyete y’Abongereza, British Airlines, mu kirere cyabwo cyangwa gukoresha ibibuga byabwo. Abasesenguzi kandi banagaragaza ko Putin ashobora kugabanya cyangwa guhagarika gaz yerekeza i Burayi.

Umusesenguzi mu by’ubukungu, André Carta Panisse, yabwiye Europe 1 ko ibi bihano bifite ingaruka nyinshi ku bukungu bw’igihugu aho buzasubira inyuma, abaturage babwo bagahungabana mu mibereho.

Ati "Birumvikana cyane ko bizakora ku Barusiya mu buryo butaziguye, yaba mu mibereho y’ingo, ubushobozi bw’abaturage bwo kugura ibintu ndetse n’izamuka ry’ibiciro. Ifaranga naryo rikomeje guta agaciro. Ni icyiza ku bukungu kidasanzwe".

Perezida Putin avuga ko ibihano igihugu cye cyafatiwe bizagira ingaruka ariko biteguye

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