Amasubyo mu biganiro bya Arusha byatangiye Guverinoma ya Habyarimana itarebana mu maso na FPR

Yanditswe na Emma-Marie Umurerwa
Kuya 16 Mata 2019 saa 10:57
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Mu gihe hari intambara hagati y’Ingabo za Leta ya Habyarimana Juvénal, FAR n’iza FPR Inkotanyi zaharaniraga kubohora igihugu ubutegetsi bubi mu rugamba zatangije ku wa 1 Ukwakira 1990, niko hari n’imishyikirano mu Mujyi wa Arusha muri Tanzania.

Muri Kamena 1992, nibwo Leta ya Habyarimana yatangiye ibiganiro n’Intumwa za FPR bigamije gusinya amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, yaje no gushyirwaho umukono ku wa 4 Kanama 1993. Ibyo biganiro byakurikiranwaga n’Umuryango Mpuzamahanga n’ibihugu by’u Bufaransa, Amerika n’u Bubiligi.

Byatangiye mu macenga kuko Leta yangaga kuganira na FPR imbonankubone bigatuma bashyirwa ahantu hatandukanye. Muri icyo gihe, abahuza byabasabaga kunyura muri buri cyumba bumva ibitekerezo bitangwa na buri ruhande.

Ibiganiro hagati ya Leta ya Habyarimana na FPR byabereye ahantu hatandukanye harimo Mwanza na Dar-es Salaam muri Tanzania no mu mijyi ya Gbadolite na Goma mu cyahoze ari Zaïre.

Mu kiganiro cyanyuze kuri RBA cyari cyatumiwemo Senateri Tito Rutaremara, Ambasaderi Nsengimana Joseph na Dr Iyamuremye Augustin, basobanuye amasubyo yari mu rugendo rw’amasezerano ya Arusha.

Senateri Rutaremara yavuze ko Leta y’u Rwanda itashakaga kuganira n’Inkotanyi imbonankubone.

Yagize ati “Leta ntiyashakaga kuganira imbonankubone n’abo Banyarwanda bateye. Twebwe twarabishakaga kuko wabaga ufite ibitekerezo. Iyo abantu rero bazi ko bafite amaboko banga ibiganiro nicyo cyatumaga Leta itabishaka.’’

Ibiganiro byagendaga biguruntege byaje kwinjirwamo n’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bwa Afurika (OUA) wifuzaga ko byihutishwa.

OUA yari iyobowe na Perezida Yoweri Museveni (1991-1992), bituma ibiganiro bitabera muri Uganda kuko ariho FPR yateye iturutse, byimurirwa i Goma.

Rutaremara ati “Turi i Goma (ku wa 20 Ugushyingo 1990) ntitwicaraga mu cyumba kimwe. Bajyaga mu cyumba kimwe tukajya mu kindi, hari umuhuza wazaga mu cyumba cyacu tukamubwira, akajya no mu cyabo bakamubwira. Nyuma noneho kuri Goma bati ‘mushyiremo abasirikare banyu na RPF ishyiremo abayo’.’’

U Bubiligi bwaje kwinjira mu buhuza ndetse abakuru b’ibihugu bya OUA (AU ya none) bahurira Dar es Salaam bemeza ko Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yicarana na FPR bakiga ku kibazo cy’Abanyarwanda bari barahejejwe mu mahanga, bagombaga gutaha.

Rutaremara yavuze ko “Habyarimana yarabyemeraga akabisinya ariko ntihagire indi ntambwe iterwa.’’

Dr Iyamuremye yavuze ko kuba Habyarimana n’Inkotanyi batarahise bicara ngo baganire ku meza amwe ari ibisanzwe.

Ati “Iyo abantu batumvikana bashobora no guhura bagafatana mu muhogo ari na yo mpamvu hakenerwa umuhuza. Bibaho aho intumwa ibabwira ibitekerezo bya buri ruhande kugeza ubwo bazagira icyo bahuriraho bashobora kujyaho impaka imbonankubone.’’

Ambasaderi Nsengimana yavuze ko ari ibisanzwe ko igihugu cyihagararaho mbere yo kwemera kwicarana no kuganira n’inyeshyamba.

Ati “Kugira ngo ibiganiro bigerweho ni abandi babahuza, iyo bageze ku bintu by’ibanze nibwo cya gihugu gica bugufi kikemera guhura n’inyeshyamba.’’

Uko imitwe ya politiki yahaye imbaraga ibiganiro

Kuva mu Ukwakira 1990, Leta yarwanaga na FPR ndetse muri iyo nkubiri ahagana muri Nyakanga 1991, havukiyemo amashyaka menshi.

Mu byiciro bitanu bibanza by’amasezerano ya Arusha byavugwaga ko hagombaga gushyirwaho Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho yaguye ihuriweho n’amashyaka menshi arimo na FPR Inkotanyi.

Ambasaderi Nsengimana yavuze ko “Imitwe ya politiki yaje ifite ibitekerezo binyuranye birimo ikintu gishya cyari gikomeye cy’uko Abanyarwanda ari bamwe n’impunzi ari abenegihugu bakwiye kugira uruhare ku Rwanda.’’

Icyo gitekerezo cyari gifitwe na PL na PSD na MDR na yo igashyigikira ko Abanyarwanda bahejejejwe hanze bafite uburenganzira ku gihugu cyabo. Mu mitwe ya politiki, ikibazo cyari Habyarimana, hari n’abavugaga bati bariya barwana tugize Imana bamukuraho.

Senateri Rutaremara yavuze ko “Nk’ishyaka rya PSD ririmo abantu ba Ngango, ba Gafaranga, ba Seti na Gapyisi, twajyaga duhurira i Nairobi, noneho bakavuga bati ‘turashaka gushyiraho ishyaka rifite ibitekerezo bishya’. Icyo gitekerezo twumvaga bakiganiraho. Buriya na Twagiramungu yabanje kuzamo bagitangira.’’

Guverinoma ya Minisitiri w’Intebe, Dr. Nsengiyaremye Dismas wayoboye kuva ku wa 2 Mata 1992 kugeza ku wa 18 Nyakanga 1993, ni yo yashyigikiye inzira y’ibiganiro.

Mu biganiro hakoreshwaga Ikinyarwanda, abahuza bagasemurirwa

Ibiganiro bijya kwimukira Arusha hasinywe amasezerano ataragize icyo atanga; amashyaka yari yaragiyeho yahamagawe i Bruxelles mu Bubiligi ariko MRND yanga kwitabira.

Rutaremara ati “Muri icyo gihe twateye i Byumba. Bareze andi mashyaka ngo FPR yabaciye inyuma yakoze ibidakorwa. Abafaransa baciye inyuma bazana MRND duhurira i Paris.’’

Uyu musenateri yavuze ko mu buzima busanzwe, abayoboke ba FPR baganiraga n’abo muri MRND bakanasangira inzoga ariko byagera mu biganiro bigahinduka kuko noneho babaga bambaye umwenda wa leta yabatumye.

Ati “Mu biganiro twakoreshaga Ikinyarwanda, abaduhuza akaba aribo basemurirwa.’’

FPR yageze aho yumva ikeneye ko ingoma y’igitugu yariho yamburwa ububasha kuko ntacyo byari kumara gutaha mu gihugu bazongera kumeneshwamo.

Rutaremara avuga ko “Ni byo twababwiraga, ndibuka nka Dr Bizimungu Casimir (wabaye Minisitiri w’Ubuzima ndetse n’uw’Ububanyi n’Amahanga) twajyaga tubiganira.”

Inkotanyi ni zo zasabye ko ibiganiro bijyanwa muri Zaïre, nyuma yo kwegera Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, wayiyoboraga zimusaba ko yafasha kunga impande zombi.

Tito Rutaremara ni we wabwiye Mobutu ko aho “Kugira ngo ujyeyo ufashe uruhande rumwe wakuyeyo abasirikare bawe ahubwo ukadufasha tukaganira ko uri umubyeyi, ukajya hagati yacu. Biramushimisha cyane.’’

Nyuma y’ibiganiro byabereye kwa Mobutu, u Rwanda rwarahahararutse ndetse n’abazungu babahuza batabishaka.

U Rwanda ntirwashakaga kujya kwa Mobutu kubera ko hari igihe yarashe abanyeshuri i Lubumbashi, abazungu bo bashakaga ko ibiganiro bibera i Paris, FPR igasaba ko bitavanwa muri Afurika, birangira hemejwe i Arusha.

Addis Ababa, niho hanogerejwe ibyagombaga kuganirirwa Arusha

Ibiganiro by’i Arusha byakomeje Ngurinzira Boniface ari we Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga (Mata 1992-Nyakanga 1993), anabarizwa mu Ishyaka rya MDR. Mbere yo kujya muri Tanzania yahuriye na FPR i Entebbe baraganira.

Dr Iyamuremye yavuze ko Ngurinzira yashyizweho ikirego n’abantu bo muri MRND ko yagurishije igihugu.

Ati “Guverinoma yari irimo imitwe ya politiki irimo na MRND kandi ubutumwa bajyanwaga Arusha bwari ubwayo. Igihe cyose baganiraga ku bintu bisanzwe nta kibazo cyabayeho, ariko bageze ku kugabana ubutegetsi byaragoranye. Bigeze ku kuganira kuvanga ingabo noneho birananirana, ku buryo Minisitiri wari ukuriye ibiganiro ku ruhande rwa Leta witwaga Ngurinzira, Habyarimana yamuhinduye, amusimbuza Gasana James wari Minisitiri w’Ingabo.’’

Muri iki gihe FPR yasabaga isaranganya ry’ubutegetsi ariko muri guverinoma yari ihuriweho n’imitwe ya politiki hari hatangiye kuba amacakubiri.

Mu 1993, ubwo ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwicaga Abatutsi mu yahoze ari Komini Kibirira (ubu ni mu Murenge wa Gatumba muri Ngororero), Ingabo za FPR zarateye zigera i Buyoga mu Karere ka Rulindo bituma Habyarimana yemera kuvanga ingabo.

Senateri Rutaremara yavuze ko igitutu cyari ukwambura MRND ingufu zimwe Perezida yari afite ngo bihabwe Minisitiri w’Intebe, ariko ntibikozwe.

Yagize ati ‘‘No ku rugamba turwana baravugaga ngo twa tundi turaje, batwitaga imburagasani. Bageze aho bakavuga ngo bya bindi biraje. Twebwe twaravugaga ngo ufite ibitekerezo bizima bizatsinda.’’

Habyarimana yasinye amasezerano ya Arusha ate?

Ubuyobozi bw’Ingabo z’Igihugu bwarateranye bugaragaza ko umwanzi ari Umututsi n’usa nawe wese ndetse bwabonaga umuntu bita ko adashyigikiye Perezida bati agomba gupfa.

Imishyikirano yageze ubwo ihagarara FPR isaba ko abayobozi batangiye kwivanga mu bwicanyi bakurwaho, itanga n’amazina yabo.

Leta y’u Rwanda yahagaritse bamwe muri bo binyuze muri komisiyo yo kubareba yarimo na Tito Rutaremara.

Habyarimana yemeye kujya mu biganiro kubera igitutu cya FPR yamurwanyaga, icy’amashyaka n’icy’amahanga.

Mu guca intege abamurwanya b’imbere mu gihugu, Habyarimana yatangiye kwikiza abo mu mitwe ya politiki, kubacamo ibice no kwemerera abo mu mashyaka imyanya n’ibindi.

Amasezerano yaje gusinywa ku wa 4 Kanama 1993, Abanyarwanda benshi bumva ko amahoro agiye gusagamba. Byatumye ku wa 29 Ukuboza 1993 Batayo y’abasirikare 600 ba FPR isesekara i Kigali iherekejwe n’ingabo za Loni zari muri MINUAR.

Ambasaderi Nsengimana ati “Arusha yarapfuye ntiyashyizwe mu bikorwa ariko yaradufashije nk’amashyaka hagati muri Jenoside. Mu 1994, Guverinoma nshya yayashyize mu bikorwa, Arusha ntiyabaye impfabusa, yarafashije mu myubakire ya Leta nshya y’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda.’’

Abasesenguzi bagaragaje ko amasezerano ya Arusha atapfuye ubusa kuko icyo abantu barwaniraga ari uko intambara ihagarara nubwo Leta yariho yananiwe kubaka ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda kugeza kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Uhereye ibumoso: Tom Ndahiro, Andrew Rwigamba, Charles Muhire, Patrick Mazimhaka na Pasteur Bizimungu mu biganiro by’amahoro i Arusha mu 1992 bahagarariye FPR Inkotanyi

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