Wamenya ute ko inyandiko cyangwa igihangano cyo kuri internet wemerewe kugikoresha?

Yanditswe na Boris Bahire Kabeja
Kuya 15 Mutarama 2021 saa 08:29
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Muri iki gihe mu buzima busanzwe, haba mu gutegura inyandiko zikoreshwa mu kwigisha, gukora inyandiko n’ibindi, akenshi ubikora ntabura kwifashisha imbuga zibika amakuru menshi nka Google cyangwa YouTube kugira ngo akore inyandiko ye cyangwa se ategure isomo.

Abantu benshi bakunze kugira ikibazo iyo bashaka gukoresha inyandiko, amashusho cyangwa se amajwi runaka kubera kugira impungenge zo kuba bakurikiranwaho gukoresha igihangano cy’undi utabifitiye uburenganzira, cyane ko ba nyiri iyo nyandiko cyangwa se igitabo akenshi aba adafite amakuru yimbitse ajyanye n’ibyemewe n’ibitemewe mu mikoreshereze yabyo.

Hari nk’aho ukunze gusanga nko ku gitabo handitseho ngo “Uburenganzira bwose bufitwe na nyiracyo” (All rights reserved), ibi rero bikaba byatera urujijo rimwe na rimwe cyangwa umuntu agatinya kuba yakurikiranwa mu nkiko.

Ese ntibyaba byiza umuntu agiye areba igihangano, inyandiko cyangwa se igitabo runaka agahita amenya ibyo yemerewe n’ibyo atemerewe kugikoresha aho yaba ari hose ku Isi kandi atagombye kuvugana na nyiracyo?

Twese tuzi uko kwiga cyangwa se kugira ubumenyi ari ingenzi, ariko nanone bikaba iby’akarusho iyo kubona amasomo, ibitabo byo gukoresha byoroshye kuba wagira ibyo wongeramo cyangwa uhinduramo, cyangwa se ukabibonera ubuntu.

Kuva kera akenshi ibitabo byakunze guhenda, ibi bigatuma hari bamwe mu bafite ubushobozi buke ariko bafite inyota yo kumenya bishobora kubabera imbogamizi kubera ko nyiri nyandiko atatanze uburenganzira cyangwa se adafite uburyo bwo kumenyesha abazabikoresha uburyo yifuza ko babikoreshamo.

Umuryango utari uwa Leta witwa Creative Commons washinzwe mu 2001 mu gihe ikoranabuhanga rya internet ryari ritangiye gukoreshwa n’abantu benshi ariko bakagorwa cyane no gukoresha inyandiko n’ibihangano by’abandi kuko batazi uburenganzira nyirabyo yatanze uko bumeze.

Creative Commons yashyizeho uburyo butandatu umuntu ashobora gukoresha akaba yaha uburenganzira abantu gukoresha, guhindura cyangwa se gukwirakwiza inyandiko n’igihangano mu buryo bworoshye ariko bwubahirije amategeko.

Hashize amezi abiri Creative Commons, Ishami ry’u Rwanda rikora amahugurwa y’abarimu bigisha muri za Kaminuza y’u Rwanda n’abo mu zigenga, hagamijwe kugira ngo bigishwe uko bashobora kumenya imikoreshereze Umutungo ujyanye n’uburezi uboneka ku buntu (Open Education Resources – OERs).

Basobanurirwa uko bashobora kwifashisha izo nyandiko, amashusho, amajwi n’ibintu biboneka ku buntu kuko ba nyirabyo babyemeye ndetse n’uko bakoresha bwa buryo butandatu bwo gutanga uburenganzira bwa Creative Commons (licenses) bakaba bagira ibyo bahindura mu gutegura amasomo bigisha abanyeshuri.

Uburyo butandatu bukoreshwa mu gutanga uburenganzira ku bihangano

CC-BY: Mu gihe ubonye iki kimenyetso ku nyandiko cyangwa ikindi gihangano, bivuze ko uba wemerewe guhindura, gukora kopi cyangwa se kuyikwirakwiza ariko ugasabwa kuvuga nyiri inyandiko cyangwa se igihangano wa mbere.

CC-BY-SA: Hano uba wemerewe guhindura, gukora kopi cyangwa se kuyikwirakwiza ariko ugasabwa kuvuga nyiri nyandiko cyangwa se igihangano wa mbere, kandi nanone na we ukongera gukoresha uburenganzira (license) nyiri gihangano wa mbere yakoresheje.

CC-BY-NC: Hano uba wemerewe guhindura, gukora kopi cyangwa se kuyikwirakwiza ariko ugasabwa kuvuga nyiri nyandiko cyangwa se igihangano cya mbere, ariko ibyahinduwe cyangwa se byongewemo ntiwemerewe kubikoresha ku nyungu z’ubucuruzi.

CC-BY-NC-SA: Hano uba wemerewe guhindura, gukora kopi cyangwa se kuyikwirakwiza ariko ugasabwa kuvuga nyiri nyandiko cyangwa se igihangano wa mbere, ariko ibyahinduwe cyangwa se byongewemo ntabwo wemerewe kubikoresha ku nyungu z’ubucuruzi. Icyakora, ibyahinduwe cyangwa ibyongerewemo bishyirwa ahagaragara hakoreshejwe uburenganziro nyiri igihanagano wa mbere yakoresheje.

CC-BY-ND: Hano uba usabwa kuvuga uwakoze cyangwa se uwanditse igihangano, inyandiko n’ibindi, bwa mbere ariko ntabwo wemerewe kugira ibyo uhindura cyangwa ngo wongeremo.

CC-BY-NC-ND: Usabwa kuvuga uwakoze cyangwa se uwanditse igihangano, inyandiko n’ibindi, bwa mbere, ntabwo wemerewe kubikoresha ku nyungu z’ubucuruzi, kandi nanone nta wemerewe kugira ibyo uhindura cyangwa ngo wongeremo.

Icyitonderwa: Kuba inyandiko, igihangano, igitabo n’ibindi bitakoreshwa ku nyungu zigamije ubucuruzi, ntibisobanuye ko ikigo gikora ubucuruzi kitabikoresha, gipfa kuba kitagamije indonke muri iyo mikoreshereze.

Muri iki gihe Isi igenda yinjira mu ikoranabuhanga cyane ku buryo byanze bikunze n’abari mu gice cy’uburezi bisaba kujyana naryo, bityo bikaba ari ngombwa kumenya aho ushobora gukura ibyo ukeneye mu buryo bworoshye kugira ngo utange isomo rifite ireme.

Ikindi cyiza mu gukoresha ubu buryo ni uko udakeneye kujya kubaza nyiri nyandiko niba wayikoresha, wowe ukurikiza umurongo wo gutanga uburenganzira yabihaye, ikindi kandi ibi bituma ibyigwa bihora bivuguruye (mu bijyanye n’uburezi) cyangwa se bigezweho kuko kuko biha urubuga buri wese gutanga umusanzu we ariko hakabo no kugenzurana (Peer review).

Ubu buryo bwa Creative Commons bwo gutanga uburenganzira bwo gukoresha inyandiko, amajwi, amashusho n’ibindi, ntibukoreshwa gusa n’abari mu burezi ahubwo busanzwe bunakoreshwa n’abakoresha imbuga nyinshi zitandukanye nka Google, YouTube, Flickr n’izindi n’abantu ku giti cyabo.

Bimwe mu bimenyetso byerekana uburenganzira umuntu afite ku nyandiko runaka

Boris Bahire Kabeja


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